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a thi I order to teach them this more fully, he endeavoured and in to draw them together, and to have them live in a setbaxtled habitation, within the reach of his influence and ligonie inspection, and therefore taught them to build houses, mitir and make a town or city, which he called Cecropia, y from his own name.' Strabo from Philochorus says,
28 19 that Cecrops instructed his people to build twelve cizbira ties; but if such a number of cities were really built bex by a prince of this name, I think, according to what is the most learned Dr. Potter, the present Lord Bishop in is of Oxford, has remarked, that these twelve cities prestane were built by Cecrops the second of that name, and
seventh king of Attica, and not by this first Cecrops.”
Twelve cities were not to be attempted at once; it was at a great thing to raise one from so uncultivated a peo. The ple. The Scholiast upon Pindar i reports from Philo
chorus, that Cecrops instituted a poll, to see how many subjects he had to begin with, causing every
man to cast a stone into a place appointed, and that id upon computation he found them to be in number - twenty thousand ; but may we not think that this par
ticular also belongs to the second Cecrops, and not to the first? I cannot well imagine how Cecrops could at first get together twenty thousand of these untaught people ; or if he could have got them together, how he could well have managed them. It is more likely he would have chosen to begin with a less company. But certainly the country itself could not at this time supply him with so many men; for if we look to the
6 Lib. 9. b Archæologia Græca, p. 9. vol. 1. Olympion, ode 9.
Trojan war, though the Athenians had been a growing bis people all along until that time; and though Theseus vastly augmented their number by inviting all foreigners who could be got into his city ;k yet we find the Athe. nians sent but twenty ships to Troy, in each of which, shie if we suppose with Plutarch, a hundred and twenty men, or which, from the calculation of our English Homer,' seems more probable, eighty-five men only in cach vessel, it will appear that Athens could then furnish out at most but 6000, or rather 4250 men, and therefore could not begin with 20000. For considering how numerous they made their armies in these early days, in proportion to the numbers of their people, twenty thousand men in the days of the first Cecrops must have made Athens able to have furnished out a greater number of soldiers for an expedition, in which all Greece was forward to engage with its utmost strength. Cecrops therefore began his kingdom, like 16 other legislators, with a far less number of subjects than the Scholiast represented. Romulus at first had but few inhabitants for his city, which became after. wards the mistress of the world. When he wanted wives for his subjects, six hundred and eighty-three Sabines were a great supply ;” and after that, when he had incorporated the people of two nations with
k Plutarch in Theseo. 'Pope's Notes upon Homer's Catalogue of Ships, Il. 2. See Thucydid. Hist. I. 1.
m Dionys. Halicarnass. 1. 2. p. 97. All his number were 2300, ibid. p. 86. Some say, the Sabine virgins taken were but thirty. Valerius Antias makes them 527 : Juba, 683. Plut, in Rom. * Id. p. 100.
his own, the bulk of his subjects even then amounted to but six thousand men. These were the small beginnings of all nations in the world ; and Cecrops must be thought to begin his in like manner. One point which he took the greatest care of, was to instruct the people in religion; for all authors who speak of him, are express and more particular in this than one would expect;' so that we may guess he was remarkably diligent in this matter. He divided them into four tribes, orders, ranks, or fraternities ; in order to their being capable of performing, each sort of men in their rank and order, the several offices of civil life. lle taught them likewise all the arts of living, in which he must have been well instructed, by having lived in so flourishing a kingdom as Egypt had been. He applied himself daily in giving them laws and rules for their actions, in hearing and deciding all causes of difference which might arise amongst them, and in encouraging every thing which might tend to their living in peace and good order ; and suppressing and dissuading them from all actions which might interrupt their happiness. Before his time, the people of Attica made no marriages, but had their women in com. mon; but he reduced them from this wild and brutish extravagance, and taught each man to marry one wife ;p for which reason Athenæus and Justin 4 say he was called Alpuns, or one born of two parents. Other
• Euseb, in Chronic, id. Præp. Evang. I. 10. c. 9. Syne cellus, p. 153. Macrob. Saturnal. lib. 1. c. 10. P Suidas in IIpoumo. 1 Athenæus Deipnosoph. I. 13.
9 Athenæus Deipno p. 555. Justin. lib. 2. c. 6.
writers assign other reasons for his having this appellation ; but this seems by far the best. The Athenians themselves have given divers accounts of his having this name; but they were so different, and many of them so frivolous, that Diodorus Siculus' concluded they had lost the true account of it. Cecrops governed Attica fifty years. He had a son and three daughters'; his son's name was Erysichthon, his daughters were Hirce, Aglauros, and Pandrosos. Erysichthon died before his father, and was buried at Prasiæ, a city of Attica. Cecrops died A. M. 2473.
When Cecrops died, Cranaus, a very potent and wealthy Attican, was made king. He had several daughters, one of whom was married to Amphictyon, who expelled his father-in-law Cranaus, and made himself king; but in a little time Erichthonius made a party, and deposed Amphictyon. - All this happened in about twenty years after the death of Cecrops ; for, according to the marble,* Amphictyon was king within ten years after Cecrops' death, and Erichthonius within ten more." Erichthonius was an Egyptian, and very probably came with Cecrops into Greece. Diodorus says, that Erechtheus came from Egypt, and was made king of Athens ;? here is only a small mistake of the name, made either by Diodorus, or some transcriber. Erechtheus was the son of Pan.
Diodor. Sic. I. 1.
Euseb. in Chron. * Pausan. in Atticis, lib. 1. c. 2: Ibid. c. 31.
Castor in Euseb. Chron. Pausan. in Atticis.
dion, and grandson of Erichthonius, and Erichtho. nius was the person who came from Egypt. Agreeable to this is the account which the Greeks give of him ; who say he had no mortal father, but was descended from Vulcan and the earth, i. e. he was not a native of their country; for they had no account to give of his family or ancestors, and so in time they made a fable instead of a genealogy. Attica was a barren country, but Erichthonius taught his people to bring corn from Egypt.
About sixty-three years after Cecrops began his reign at Athens, and about thirteen years after Cecrops' death, Cadmus came into Boeotia, and built Thebes, A. M. 2486.d Tatian and Clemens Alexandrinus e thought him much later; but as they assign no reasons for their opinions, so certainly they were much mistaken in this, as they are confessed to be in some other points, which Eusebius wrote after them on purpose to correct. Eusebius bimself, if Scaliger indeed placed Cadmus according to Eusebius' mean. ing, has mistaken this point; for Cadmus stands in the Chronicon & above a hundred years lower than his true place, which the marble seems very justly to have fixed, as may clearly appear by considering what Pausanias has given of Cadmus' family, and comparing that and what Pausanias further offers, with Castor's, account of the Sicyon kings. Lab
* Castor. in Euseb. Pausan. ubi sup. Pausan. ibid. Diodorus Sic. lib. 1. d Marmor. Arund. Ep. 7.
Tatian. orat. ad Græcos, c. 61. Clem. Alexand. Stromat. lib. 1. See Euseb. Ngoosh. Euseb. Num. 587,