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dion, and grandson of Erichthonius,* and Erichthonius was the person who came from Egypt.' Agreeable to this is the account which the Greets give of him; who say he had no mortal father, but was descended from Vulcan and the earth,b i. e. he was not a native of their country; for they had no account to give of his family or ancestors, and so in time they made a fable instead of a genealogy. Attica was a barren country, but Erichthonius taught his people to bring corn from Egypt.'

About sixty-three years after Cecrops began his reign at Athens, and about thirteen years after Cecrops' death, Cadmus came into Boeotia, and built Thebes, A. M. 2486. * Tatian and Clemens Alexandrinus ' thought him much later; but as they assign no reasons for their opinions, so certainly they were much mistaken in this, as they are confessed to be in some other points, which Eusebius wrote after them on purpose to correct/ Eusebius himself, if Scaliger indeed placed Cadmus according to Eusebius' meaning, has mistaken this point; for Cadmus stands in ihe Chronicon * above a hundred years lower than his true place, which the marble seems very justly to have fixed, as may clearly appear by considering what Pausanias has given of Cadmus' family, and comparing that and what Pausanias further oilers, with Castor's account of the Sicyon kings. Lab

* Castor. in Euseb. Pausan. ubi sup. b Pausan. ibid. 'Diodorus Sic. lib. 1. d Marmor. Arund. Ep. 7.

'Tatian. orat. ad Graecos. c. 61. Clem. Alexand. Stromat. lib. 1. f See Euseb. njoii/*. * Euseb. Num. 587. dacus (Pausanias tells us) was the grandson of Cadmus; and being a minor when his father died, he was' committed to the care of Nycteus, who was appointed to be his guardian, and regent of his kingdom ;k now Nycteus was wounded in a battle with Epopeus.' Epopeus was the seventeenth king of Sicyon,k and was contemporary with the guardian of Labdacus, Cadmus' grandson. Epopeus reigned l but thirty-five years; we may therefore suppose Polydorus the father of Labdacus son of Cadmus contemporary with Corax, the predecessor of Epopeus, and Cadmus the father of Polydorus might begin his reign in the time of Echureus, the predecessor of Corax; and from the third year of Marathonius, in whose time (according to Castor) Cccrops reigned at Athens, to the beginning of Echureus' reign, are but thirty-five years.TM So that, supposing Cadmus to come to Thebes, according to the marble, sixty-tiiree years after Cecrops began his reign at Athens, we must date Cadmus' coming to Thebes in the twentyeighth year of Echureus, and thereabouts we must place Cadmus; because the grandson of Cadmus was a minor and had a guardian in the reign of Epopeus, who was the second king next after Echureus, in whose time we suppose Cadmus. I might offer another argument to prove that Cadmus cannot be later than the marble supposes him. Oenotrus the youngest son of Lycaon, led a colony of the Pelasgi into

b Paiuau. in B'coticis, r. 5. 'Pausaa. in Coriu

thiacis, c. 6. k Caitof. ia Citron. Euseb.

Uil. ibid.; Mil. »bidv;.:t t. ,C >

Italy." These Pelasgi did not go into Italy until after Cadmus had taught the Greeks the use of letters; for they conveyed into Italy the knowledge of the letters which Cadmus had taught the Greeks.0 Lycaon the father of Oenotrus reigned in Arcadia at the game time when Cecrops reigned at Athens.1" The marble supposes that Cadmus came into Greece about sixty-three years after Cecrops began his reign at Athens, and we cannot imagine him to be later; for if he was later, how could the son of Lycaon, when Lycaon was contemporary with Cecrops, learn Cadmus' letters time enough to convey the knowledge of them into a foreign country?

The reader may perhaps meet with an account of Cadmus' ancestors, taken in part from Apollodorus and other ancient writers ;q which may seem to argue that Cadmus lived mu6h later than we suppose. It is said that Cadmus was the son of Agenor, Agenor son of Libya, daughter of Epaphus; Epaphus son of lo daughter of Iasus, who was son of Triopas king of Argos. Io was carried into Egypt, and married there. By this account Cadmus will be six descents lower than Triopas, and consequently as mueh later than Cecrops, for all writers agree that Cecrops and Triopas were contemporaries; but from the former arguments and compulations, we suppose that Cadmus was about sixty-three years only later than Cecrops. But there is an evident mistake in this genealogy:

,' n

"Pausan. in Arcad. c. 3. "Vol. 1. B. 4.

>' Pausan. iu Arcad. c. 3. •< Sco Pridoaux Not.

HUtorie. ad Chronic. Marmor. Ep. 7.

there were two Grecian Io's, both of whom went into and lived in Egypt; the former was the daughter of Inachus, the latter was the daughter of Iasus; and Cadmus was descended from the former, and not from the latter. If we compute from Castor's table of the Argive kings,' comparing and correcting it in respect of Apis, whom Castor has erroneously inserted, by Pausanias' account of them; ' we shall find that Io daughter of Inachus is exactly six descents higher than Io the daughter of Iasus; so that if the computing Cadmus' genealogy from the latter Io sets him almost six descents too low, as I just now remarked, the computing from the former Io exactly answers and corrects this mistake. That the former Io went to live in Egypt is evident from Eusebius,' as it is from Pausanias that the latter did so;u and further, it is expressly remarked by Eusebius that Io the daughter of Inachus was the mother of Epaphus,1 and therefore this Io, and not the daughter of Iasus, was the ancestor of Cadmus.

It is much disputed by the learned whether Cadmus was a Phoenician or an Egyptian; and there are arguments not inconsiderable offered on both sides; but the true account of him is, that he was born in Phoenicia. His father was an Egyptian, and left Egypt about the time when Cccrops came from thence, and he obtained a kingdom in Phoenicia, as Cecrops did in Attica; and his sons Phoenix and

r Euseb. in Chronic. ■ Pausanias in Corinthiacii.

c. Xv. xri. 'Chronic. Can. Num. 160 & 481.

■ Pausan. ubi sup. x Euseb. Num. 481,

Cadmus were born after his settling ia this country. Hence it came to pass that Cadmus, having had an Egyptian father, was ibrought up" in the Egyptian religion, and not a stranger to the history of Egypt, which occasioned many circumstances in his life, wbujh induced after-writers to think him an Egyptian. At the same time being born and educated in Phoenicia, he learned the Phoenician language and letters, and had a Phoenician name; from hence most who have written about him have with good reason concluded him to be a Phoenician. Diodorus Siculus,y Clemens Alexandrinus,1 Pausanias," and from themb Bochart conclude him to be a Phoenician. Sir John Marsham and Dean Prideaux' thought him an Egyptian.

Sir John Marsham oilers one argument for his being an Egyptian, from an inscription found in the tomb of Alcraena, which though it does not seem to prove Cadmus an Egyptian, nor hardly any thing relating to him; yet I would willingly mention it, in order to take an opportunity of remarking how artfully the governors of kingdoms in those days made use of oracles and prodigies merely as engines of state, to serve their political views and designs. The tomb of Alcmcna, wife of Amphitryon and mother of Her-i cules, was at Haliartus, a city of Bocotia; and being opened in the time of Agesilaus king of Sparta, there were found in it a brass bracelet, two earthen pots ■■'

i Lib. 4. p. 420. * Stromat. Iib. 1. p. 363.

* In Baotlcis. b In Praefat. ad Canaan.

'Marsham Can. Chron. p. 118. Prideaux Not. llistor. ad Chron. Alarm, p. 155.

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