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lancholy, which disposed several of them to make away with themselves. The Senate, after having tried many Expedients to prevent this Self-Murder, which was lo frequent among them, published an Edict, That if any Woman whatever should lay violent Hands upon herfeif, her Carps should be exposed naked in the Street, and drage ged about the City in the most publick Manner. This Edict immediately put a Stop to the Practice which was before so coinmon. We may see in this Instance the Strength of Female Modesty, which was able to overcome the Violence even of Madness and Despair. The Fear of Shame in the Fair Sex; was in those Days more prevalent than that of Death.

IF Modesty has so great an Influence over our Actions; and is in many Cases so impregnable a Fence to Virtue; what can more undermine Morality than that Politeness which reigns among the unthinking Part of Mankind, and treats as unfashionable the most ingenuous Part of our Behaviour; which recommends Impudence as Goodbreeding, and keeps a Man always in Countenance, not because he is Innocent, but because he is Shameless ?

SENEC A thought Modesty fo great a Check to Vice, that he prescribes to us the practice of it in Secret, and advises us to raise it in ourselves upon imaginary Occafions, when such as are real do not offer themselves; for this is the Meaning of his Precept, that when we are by our felves, and in our greatest Solitudes, we fhould fancy that Cato stands before us, and fees every thing we do. In Mort, if you banish Modesty out of the World, she carries away with her half the Virtue that is in it.

AFTER these Reflections on Modefty, as it is a Virtue; I must obferve, that there is a vicious Modefty, which justly deserves to be ridiculed, and which those Persons very often discover, who value themselves most upon a well-bred Confidence. This happens when a Man is ashamed to act up to his Rcason, and would not upon any Confideration be surprised in the Practice of those Duties, for the Performance of which he was sent into the World. Many an impudent Libertine would blush to be caught in a serious Discourse, and would fcarce be able to shew his Head, after having disclosed a religious Thought. Deceney of Behaviour, all outward Show of

Virtue,

Virtue, and Abhorrence of Vice, are carefully avoided by
this Set of Shame-faced People, as what would disparage
their Gaiety of Temper, and infallibly bring them to Dif-
honour. This is such a Poorness of Spirit, such a despicable
Cawardise, such a degenerate abject State of Mind, as one
would think human Nature incapable of, did we not meet
with frequent Instances of it in ordinary Conversation.
:. THERE is another Kind of vicious Modesty which
makes a Man ashamed of his Person, his Birth, his Pro-
feffion, his Poverty, or the like Misfortunes, which it was
not in his Choice to prevent, and is not in his Power to
rectify. If a Man appears ridiculous by any of the afore-
mentioned Circumstances, he becomes much more.so by
being out of Countenance for them. They should rather
give him Occasion to exert a noble Spirit, and to palliate
those Imperfections which are not in his Power, by those
Perfections which are; or to use a very witty Allusion of
an eminent Author, he should imitate Cæfar, who, because

his Head was bald, cover'd that Defect with Laurels. C అంతరాయం

No. 232. . Monday, November 26.

Nihil largiundo glariam adeptus eft. . Salluft.

By beftowing nothing he acquired Glory.
M Y wise and good friend, Sir Andrew Freeport, di-

IV vides himself almoft equally between the Town
and the Country : His Time in Town is given up to
the Publick, and the Management of his private For-
tune ; and after every three or four Days spent in this
manner, he retires for as many to his Seat within a few
Miles of the Town, to the Enjoyment of himself, his
Family, and his friend. Thus Business and Pleasure,
or rather, in Sir Andrew, Labour and Rest, recom-
mend each other : They take their Turns with fo quick
a Viciffitude, that neither becomes a Habit, or takes.
poffeffion of the whole Man; nor is it possible he:
fhould be furfeited with either. I often see him at

our

our Club in good Humour, and yet sometimes too with an Air of Care in his Looks : But in his Country Retreat he is always unbent, and such a Companion as I could defire ; and therefore. I seldom fail to make one with him when he is pleased to invite me.

THE other Day, as soon as we were got into his Chariot, two or three Beggars on each Side hung upon the Doors, and solicited our Charity with the usual Rhetorick of a sick Wife or Husband at home, three or four belpless little Children all starving with Cold and Hunger. We were forced to part with some Money to get rid of their Importunity ; and then we proceeded on our Journey with the Blessings and Acclamations of these People.

« WELL then, says Sir Andrew, we go off with the “ Prayers and good Wishes of the Beggars, and perhaps * too our Healths will be drunk at the next Ale-house: “ So all we shall be able to value our seives upon, is, that " we have promoted the Trade of the Victualler and the « Excises of the Government. But how few Ounces of " Wooll do we see upon the Backs of those poor Crea64. tures? And when they shall next fall in our Way, they “ will hardly be better dress'd; they must always live in « Rags to look like Objects of Compassion. If their Fa-" milies too are such as they are represented, 'tis certain " they cannot be better clothed, and must be a great 6 deal.worse fed : One would think Potatoes should be 6 all their Bread, and their Drink the pure Element; and " then what goodly Customers are the Farmers like to 66 have for their Wooll, Corn and Cattle? Such Cufto66. mers, and such a Consumption, cannot choose but ad. o vance the landed Interest, and hold up the Rents of 64. the Gentlemen.

“ BUT of all Men living, we Merchants, who live by “ Buying and Selling, ought never to encourage Beggars. « The Goods which we export are indeed the Product. us of the Lands, but much the greatest Part of their " Value is the Labour of the People : but how much of 65 these Peoples Labour shall we export whilst we hire. of them to fit ftill? The very Alms, they receive from os us, are the Wages of Idleness. I have often thought " that no Man should be permitted to take Relief from “ the Parish, or to ask it in the Street, till he has first pur.

“ chased

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* chased as much as possible of his own Livelihood by
“ the Labour of his own Hands; and then the Publick
“ ought only to be taxed to make good the Deficiency.
" If this Rule was strictly observed, we should see every
" where such a multitude of new Labourers, as would
“ in all probability reduce the Prices of all onr Manufac.
“ tures. It is the very Life of Merchandise to buy cheap
" and sell dear. The Merchant ought to make his Out-fet
« as cheap as possible, that he may find the greater Profit
“ upon his Returns; and nothing will enable him to do.

this like the Reduction of the Price of Labour upon all.
« our Manufactures, This too would be the ready Way
" to increase the Number of our Foreign Markets: The
" Abatement of the Price of the Manufacture would pay.
“ for the Carriage of it to more diftant Countries ; and
as this Consequence would be equally beneficial both to
" the-Landed and Trading Interests. As so great an Ad-
« dition of labouring Hands would produce this happy
« Consequence both to the Merchant and the Gentleman;
“ our Liberality to common Beggars, and every other.
Obstruction to the Increase of Labourers, must be
“ equally pernicious to both.

SIR Andrew then went on to affirm, That the Reduction of the Prices of our Manufactures by the Ad. dition of so many new Hands, would be no Inconvenience to any Man: But observing I was something tartled at the Assertion, he made a short Pause, and then resumed the Discourse. " It may seem, says he, a Pa. « radox, that the Price of Labour should be reduced « without an Abatement of Wages, or that Wages can « be abated without any Inconvenience to the Labourer, “ and yet nothing is more certain than that both these. 65 Things may happen. The Wages of the Labourers, “ make the greatest Part of the Price of every Thing W that is usefnl ; and if in Proportion with the Wages. “ the Prices of all other Things shall be abated, every “ Labourer with less Wages would still be able to pur« chase as many Necessaries of Life ; where then would « be the Inconvenience ? But the Price of Labour may « be reduced by the Addition of more Hands to a Manua “ facture, and yet the Wages of Persons remain as high. w as ever. The admirable Sir William Petty has given

« Eҳ.

" Examples of this in some of his Writings: One of them, “ as I remember, is that of a Watch, which I shall en“ deavour to explain fo as shall suit my present Purpose. " It is certain, that a single Watch could not be made fo " cheap in Proportion by one only Man, as a hundred “ Watches by a hundred; for as there is vast Variety in “ the Work, no one Person could equally.suit himself to “ all the parts of it ; the Manufa&ture would be tedious, “ and at last but clumsily performed : But if an hundred " Watches were to be made by a hundred Men, the Cases “ may be assigned to one, the Dials to another,the Wheels “ to another, the Springs to another, and every other “ Part to a proper Artist; as there would be no need of “ perplexing any one Person with too much Variety, " every one would be able to perform his fingle Part “. with greater Skill and Expedition ; and the hundred “ Watches would be finished in one fourth Part of the “ Time of the first one, and every one of them at one “ fourth Part of the Coit, tho'the Wages of every Man

were equal. The Reduction of the Price of the Manu. “ facture would increase the Demand of it, all the same “ Hands would be ftill employed and as well paid. The ci fame Rule will hold in the Clothing, the Shipping, “ and all other Trades whatsoever. And thus an Addi. « tion of Hands to our Manufactures will only reduce (s the Price of them; the Labourer will till have as much " Wages, and will consequently be enabled to purchate

more Conveniencies of Life ; so that every Interest in “ the Nation would receive a Benefit from the Increale «« of our Working People. ; " BESIDES, ĭ see no Occasion for this Charity to, « common Beggars, fince every Beggar is an Inhabitant “ of a Parish, and every Parish is taxed to the Mainte. “ nance of their own Poor, For, my own part, I cannot " be mightily pleased with the Laws which have done " this, which have provided better to feed than employ " the Poor. We have a Tradition from our Forefathers, " that after the first of those Laws was made, they were, “ infulted with that famous Song;

Hang Sorrow, and cast away Care,
The Parish is bound to find us, &c.

« And

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