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PART 312—PILOT RULES FOR INLAND WATERS
Sec. 312.01 General instructions.
merged object upon a hawser 312.02 Definition of steam vessel and
when no signals are displayed vessel under way; risk of col
upon the object which is lision.
towed. 312.03 Signals.
312.19 Steamers, derrick boats, light312:1 Danger signal.
ers, or other types of vessels 312.2 Cross signals.
made fast alongside a wreck, 312.3 Vessels passing each other.
or moored over a wreck which Situations.
is on the bottom or partly 312.4 Vessels approaching each other
submerged, or which may be head and head, end on.
drifting. 312.5 Vessels nearing bend or curve 312.20 Dredges held in stationary poin channel ; moving from docks.
sition by moorings or spuds. 312.6 Vessels running in same direc-312.21 Self-propelling suction dredges tion; overtaking vessel.
under way with their suction 312.7 Vessels approaching each other
on the bottom. at right angles or obliquely. 312.22 Vessels moored or anchored 312.8 Meeting of steam and sailing ves
and engaged in laying pipe or sels; right of way.
operating on submarine con312.9 Avoidance of crossing ahead.
struction or excavation. 312.10 Keeping to right in narrow
312.23 Vessels moored or at anchor. channels.
312.24 Lights to be displayed on pipe 312.11 Departure from rules.
lines. 312.12 Fog signals.
312.25 Passing signals. 312.13 Speed in fog; posting of rules; 312.26 Speed of vessels passing floatdiagrams.
ing plant working in channels. Rules for lights for certain | 312.27 Light-draft vessels passing floatclassės of vessels navigating
ing plant. harbors, rivers, and inland | 312.28 Aids to navigation marking waters, except Great Lakes
floating-plant moorings. and their connecting and trib- 312.29 Obstruction of channel by floatutary waters as far east as
ing plant. Montreal and the Red River 312.30 Protection of marks placed for of the North, and rivers
the guidance of floating plant. emptying into the Gulf of 312.31 Clearing of channels.
Mexico and their tributaries. 312.32 Lights for rafts and other 312.14 Lights; time for.
water craft operating by hand 312.15 Ferryboats.
power, horsepower, or cur312.16 Lights for barges and canal
rent. boats in tow of steam vessels
Signals, day or night, at anon certain inland waters on
chor or under way, United the seaboard, except the Hudson
States Coast and Geodetic SurRiver and adjacent waters and
vey vessels. Lake Champlain.
312.33 Special signals for vessels em312.17 Lights for barges and canal
ployed in hydrographic surboats in tow of steam vessels
veying. on the Hudson River and ad
Unauthorized use of lights; unjacent waters and Lake
necessary whistling. Champlain.
312.34 Rule relating to the use of Lights and day signals for ves
searchlights or other blinding sels, dredges of all types, and
312.35 Rule prohibiting unnecessary 312.18 Signals to be displayed by a
sounding of the whistle. towing vessel when towing a 312.36 Rule prohibiting the carrying of submerged or partly sub
unauthorized lights on vessels. 1 The material in this section of this publication is reprinted from the Code of Federal Regulations of the United States of America, Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, Chapter III, as amended.
Section 312.01 General instructions. The regulations in this
— part govern pilots of vessels propelled by steam, gas, fluid, naphtha, or electric motors, and of others vessels propelled by machinery, navigating the harbors, rivers, and inland waters of the United States, except the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters as far east as Montreal, the Red River of the North, and rivers emptying into the Gulf of Mexico and their tributaries.2
312.02 Definition of steam vessel and vessel under way; risk of collision.-In the rules in this part the words "steam vessel” shall include any vessel propelled by machinery. A vessel is under way, within the meaning of the rules in this part, when she is not at anchor, or made fast to the shore, or aground. Risk of collision can, when circumstances permit, be ascertained by carefully watching the compass bearing of an approaching vessel. If the bearing does not appreciably change, such risk should be deemed to exist.
312.03 Signals. The whistle signals provided in the rules in this part shall be sounded on an efficient whistle or siren sounded by steam or by some substitute for steam.
A short blast of the whistle shall mean a blast of about one second's duration.
A prolonged blast of the whistle shall mean a blast of from 4 to 6 seconds' duration.
One short blast of the whistle signifies intention to direct course to own starboard, except when two steam vessels are approaching each other at right angles or obliquely, when it signifies intention of steam vessel which is to starboard of the other to hold course and speed.
Two short blasts of the whistle signify intention to direct course to own port.
Three short blasts of the whistle shall mean, “My engines are going at full speed astern."
When vessels are in sight of one another a steam vessel under way whose engines are going at full speed astern shall indicate that fact by three short blasts on the whistle.
312.1 Danger signal. If, when steam vessels are approaching each other, either vessel fails to understand the course or intention of the other, from any cause, the vessel so in doubt shall immediately signify the same by giving several short and rapid blasts, not less than four, of the steam whistle, the danger signal. (Former Pilot Rule I.)
312.2 Cross signals.—Steam vessels are forbidden to use what has become technically known among pilots as “cross signals,” that is, answering one whistle with two, and answering two whistles with one. (Former Pilot Rule 11.)
312.3 Vessels passing each other.—The signals for passing, by the blowing of the whistle, shall be given and answered by pilots, in compliance with the rules in this part, not only when meeting "head and head,” or nearly so, but at all times when the steam vessels are in sight of each other, when passing or meeting at a distance within half mile of each other, and whether passing to the starboard or port.
The whistle signals provided in the rules in this part for steam vessels meeting, passing, or overtaking are never to be used except when steam vessels are in sight of each other, and the course and
288 312.01 to 312.36, inclusive, (with the exception noted in the text for $312.32) issued under the authority contained in sec. 2, 30 Stat. 102, 38 Stat, 381 ; 33 U. S. C. 157; and Executive Order 9083, dated February 28, 1942 (7 F. R. 1609).
position of each can be determined in the daytime by a sight of the vessel itself, or by night by seeing its signal lights. In fog, mist, falling snow, or heavy rainstorms, when vessels cannot so see each other, fog signals only must be given. (Former Pilot Rule III.)
312.4 Vessels approaching each other head and head, end on.--When steam vessels are approaching each other head and head, that is, end on, or nearly so, it shall be the duty of each to pass on the port side of the other; and either vessel shall give, as a signal of her intention one short and distinct blast of her whistle, which the other vessel shall answer promptly by a similar blast of her whistle, and thereupon such vessels shall pass on the port side of each other. But if the courses of such vessels are so far on the starboard of each other as not to be considered as meeting head and head, either vessel shall immediately give two short and distinct blasts of her whistle, which the other vessel shall answer promptly by two similar blasts of her whistle, and they shall pass on the starboard side of each other.
The foregoing only applies to cases where vessels are meeting end on or nearly end on, in such a manner as to involve risk of collision; in other words, to cases in which, by day, each vessel sees the masts of the other in a line, or nearly in a line, with her own, and by night to cases in which each vessel is in such a position as to see both the side lights of the other.
It does not apply by day to cases in which a vessel sees another ahead crossing her own course, or by night to cases where the red light of one vessel is opposed to the red light of the other, or where the green light of one vessel is opposed to the green light of the other, or where a red light without a green light or a green light without a red light is seen ahead, or where both green and red lights are seen anywhere but ahead. (Former Pilot Rule IV.)
312.5 Vessels nearing bend or curve in channel; moving from docks.—Whenever a steam vessel is nearing a short bend or curve in the channel, where, from the height of the banks or other cause, a steam vessel approaching from the opposite direction cannot be seen for a distance of half a mile, such steam vessel, when she shall have arrived within half a mile of such curve or bend, shall give a signal by one long blast of the steam whistle, which signal shall be answered by a similar blast, given by any approaching steam vessel that may be within hearing. Should such signal be so answered by a steam vessel upon the farther side of such bend, then the usual signals for meeting and passing shall immediately be given and answered; but, if the first alarm signal of such vessel be not answered, she is to consider the channel clear and govern herself accordingly.
When steam vessels are moved from their docks or berths, and other boats are liable to pass from any direction toward them, they shall give the same signal as in the case of vessels meeting at a bend, but immediately after clearing the berths so as to be fully in sight they shall be governed by the steering and sailing rules. (Former Pilot Rule V.)
312.6 Vessels running in same direction; overtaking vessel. When steam vessels are running in the same direction, and the vessel which is astern shall desire to pass on the right or starboard hand
of the vessel ahead, she shall give one short blast of the steam whistle, as a signal of such desire, and if the vessel ahead answers with one blast, she shall direct her course to starboard; or if she shall desire to pass on the left or port side of the vessel ahead, she shall give two short blasts of the steam whistle as a signal of such desire, and if the vessel ahead answers with two blasts, shall direct her course to port; or if the vessel ahead does not think it safe for the vessel astern to attempt to pass at that point, she shall immediately signify the same by giving several short and rapid blasts of the steam whistle, not less than four, and under no circumstances shall the vessel astern attempt to pass the vessel ahead until such time as they have reached a point where it can be safely done, when said vessel ahead shall signify her willingness by blowing the proper signals. The vessel ahead shall in no case attempt to cross the bow or crowd upon the course of the passing vessel.
Every vessel coming up with another vessel from any direction more than two points abaft her beam, that is, in such a position with reference to the vessel which she is overtaking that at night she would be unable to see either of that vessel's side lights, shall be deemed to be an overtaking vessel; and no subsequent alteration of the bearing between the two vessels shall make the overtaking vessel a crossing vessel within the meaning of the rules in this part, or relieve her of the duty of keeping clear of the overtaking vessel until she is finally past and clear.
As by day the overtaking vessel cannot always know with certainty whether she is forward of or abaft this direction from the other vessel she should, if in doubt, assume that she is an overtaking vessel and keep out of the way. (Former Pilot Rule VI.)
312.7 Vessels approaching each other at right angles or obliquely.—When two steam vessels are approaching each other at right angles or obliquely so as to involve risk of collision, other than when one steam vessel is overtaking another, the steam vessel which has the other on her own port side shall hold her course and speed; and the steam vessel which has the other on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way of the other by directing her course to starboard so as to cross the stern of the other steam vessel, or, if
necessary to do SO,
slacken her speed or stop or reverse. If from any causes the conditions covered by this situation are such as to prevent immediate compliance with each other's signals, the misunderstanding or objection shall be at once made apparent by blowing the danger signal, and both steam vessels shall be stopped and backed if necessary, until signals for passing with safety are made and understood. (Former Pilot Rule VII.)
312.8 Meeting of steam and sailing vessels; right of way.-When a steam vessel and a sailing vessel are proceeding in such directions as to involve risk of collision, the steam vessel shall keep out of the way of the sailing vessel. (Former Pilot Rule VIII)
312.9 Avoidance of crossing ahead.—Every steam vessel which is directed by the rules in this part to keep out of the way of another vessel shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid crossing ahead of the other. (Former Pilot Rule IX.)
312.10 Keeping to right in narrow channels. In narrow channels every steam vessel shall, when it is safe and practicable, keep to that side of the fairway or mid-channel which lies on the starboard side of such vessel. (Former Pilot Rule X.)
312.11 Departure from rules.-In obeying and construing the rules in this part due regard shall be had to all dangers of navigation and collision, and to any special circumstances which may render a departure from said rules necessary in order to avoid "immediate danger. (Former Pilot Rule XI.)
312.12 Fog signals. In fog, mist, falling snow, or heavy rainstorms, whether by day or night, signals shall be given as follows:
A steam vessel under way, except when towing other vessels or being towed, shall sound, at intervals of not more than 1 minute, on the whistle or siren, a prolonged blast.
A steam vessel when towing other vessels shall sound, at intervals of not more than 1 minute, on the whistle or siren, three blasts in succession, namely, one prolonged blast followed by two short blasts.
A vessel towed may give, at intervals of not more than 1 minute, on the fog horn, a signal of three blasts in succession, namely, one prolonged blast followed by two short blasts, and she shall not give any
other. A vessel when at anchor shall, at intervals of not more than 1 minute, ring the bell rapidly for about 5 seconds. (Former Pilot Rule XII.)
312.13 Speed in fog; posting of rules; diagrams-(a) Moderate speed in fog.-Every steam vessel shall, in a fog, mist, falling snow, or heavy rainstorms, go at a moderate speed, having careful regard to the existing circumstances and conditions.
A steam vessel hearing, apparently forward of her beam, the fog signal of a vessel the position of which is not ascertained 'shall, so far as the circumstances of the case admit, stop her engines and then navigate with caution until danger of collision is over.
(b) Posting of pilot rules. On steam and other motor vessels of over 100 gross tons, two copies of the placard form of the rules (Form 803) in this part shall be kept posted up in conspicuous places in the vessel, one copy of which shall be kept posted up in the pilothouse. On steam and other motor vessels of over 25 gross tons and not over 100 gross tons, two copies of the placard form of the pilot rules shall be kept on board, one copy of which shall be kept posted up in the pilothouse. On steam and other motor vessels of 25 gross tons and under, and of more than 10 gross tons, two copies of the placard form of the pilot rules shall be kept on board, and, where practicable, one copy thereof shall be kept conspicuously posted up in the vessel. On steam and other motor vessels of not more than 10 gross tons, two copies of the pamphlet form of the pilot rules shall be kept on board, and, where practicable, one copy thereof shall be kept conspicuously posted up in the vessel.
Nothing herein contained shall require copies of the pilot rules to be carried on board any motorboat as defined by section 1 of the act of April 25, 1940. (54 Stat. 163–167; 46 U. S. C. 526-526t.)
(c) Diagrams.—The following diagrams are intended to illustrate the working of the system of colored lights and pilot rules. (Former Pilot Rule XIII.)