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practice as if it were new, and they and Mr. Makin attribute it without hesitation to poverty, consequent upon the present state of hand-loom weaving. Here I beg my reader's attention to this fact, that during six years and a half that I have sat, I may say without intermission, as a magistrate, I have watched very narrowly, and I have not discovered one single case of crime committed from poverty, in the sense the word is commonly used. It is the excuse constantly alleged, and often received, and, according to mere appearance, reasonably received; but I have no hesitation in saying, that poverty, properly so called, does not produce crime, but that it is produced by a love of indulgence without sufficient industry to command the means of honestly gratifying it. It is true, in hard times there is often an increase of crime, because more industry is required; but still it is to gratify indulgence, and not to supply necessity. Even where the necessities of life, such as bacon, cheese, potatoes, &c. are purloined by apparenıly poor women, who frequent provision shops at the times when business is at the height, the thefts are all committed, as far as my experience goes, by a regular class of performers, who calculate upon not being detected, or, if detected, upon being let off. Sometimes petty tl:efts are committed, in order to purchase gin, sometimes to supply those articles which should have been purchased with the money spent in gin, but indulgence is ever the moving cause. I mention these particulars, because the quantity of misplaced compassion shown for petty delinquencies is the greatest encouragement to their commission. I confess I could not help being surprised at the Committee's simplicity in being so much shocked at hearing that manufacturers of considerable means were found to purchase embezzled materials, and that they should look upon it as a new practice, at least to its present extent. I am afraid it is far from new, and that some large fortunes, both in the silk and cotton trade, have been accumulated by that, and other practices, not less dishonourable.
I cannot think that the neglect of divine worship is a corollary to the state of the weavers described by Mr. Makin ; for I believe it has always been too much the case with that class; at least, wherever I have seen them it has been
and I should rather say, their condition is a corollary to their neglect of divine worship. That blasphemous writings and speeches should, in their neglected state, meet with some attention is not to be wondered at ; because, as the mind cannot lie altogether sterile, if pains are not taken to sow good seed, weeds will take root; and it was this consideration that induced me to address the letter to the Bishop of London on the observance of the Sabbath, which is inserted in my fourth number. I am convinced that without some such plan the spiritual wants of the many will never be supplied, and that till they are, it is in vain to expect their temporal good discipline. With Mr. Makin, I attribute the state he describes to no innate vices and infidelity of the people, but I cannot agree with bim, that it is solely owing to a recklessness origi. nating in want and despair, because I see it exist in the same degree where there is neither want nor despair. My opinion I have stated in the article on government in my second number in the following words : “ In my observation of even the worst part of mankind, I see so great an aptitude for the right path, and so little aberration, considering the quantity of neglect, that I feel confident an adequate enforcement of the real English principles of government, combined with our advanced state of civilisation, would produce moral results, as unthought of and as incalculable, as have been the physical results from the application of steam.” In the year 1817, I endeavoured to dissuade the weavers in my then neighbourhood from . bringing up their children to their own calling, being convinced that power-looms would eventually supersede
hand-looms; and though I have no doubt but that there are great exaggerations of the difficulties which the present race have to contend with, yet it must be supposed that they are in a state far from desirable. But what effect could any bolstering up the trade have, unless to keep those employed in it in a lingering state, necessarily growing worse and worse ? False hopes only weaken that elasticity of human nature, which can extricate men from far greater difficulties than any produced by the gradual changes arising from improvements in machinery; and if the weavers who are now suffering, were only convinced that nothing can be done for them in the
way they ask, they would soon exhibit a very different tone from that, which they will think their policy, as long as ignorance of sound principles, motives of self-interest, or a love of popularity can find them supporters. Their real friends must pursue a very different course if they intend to serve them.
THE ART OF ATTAINING HIGH HEALTH.
It requires a great deal of attention, and when living in the world, a great deal of resolution, to observe a proper diet; and it is only a knowledge of its powerful effect both upon body and mind that is likely to induce sufficient care. When taking meals alone it is most easy to regulate them ; but I believe meals were meant to be social, and that a little irregularity in agreeable company is better than the best observance in solitude. They who can unite the advantages of the two states are sure to enjoy the easiest digestion. In diet, as in most of our habits, we are apt to be content with too low a standard, instead of continually striving to approach the highest point of improvement; and certainly no study can be more interesting in its progress or more important in its effects. Eating and drinking reasonably used, are not only extremely pleasant in act but in their consequences, and a healthy appetite duly ministered to would be a source of constant enjoyment without alloy. As we must take nourishment, it appears to me wise to draw as much gratification from it as possible. Epicurism has rather an ill name, but I think very undeservedly, if it does not lead to gluttony, or occupy too great a share of attention. A dainty meal is something pleasant to look forward to, and the expectation of it gives a wholesome edge to the appetite, and makes business be despatched with alacrity. Let any of my readers call to mind their anticipations in journeying towards a bespoken repast at a favourite inn, and that will put them in the way
appreciating the value in the journey through life of daily anticipations of satisfactory cheer. To come to particulars : and first of breakfast.—As to this meal, much depends upon constitution and manner of life. Those who are weakly, and those who do not take much exercise, will do well to be rather abstemious at breakfast, lest they anticipate digestion. Those who take exercise before breakfast and rest after, may safely give themselves more latitude than they who observe an opposite course. Moderation in all cases is the safest. I have often remarked, that peeple who make it their boast that they always eat a hearty breakfast are rather of a full than a healthy habit ; and I should think, as a rule, that the practice is favourable to long life. As digestion is liable to be deranged by the various occupations of the morning, it is expedient to be careful both as to quality and quantity of food. To that end, I hold it desirable to avoid much liquid, the fat or skin of meat, much crumb of untoasted bread, especially newly-baked bread, all spongy substances, and whatever has a tendency to create thirst. Coffee, unless in a small quantity and diluted with milk, is rather heating : tea, before exercise or in travelling, I think preferable. In my
own case, I find it best to adhere to one moderate-sized
cup of liquid, whether tea, coffee, or I prefer brown bread toasted to any other preparation of flour, and if any addition is wanted, I recommend only one on the same occasion, such as eggs, a little meat, bacon, broiled fish, watercresses, or fruit. Variety I think good, but not on the same day, especially as it makes it more difficult to measure the appetite. If any thing is required between breakfast and dinner, something simple and in moderation should by all means be taken, as disappointing the appetite, I believe, is much more prejudicial than is generally supposed. Bread and fruit I find very grateful in the middle of the day, and if meat is taken, good table beer, I think, is the most refreshing beverage, or where that is not liked, wine and water. As to dinner, I am of opinion that the consideration of that important meal may most conveniently be referred to my article on the art of dining, which I shall probably enter upon my next number.
It has been well said by I know not whom, that an Englishman is never happy, but when he is miserable; that a Scotchman is. never at home, but when he is abroad ; that an Irishman is never at peace, but when he is at war.
EXTRAVAGANCE AND ECONOMY.
When a spendthrift sees his error he generally becomes a miser. Few indeed are the instances where extravagance is