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is lodged with government, the more freedom is left to the citizens. But the most perfect state of liberty consists in the most complete security of person and property, not only from government, but from individuals; and in this point of view, I apprehend, liberty is enjoyed to far greater extent in England than in any other country in the world. In this point of view, honesty and peaceable behaviour are essential to the enjoyment of liberty. Robbery, fraud, assassination, murder, assault, even exposure to duels, are all destructive of a state of liberty; and, taking exemption from these evils, as well as from any arbitrary interference on the part of government, I cannot doubt but that the balance is greatly in our favour, though we have great room for improvement. If in any other country there is greater security from individual invasion of person or property, it is enjoyed at an annoying and dangerous sacrifice of public liberty, for which there can be no compensation. Besides, as in despotic countries there is no publicity, as there is in this, it is doubtful whether appearances are not often contrary to the reality. For instance, it has latterly been discovered, contrary to all former supposition, that there are more suicides, in proportion to population, in Paris than in London ; and I will add, though it has nothing to do with my subject, that there are more in London in July than in November, which is contrary to all former supposition also. Whether a man has his pocket picked by a sharper, or by an oppressive impost; whether his plate or jewels are seized by an order of government, or are carried away by a housebreaker; whether his estate is cleared of its game by the king's purveyor, or by a gang of poachers; or whether he is confined to his house after a certain hour by a regulation of police, or by the fear of being robbed or murdered,-in neither predicament can he be said to enjoy perfect liberty, which consists in security of person and property, without molestation or restraint, provided there is no molestation or restraint of others. To attain this liberty strong government is necessary, but strong without being vexatious, and the only form is that which, in the true spirit of our constitution, consists of a simple supreme government, presiding over and keeping duly organized a scale of self-governments below it. It is by moral influence alone that liberty, as I have just defined it, can be secured, and it is only in self-governments that the proper moral influence exists. In proportion as the supreme government takes upon itself the control of local affairs, apathy, feebleness, and corruption' will creep in, and our increasing wealth, which should prove a blessing, will only hasten our ruin. I refer those who interest themselves in this subject, to the article on the Principles of Government in my first number, and to my different articles on Parochial Government. I intend, ere long, to consider the forms of government most applicable to towns and counties.



Having treated in my last number of the times for taking exercise, I proceed to the consideration of the proper quantity. The quantity of exercise desirable, depends upon constitution, time of life, occupation, season, and kind and degree. I am unable to say with precision what kinds of constitution require the most exercise. Persons in health, of compact or light frame, seem the best adapted to take a great deal with benefit to themselves. Weakly and heavy people are generally distressed by much exertion; but then it is difficult to distinguish what is the effect of habit, and what of natural constitution. Those who appear to be weak, often make themselves strong by a judicious course of management, and the heavy frequently improve astonishingly in activity by good training. One thing may be taken as certain, and that is, that it is wise to go on by degrees, and to increase the quantity of exercise as it is found to be beneficial; the best tests of which, are keenness of appetite and soundness of sleep. Over exercise ought always to be avoided; but that often depends more upon the manner than the quantity. The same quantity may distress, or benefit, as it is taken judiciously or the contrary. Condition also makes an immense difference in the same person. I remember, when I entered Switzerland after the full living of Germany, I was as different from what I was when I left it, as lead from feathers. In the first case, the ascent of an ordinary hill distressed me, and at last I enjoyed a buoyancy which seemed quite insensible to fatigue. Females appear to require a much less quantity of exercise than men; and it ought to be gentle and agreeable, instead of violent or long continued. With them, also, much depends upon circumstances; and, in Switzerland, delicate women can take as much exercise without inconvenience as would distress the strongest of the sex in less invigorating countries. With respect to time of life, the most vigorous periods of course demand the most exercise; but habit has always a great effect, and it is expedient not to relax from indolence instead of inability. As decay comes on, exercise should become moderate, and of short continuance at a time, and should be taken during the most genial periods of the day. Active occupations either altogether supersede, or diminish the necessity of exercise, for exercise sake; but sedentary or confined employments require a regular course, in order to ensure anything like permanent good health, and the better the air, the more efficacious will be the exercise. As to seasons, in hot weather the least exercise seems necessary, and that of a gentle kind; in a moderate temperature, the most may be taken with advantage; and when it is cold, exercise shonld be brisk, and then, from its bracing quality, a little goes a great way. Quantity of exercise depends very greatly upon kind and degree. That which moderately increases the circulation of the blood, so as to cause a glow on this side perspiration, the soonest suffices. Walking or riding at a brisk pace in a bracing air, or not over-strained exertion in some game, which agreeably occupies the mind, will soon produce a sufficient effect. Where the mind is not engaged, much more exercise is required than where it is; and a small quantity of violent exercise is not so beneficial as a greater quantity of moderate. On the other hand, a greater quantity of sluggish exertion does not possess the efficacy of a smaller quantity of an animating kind. Less of varied exertion, which brings the different muscles into play, will suffice, than of exertion all of the same kind. As walking over hill and dale promotes circulation more than walking over a flat surface, and different paces in riding are better than a uniform one. Unless exercise produces a glow, it falls short of its proper effect, and it will do this in the shortest time, when it is moderate, varied, and pleasing, and in an invigorating atmosphere. Violent exercise produces temporary strength, but with a wear-and-tear of the constitution, and it often induces a tendency to disease, besides the danger of bodily injury from many causes.

As to manner of exercising, there is every degree from the easiest carriage to the roughest horse. Carriage exercise is of a very inferior kind in an invigorating point of view, and to the robust is scarcely exercise at all; but to others it is very beneficial, though perhaps rather in the way of taking air than taking exercise, and it has the effect of diverting the mind. To this end it is most efficacious amidst new scenes. The most effective mode of all of taking exercise is, I believe, on horseback, and if it will not put those who can bear it into high health, I think nothing else will. For effect on the health and spirits I know nothing like a brisk ride on a good horse, through a pleasant country, with an agreeable companion, on a beautiful day. The exercise is thoroughly efficient, without either labour or fatigue, the mind is entirely in unison with the body, and the constant current of pure air produces the most vigorous tone. I have frequently heard of journeys on horseback restoring health, when every thing else has failed. A solitary ride on an unwilling horse, over well-known ground, for the mere sake of the ride, produces, comparatively speaking, very little benefit; and care should be taken to make this kind of exercise, as well as every other, as attractive as possible. Exercise on foot bas many advantages. It is the most independent mode, is within every body's reach, is the least trouble, and can be taken when other modes are not practicable, and is very efficacious. The feeling of independence is by no means the least of its advantages, and those who have the free use of their limbs, have no occasion to envy their superiors in wealth their command of carriages and horses, about which there are constant drawbacks. Although I delight in a horse at times, yet I often think that on the whole the balance is against him on the score of freedom and independence. I have made many journeys on foot, and I do not know that, with good management, there is any mode of travelling which is capable of so much enjoyment with so little alloy. Horse exercise, on particular occasions, is certainly the most animating and delightful, but at other times it is attended with greater inconveniences. Exercise on foot derives much of its efficacy from being made attractive. A walk for a walk's sake is only half beneficial, and, if possible, there should be some object in view, something to engage and satisfy the mind. Exercise in games, dancing, fencing, and such accomplishments, derive a great deal of their benefit from the pleasure taken in them; and in contested games, care should be taken to avoid anxiety and over-ardent exertion. There is a middle state of the mind between indifference and too much eagerness, which is the most favourable to health ; as there is a middle circulation of the blood between languor and a state of fever. In taking exercise, this rule should always be observed, to begin and end gently. Beginning violently hurries

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