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STATES. The powers not delegated to the United States by the Consti

tution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.--

---(10th amend.) STATES. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on

incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

--- (16th amend.) STATES. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent

power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation - (18th amend.) SUBJECTS. (See Foreign State; Foreign States.) (SUBPENA.) (See Compulsory Process.) (SUCCESSION to the Presidency.] (See Death.) SUFFRAGE. no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of it's

equal Suffrage in the Senate.. (SUFFRAGE.] (See Vote.) SUITS at Common Law. (See Common Law.) SUITS in Law or Equity. (See Judicial Power.) SUNDAYS excepted. (See Bill.) SUPPORT this Constitution. (See Oath.) SUPREME Court. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be

vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensa

tion, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.. SUPREME Court. In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public

Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regula

tions as the Congress shall make---
SUPREME Court, Judges of. (See Appointments.)
SUPREME Law of the Land. This Constitution, and the Laws of the

United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treat-
ies made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United
States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every
State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws

of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding----
(TARIFF.) (See Duties.)
TAX. (See Duties; Slave Trade.)
TAX. No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Propor-

tion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken

(See next title.). TAX. No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State. TAXES. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on in

comes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

---(16th amend.) TAXES. Representation and direct Taxes. (See Representatives.) TAXES. The Congress_shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes,

Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the

common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; TENDER. No State shall make any Thing but gold and silver Coin

a Tender in Payment of Debts; (TERM) of Judges. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts,

shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, [TERM) of Representatives. The House of Representatives shall be com

posed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several

States, (TERM) of Senators. The Senate of the United States shall be composed

of two Senators from each State, chosen . for six Years; TERM of the President and Vice President.

President shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, [TERMS.] (See Impeachment; Removal.)

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TERMS. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon

on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.--

- (20th amend.) (TERRITORIES.) (See Territory.) TERRITORY. The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all

needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Prop

erty belonging to the United States;
TERRITORY. (See Liquors.)
TEST. (See Religious.)
TESTIMONY. (See Treason; Witness; Witnesses.)
THINGS. (See Searches.)
THIRTY Thousand. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed

one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one

Representative;
THREE Fourths. (See Amendments.)
TITLE of Nobility. (See Nobility.)
TONNAGE. No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any

Duty of Tonnage,
(TONNAGE.] (See Enter.)
(TRAFFIC.] (See Commerce.)
TRADEMARK.) (See Commerce.)
TRAINING the Militia. (See Militia.)
TRANQUILITY. (See Domestic.)
(TRANSPORTATION.) (See Commerce.)
TRANSPORTATION. (See Liquors.)
TREASON. (See Arrest; Fugitive; Impeachment.)
TREASON. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levy-

ing War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court....

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or

Forfeiture except during the life of the Person attainted.---TREASURY. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compen

sation for their Services, paid out of the Treasury of the United

States.
TREASURY. (See Appropriations.)
TREASURY of the United States. and the net Produce of all Duties

and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the

Use of the Treasury of the United States;
TREATIES. [The President) ... shall have Power, by and with the

Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two

thirds of the Senators present concur; TREATIES. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and

Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States,

and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;.... TREATIES. This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which

shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which
shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the

supreme Law of the Land;
TREATY. No State shall enter into any Treaty,
TRIAL. (See Impeachment.)
TRIAL. (See Jury.)
TRIAL. (See Criminal Prosecutions.)
TRIAL. (See Common Law.)
TRIBUNALS. (See Courts.)
TROOPS. (See Armies.)
TRUST. (See Office.)
TWENTY Dollars. In Suits at common law, where the value in contro-

versy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be
preserved,

(7th amend.)

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TWO Thirds. (See Bill; Impeachment; Order; Rebellion; Treaties.)
UNIFORM. all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform

throughout the United States;
UNIFORM. The Congress shall have Power . To establish an uni-

form Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of

Bankruptcies throughout the United States;
UNIFORM. (See Preference.)
UNION. We the People of the United States, in order to form a more

perfect Union, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the
United States of America.--

- (Preamble) UNION. (The President] shall from time to time give to the Con

gress Information of the State of the Union, . UNION. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union;

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UNITED STATES. We the People of the United States,

do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America

(Preamble) UNITED STATES. The Congress shall have Power To exercise

exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not
exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States,
and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government

of the United States,
UNITED STATES. (See Citizen; Citizens.)
UNUSUAL Punishments. (See Punishments.)
USE. (See Liquors.)

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VACANCIES. When vacancies happen in the Representation from any

State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill

such Vacancies.. VACANCIES. if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise (in

the Senate), during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shali then fill such Vacancies (See

next title.)-VACANCIES. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State

in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies; Provided. That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

-(17th amend.) VACANCIES. The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies

that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Com

missions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.. (VACANCY in the Presidency.) (See Death.) VALUE. The Congress shall have Power To coin Money, regulate

the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, VESSELS. (See Enter.) (VESTED Powers.] (See Congress; Judicial Power; President.) [VETO. (See Bill.) VICE PRESIDENT. The Vice President of the United States shall be

President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally

divided.-VICE PRESIDENT. The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also

a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when

he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.VICE PRESIDENT. In Case of the Removal of the President from Office,

or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal. Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President,

declaring what Officer shall then act as President, VICE PRESIDENT. The ... Vice President shall be removed

from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors

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VICE PRESIDENT, Election of. (See Election of President and Vice

President.)
VICE PRESIDENT, (Qualifications of]. But no person constitutionally

ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-
President of the United States...

(12th amend.)
VIOLENCE. (See Domestic.)
VIRGINIA. First representation...
VIRGINIA. Delegates sign the Constitution.---
VOTE. (See Election; Order.)
VOTE. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of

electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Repre-
sentatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State,
or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male
inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of
the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in
rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be
reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall
bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such
State-----

(14th amend.) VOTE. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be

denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude...

(15th amend.) VOTE. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of

(19th amend.) (VOTES in Congress.) (See Bill; Order; Two-Thirds; Yeas and Nays.) VOTES of Electors. (See Election of President and Vice President.) WAR. The Congress shall have Power ... To declare War, WAR. No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, engage in

War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not

admit of delay---
WAR. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying

War against them,
WAR. No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, with-

out the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to
be prescribed by law.--

- (3d amend.).
WARRANTS. (See Searches.)
WASHINGTON, George. Signs the Constitution..
WATER. (See Captures.)
WEIGHTS and Measures. The Congress shall have Power .

To ... fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;
WELFARE. (See General Welfare.)
(WESTERN Claims.) (See Claims.)
WILLIAMSON, Hugh. Signs the Constitution.
WILSON, James. Signs the Constitution...
WITNESS.
nor shall any person

be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself,

- (5th amend.) WITNESSES. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Tes

timony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open

Court...
WITNESSES. In all criminal prosecution, the accused shall enjoy the
right ... to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have com-

pulsory process for obtaining Witnesses in his favor, - (6th amend.)
WRIT of Habeas Corpus. (See Habeas Corpus.)
WRITING. (See Departments.)
WRITINGS. (See Science.)
YEAS and Nays. .. the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either

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Hous on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present,

be entered on the Journal. YEAS and Nays. (See Bill.)

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National Development Under the

Constitution

THE NATION OF 1790 When the Constitution went into operation the United States consisted of thirteen states between the Atlantic Ocean and the Appalachian Mountains and additional territory running through to the Mississippi River. This western territory had been claimed by various states as within the bounds of their colonial charters. By 1789 the claims to most of the region north of the Ohio River had been ceded to the central government, and the claims south of the Ohio were soon after given up, as was also the claim to what soon became Vermont, the fourteenth state. Thereafter, the thirteen original states had their present boundaries, except that Maine was a part of Massachusetts until 1820 and West Virginia a part of Virginia until 1863. In 1787 the northern part of the western territory had been placed under a territorial government, a plan which became the model for such temporary organization for regions on their way to statehood and a sharing by their inhabitants in the general government; and during the early years under the Constitution territorial governments were formed for the southwestern region. Settlement west of the Appalachians began in colonial times, Kentucky being admitted as a state in 1792; but in general the western region was still frontier. It was plagued by Indian wars; largely still virgin forests or prairies, or with small settlements along the main waterways that were almost the only means of travel or transportation. It was far distant from the coast cities that were the centers of trade; and with crude economic and social conditions, that made such backwoods life foreign to the civilization that had grown up on the Atlantic slope in colonial times and come to have a definite aristocratic trend. Pioneer life promoted democratic spirit.

EXPANSION TO 1860 By 1848 all of this territorial country east of the Mississippi, except the northeastern part of what is now Minnesota, had become

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