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AMENDMENT XVI NoT UNTIL July 12, 1909, did Congress offer another amendment to the states. The resolution was signed on July 16 and deposited in the Department of State on July 21. Before it was ratified, the number of states had increased to forty-eight, making thirty-six essential for the incorporation of the amendment into the Constitution. Delaware on February 3, 1913, made up the required number; but New Mexico and Wyoming also accepted the amendment on this day, though probably at later hours. Kentucky is included in the above thirty-six, even though the governor had vetoed the legislative approval. Secretary Knox issued his certificate on the ratification on February 25, 1913. The amendment was rejected by Connecticut, Florida, Rhode Island, and Utah, and Pennsylvania and Virginia took no action. (See page 560.)

AMENDMENT XVII

THE AMENDMENT for popular election of senators passed Congress on May 13, 1912, and reached the secretary of state on the 15th. In contrast with the slow progress of the Sixteenth Amendment through the state legislatures, this one was adopted by Connecticut, the thirty-sixth state, on April 8, 1913. Only one additional state ratified, that of Louisiana, more than a year later. It was rejected by Delaware and Utah, and no action was taken by Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Virginia. The secretary's certification is dated May 31, 1913. (See page 561.)

AMENDMENT XVIII THE ENACTMENT of the prohibition amendment was almost as swift as its repeal. The amendment was offered to the states by Congress on December 18, 1917, and deposited with the Department of State on the 19th. On January 16, 1919, it was ratified by Missouri, Nebraska, and Wyoming, probably in this order, with Missouri as the thirty-sixth state. Five other states ratified on January 15 and two on January 17. The amendment was promulgated on January 29, and was in effect from January 16, 1920. The California legislature passed the resolution on January 13, 1919, that endorsement being the twenty-first. A referendum was ordered on it, but this did not affect the legality of the enactment. Rhode Island rejected the amendment; Connecticut took no action. (See page 561.)

TWENTIETH CENTURY AMENDMENTS

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AMENDMENT XIX THE AMENDMENT for female suffrage received the sanction of Congress on June 4, 1919, and was placed with the secretary of state the next day. The ratification of Tennessee, the thirty-sixth state, was on August 18, 1920. The struggle there for approval of the amendment was a severe one, and on August 31 the House reconsidered and non-concurred; but the Senate refused to recognize this action, as the governor had not only forwarded to Washington the certificate of adoption but the secretary of state had announced the inclusion of the amendment in the Constitution on August 26. After Tennessee two other states voted their adherence to the proposal, Connecticut on September 14, and Vermont on February 8, 1921. There was no action by Alabama, Florida, or North Carolina; and rejection by Delaware, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Virginia. (See page 561.)

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AMENDMENT XX THE “LAME DUCK” amendment passed Congress on March 2, 1932, and was signed and deposited on March 3. It was ratified on January 23, 1933, by Georgia, Missouri, Ohio, and Utah, which approvals made up the necessary thirty-six states; of these Utah, because of its most western location, was probably the last. All forty-eight states ratified the amendment, which was certified by the secretary of state on February 6, 1933. (See page 561.)

AMENDMENT XXI CONGRESS voted the repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment on February 20, 1933, and it was deposited in the Department of State the same day. Ratification was by state conventions, which required preliminary legislative action to prescribe the election of the delegates and the meetings; and in forty-three states this was done by September 7, but four of the laws put off the conventions until 1934. In North Carolina the people voted on the question of holding a convention, and rejected it. Thirty-eight conventions met in 1933; that of South Carolina rejected the amendment. The conventions of Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Utah ratified on December 5, 1933, in this order. Maine, December 6, was the thirty-seventh state. The certificate of the adoption of the amendment was made by the acting secretary of state on December 5, and the President, in accordance with a special law, also issued his proclamation on the same day. (See page 562.)

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ment, are for the same reasons. that gave the final necessary ratification of the Eighteenth AmendAmendment, and the omission of North Carolina from the states ary 2, 1870, Georgia, for February 3, 1870, Iowa, for the Fifteenth substitution are given above in this article. The change to Februthe ratification of the Eleventh Amendment. The reasons for the Delaware, for February 7, 1795, North Carolina, for the date of of State. The chief change is the substitution of January 23, 1795,

The following table is amended from one from the Department

Mar. 4, 1794

Mar. 11 Mar. 12

Jan23, 1795

X (undelegated powers reserved)
XI (suability of a state)
XII (reform in electoral vote)
XIII (abolishing slavery).
XIV (rights of citizens).

Delaware, 12th.

Jan. 8, 17987

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June 13, 1866 June 15 June 16 July 9, 1869 Louisiana, South Carolina, 28th July 28, 1868
Feb. 26, 1869 Feb. 26 Feb. 27 Feb. 2, 1870 Georgia, 28th.

Mar. 30,1870
July 12, 1909 July 16 July 21 Feb. 3, 1913 Delaware, New Mexico, Wyoming, Feb. 25, 1913

36th.
May 13, 1912 May 15 May 15 Apr. 8, 1913 Connecticut, 36th.

May 31, 1913
Dec. 18, 1917 Dec, 18 Dec. 19 Jan. 16, 1919 Missouri, Nebraska, Wyoming, 36th Jan. 29, 1919

XVII (election of senators).
XVIII (prohibition).

XIX (woman suffrage).

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XX (“lamne duck').
XXI (repeal of prohibition).

Georgia, Missouri, Ohio, Utah, 36th.
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Utah, 36th.

Feb. 20, 1933

Feb. 20

Feb. 20

Dec. 5, 1933

Dec. 5, 19331

• Resolution of Congress asking President to transmit.
† Date when President informed Congress.
1 Date also of President's proclamation.

Alphabetical Analysis of the

Constitution

INTRODUCTION THE SUGGESTION for this Alphabetical Analysis appeared originally in William Hickey, Constitution of the United States of America, ... with an Alphabetical Analysis (1846), one of the early efforts to make available the exact text of the Constitution, the "fireside companion of the American citizen," as Hickey called it. The book also contained much valuable historical information. Congress purchased large editions of it for distribution; it became a standard text and later editions brought the tabulation through the Fifteenth Amendment. The principle of the compilation requires that the key word shall in each case be explained by the quotation of a sufficient amount of the.context, with a reference to its exact place in the Constitution or Amendment.

The original suffered from over-elaboration; words were included in alphabetical list that were unimportant, or so general throughout the document as to have no special significance. On the other hand, as the plan of the analysis excluded all words not in the text, various matters were not sufficiently indicated; for instance, the word “copyright" did not appear in Hickey's analysis, but it is a word for which the searcher would naturally look. The present compilation, while following Hickey's general plan, is a complete reconstruction, which is down to date, and which tries to exclude the superfluous, to avoid repetitions by the use of cross references, and to add essentials. When the word in the alphabetical list is not itself in the text, it is enclosed in [ ] square brackets.

SOL BLOOM,

Director General,
United States Constitution Sesquicentennial Commission.

ALPHABETICAL ANALYSIS

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ABRIDGE. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall

abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States;

--(14th amend.)
ABRIDGED. (See Denied.)
ABSENCE. The Senate shall chuse a President pro tempore, in the

Absence of the Vice President,
ABSENT Members. ... a Majority of each (House) shall constitute a

Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number . may be authorized
to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and

under such Penalties as each House may provide... ACCOUNT. ... a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and

Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.
ACCUSATION. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall . . . be

informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; .-(6th amend.)
ACCUSED. (See Criminal Prosecutions.)
ACT. (See Treason.)
ACT as President. the Congress may by Law provide for the Case

of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and
Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and
such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a

President shall be elected.--.
ACT as President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the

time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall
have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President
until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law pro-
vide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President
elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President,
or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such
person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall
have qualified.

---(20th amend.) ACTS. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public

Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the
Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such

Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof..
ADJOURN. Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without

the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any

other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sittingADJOURN from Day to Day. ... a Majority of each (House) shall

constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn

from day to day, ADJOURNMENT. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President

within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to
him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it,
unless the Congress by thei“ Adjournmeat prevent its Return, in which

Case it shall not be a Law...
ADJOURNMENT. Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Con-

currence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary
(except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the Presi-

dent of the United States; . ADJOURNMENT. (The President] may convene both Houses, or

either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Tins es

he shall think proper; ADMIRALTY and Maritime Jurisdiction. The judicial Power shall ex

tend ... to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; ADMITTED. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this

Union; . . . (See States.)--
ADOPTION of this Constitution. No Person except a natural born

Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of

this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; ADOPTION of this Constitution. All Debts contracted and Engagements

entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Con

federation... ADVICE and Consent of the Senate. (See Senate.)

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