« 이전계속 »
AMENDMENT XVI NoT UNTIL July 12, 1909, did Congress offer another amendment to the states. The resolution was signed on July 16 and deposited in the Department of State on July 21. Before it was ratified, the number of states had increased to forty-eight, making thirty-six essential for the incorporation of the amendment into the Constitution. Delaware on February 3, 1913, made up the required number; but New Mexico and Wyoming also accepted the amendment on this day, though probably at later hours. Kentucky is included in the above thirty-six, even though the governor had vetoed the legislative approval. Secretary Knox issued his certificate on the ratification on February 25, 1913. The amendment was rejected by Connecticut, Florida, Rhode Island, and Utah, and Pennsylvania and Virginia took no action. (See page 560.)
THE AMENDMENT for popular election of senators passed Congress on May 13, 1912, and reached the secretary of state on the 15th. In contrast with the slow progress of the Sixteenth Amendment through the state legislatures, this one was adopted by Connecticut, the thirty-sixth state, on April 8, 1913. Only one additional state ratified, that of Louisiana, more than a year later. It was rejected by Delaware and Utah, and no action was taken by Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Virginia. The secretary's certification is dated May 31, 1913. (See page 561.)
AMENDMENT XVIII THE ENACTMENT of the prohibition amendment was almost as swift as its repeal. The amendment was offered to the states by Congress on December 18, 1917, and deposited with the Department of State on the 19th. On January 16, 1919, it was ratified by Missouri, Nebraska, and Wyoming, probably in this order, with Missouri as the thirty-sixth state. Five other states ratified on January 15 and two on January 17. The amendment was promulgated on January 29, and was in effect from January 16, 1920. The California legislature passed the resolution on January 13, 1919, that endorsement being the twenty-first. A referendum was ordered on it, but this did not affect the legality of the enactment. Rhode Island rejected the amendment; Connecticut took no action. (See page 561.)
TWENTIETH CENTURY AMENDMENTS
AMENDMENT XIX THE AMENDMENT for female suffrage received the sanction of Congress on June 4, 1919, and was placed with the secretary of state the next day. The ratification of Tennessee, the thirty-sixth state, was on August 18, 1920. The struggle there for approval of the amendment was a severe one, and on August 31 the House reconsidered and non-concurred; but the Senate refused to recognize this action, as the governor had not only forwarded to Washington the certificate of adoption but the secretary of state had announced the inclusion of the amendment in the Constitution on August 26. After Tennessee two other states voted their adherence to the proposal, Connecticut on September 14, and Vermont on February 8, 1921. There was no action by Alabama, Florida, or North Carolina; and rejection by Delaware, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Virginia. (See page 561.)
AMENDMENT XX THE “LAME DUCK” amendment passed Congress on March 2, 1932, and was signed and deposited on March 3. It was ratified on January 23, 1933, by Georgia, Missouri, Ohio, and Utah, which approvals made up the necessary thirty-six states; of these Utah, because of its most western location, was probably the last. All forty-eight states ratified the amendment, which was certified by the secretary of state on February 6, 1933. (See page 561.)
AMENDMENT XXI CONGRESS voted the repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment on February 20, 1933, and it was deposited in the Department of State the same day. Ratification was by state conventions, which required preliminary legislative action to prescribe the election of the delegates and the meetings; and in forty-three states this was done by September 7, but four of the laws put off the conventions until 1934. In North Carolina the people voted on the question of holding a convention, and rejected it. Thirty-eight conventions met in 1933; that of South Carolina rejected the amendment. The conventions of Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Utah ratified on December 5, 1933, in this order. Maine, December 6, was the thirty-seventh state. The certificate of the adoption of the amendment was made by the acting secretary of state on December 5, and the President, in accordance with a special law, also issued his proclamation on the same day. (See page 562.)
ment, are for the same reasons. that gave the final necessary ratification of the Eighteenth AmendAmendment, and the omission of North Carolina from the states ary 2, 1870, Georgia, for February 3, 1870, Iowa, for the Fifteenth substitution are given above in this article. The change to Februthe ratification of the Eleventh Amendment. The reasons for the Delaware, for February 7, 1795, North Carolina, for the date of of State. The chief change is the substitution of January 23, 1795,
The following table is amended from one from the Department
Mar. 4, 1794
Mar. 11 Mar. 12
X (undelegated powers reserved)
Jan. 8, 17987
June 13, 1866 June 15 June 16 July 9, 1869 Louisiana, South Carolina, 28th July 28, 1868
May 31, 1913
XVII (election of senators).
XIX (woman suffrage).
XX (“lamne duck').
Georgia, Missouri, Ohio, Utah, 36th.
Feb. 20, 1933
Dec. 5, 1933
Dec. 5, 19331
• Resolution of Congress asking President to transmit.
Alphabetical Analysis of the
INTRODUCTION THE SUGGESTION for this Alphabetical Analysis appeared originally in William Hickey, Constitution of the United States of America, ... with an Alphabetical Analysis (1846), one of the early efforts to make available the exact text of the Constitution, the "fireside companion of the American citizen," as Hickey called it. The book also contained much valuable historical information. Congress purchased large editions of it for distribution; it became a standard text and later editions brought the tabulation through the Fifteenth Amendment. The principle of the compilation requires that the key word shall in each case be explained by the quotation of a sufficient amount of the.context, with a reference to its exact place in the Constitution or Amendment.
The original suffered from over-elaboration; words were included in alphabetical list that were unimportant, or so general throughout the document as to have no special significance. On the other hand, as the plan of the analysis excluded all words not in the text, various matters were not sufficiently indicated; for instance, the word “copyright" did not appear in Hickey's analysis, but it is a word for which the searcher would naturally look. The present compilation, while following Hickey's general plan, is a complete reconstruction, which is down to date, and which tries to exclude the superfluous, to avoid repetitions by the use of cross references, and to add essentials. When the word in the alphabetical list is not itself in the text, it is enclosed in [ ] square brackets.
ABRIDGE. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall
abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States;
Absence of the Vice President,
Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number . may be authorized
under such Penalties as each House may provide... ACCOUNT. ... a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and
Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.
informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; .-(6th amend.)
of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and
President shall be elected.--.
time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall
---(20th amend.) ACTS. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public
Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the
Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof..
the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any
other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sittingADJOURN from Day to Day. ... a Majority of each (House) shall
constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn
from day to day, ADJOURNMENT. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President
within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to
Case it shall not be a Law...
currence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary
dent of the United States; . ADJOURNMENT. (The President] may convene both Houses, or
either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Tins es
he shall think proper; ADMIRALTY and Maritime Jurisdiction. The judicial Power shall ex
tend ... to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; ADMITTED. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this
Union; . . . (See States.)--
Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of
this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; ADOPTION of this Constitution. All Debts contracted and Engagements
entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Con
federation... ADVICE and Consent of the Senate. (See Senate.)