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1815.) Hermbstädt on Premature Interments.

115 ing. The larvæ of the dragon-flies, which upon its existence, in a sound state, also live in water, as well as those of consist, according to physiologists and some other aquatic insects, have an physicians, in an uninterruptedly contiopening at the extremity of the abdo- nued process of the organic activity. men, which, for the purpose of respira- Derangement in the equilibrium of the tion, they raise above the surface of the united functions resulting from aniinal water.

life is the cause of diseas , but the total Vermes.With respect to this class of annihilation of them produces death. animals it is to be remarked, that the Between health, disease, and death, cuttle-fish have two separate gills, each there may, bowever, be an intermediate connected with a separate heart to sup- state of animal life, in which the natuply it with blood. This, when oxydated, ral functions of the machine are for a is returned by pulmonary veins to a third longer or shorter period suspended or heart, which supplies the rest of the enchained; in which the functions of body. In the snails there is a cavity on animation are not manifested by any the side of the neck which receives air external sign, but in which the dissoluby a small aperture, which can be opened tion and reciprocal action of the elements and shut at the pleasure of the animal. composing the body that take place after The pulmonary vessels ramify on the real death are also not perceptible; and sides of this cavity. This is likewise the this state is apparent death. case in the univalve testaceous animals. The experience of physicians, ancient Io many of the mollusca there is a fringy and modern, as well as of other obsubstance situated in the back, which is servers, prove that cases of apparent their organ of respiration. In the doris death are by no means uncommon, as there are several of these ranged round may be seen in the works of Brutier, the head. The oyster and some others Dimenbrock, Hufeland, Creve, and many have gills which bear a distant resem- more. Some of the persons mentioned blance to those of fish. The inhabitants by those writers are represented to have of a few of the bivalre shells have air- lain three, five, seven, and one even vessels which lie betiseen the membrane thirty-six days, in a state of death-like of a simple or double tubular canal, insensibility. But we are no where furwhich is found at the anterior part of the nished with any certain test for distinanimal, and is capable of extension and guishing this state from real death: it is retraction. In several of the species of this point that shall be the subject of my 'round worms there is no distinct organ inquiries, and I flatter myself that I shall of respiration, although they have dis- be able to solve the problem. tinct pulmonic vessels, which terminate If so many cases of apparent death in tufts under the integuments.

are known to have happened, is it not Zoophytes.-Of the zoophytes, the star. probable that many more have escaped fish have a fringed substance extended detection? Who can forbear shuddering along each limb. These communicate at the idea of such a re-animation in the above the stomach, and have their exit grave, and on reflecting that the objects under an operculum near the centre of of their dearest affection and regard may the upper part of the body. In general, possibly be exposed to such unutterable however, the zoophytes have no observe horrors after their supposed decease? able organ of respiration, their blood Of the situation of an unfortunate being oxydated through their superficial person buried while in a state of appaTessels.

rent death, I know not any picture so

vivid and so impressive as that delineIn plants it is supposed that respira- ated by Dr. Mark Herz, one of the most tion is carried on through apertures upon philosophic physicians of his day, in an the surface of the leaves, and that these interesting paper On the Practice of communicate with the sap-vessels through Early Interment among the Jews. their coats.

S, X.

“ Were it,” says he, a mere priva

tion of life-were it nothing more than For the New Monthly Magazine.

a gentle and speedy death that we inflict ON THE DA NGER OF PREMATURE INTER“ our fellow-creatures MEXT, AND THE MEANS OF ASCERTAIN- blooded persons might perhaps stifle re

morse, and silence the reproaches of By Professor S. F. HERMBSTADT, of conscience, by urging that the unfortu. Berlin.

nate creature whose re-aniination is preTHE conditions of animal life, and of vented, or rather the extinction of whoge all the fanctions of the body dependent life is promoted, remains unconscious of

on

many cold

ING THE REALITY OF DEATE.

116

Horrors of Resuscitation after Interment. [March 1, this extinction; and that there are situa- that they perhaps have really had to tions in human life in which such an ex- endure those horrors which I suffered in tinction is actually desirable.

imagination; that at this very moment, “ But the datlı suffered by criminals when the solemn stillness which pervades on the scatole is a trifle, nay it is a these peaceful mansions of the dead, favour, compared with revival and suf- plunges me into such delicious reveries, focation in the townb. In the one case perhaps here one, and there another, I have bad abundant time to prepare may be wallowing in his blood, beating for the final catastrophe; the love of his breast, and imploring of the Allife is overcome; the furious tempest mighty the speedy termination of his raised in the mind on account of the excruciating torments !- then indeed crime committed subsides more and borror chills my blood; my whole being more the nearer death approaches; the seems on the brink of dissolution; and sorrow of friends, and the never-failing I melt into tears over the sufferings of sympatlıy of the spectators, are some humanity, and the unpardonable careconsolation for the loss I am about to lessness of sy fellow-men. sustain ; I perceive how anxious they “ It is impossible, my brethren,” conare all io save me, but the voice of the tinues this eloquent writer, addressing laws, and the welfare of the state, de- the Jews, "that your imagination can mand me for their sacrifice. After ma- ever have pictured to you in its true ture consideration, I take the cup froin light the hideous situation of a person the hands of Necessity, and swallow the who revives after being comınitted to fatal potion.

the grave. It is utterly impossible !-“ But, in the other case, death clasps otherwise how could ye persist in an me in his hideous arms, guiltless of any unmeaning practice, in the observance crime, with the strongest desire of life, of groundless precepts, and unconcernunattended by sympathy, and without edly expose your fellow-creatures to this the pleasing consciousness of being ser- horrible situation---ye who are not reviceable by my death to a single human puted hard-hearted—ye yhose sensibibeing.

lity towards every kind of suffering ih “ Vow let us consider the corporeal your brethren overflows in such active sufferings of this death: the mortal anx- beneficence-ye who justly style your iety, the suffocating oppression of the selves the Children of Mercy! chest, the descrmination of the blood to “ Come, then I will show you this the head, the convulsive tremor of the picture in its most vivid colours. Follow whole body, the fruitless exertions of the me to yon dreary tomb, which but yes. muscles to remove the intolerable weight, terday receired its torpid, not inanimate the smel of the neighbouring corpses ! tenant. At this moment he is wakiny Is it possible to conceive any thing more from his stupor; the suspended powers horrible!

of life revive; his heart regains its pulI was once attacked with a violent sation, his checks their coloar, his soul fever, in the delicium of which my ima- its consciousness. A thousand joyful gination tormented me for weeks toge- ideas dart acrossie-resolutions of future ther with images of borror. It pleased good actions to render him worthy of Providence to restore me, and Time has this divine favour--the transports of his obliterated them all from my memory, wife, whose grief for his loss bad nearly except one, and that the most hideous, overpowered her--the exultation of his which my soul las preserved against my almost orphan children, and determinawill, and which when recalled by cir- tions to bring them up to be good meincumstances, appears in all its original bers of society--the pleasing sensations force, and fills my mind with dejection of the distressed, who had lost in lim even in its most cheerful moods.

their chief support--foibles and faults " I fancied that I was confined by my lo he amended in the time to comefriends in a strong narrow chest between plans of new and important enterprises, two walls, and there left to expire and prospects of a more delicious enamidst a multitude of mouldering corpses. joyment of life. When I figure to niyself this illusion as The work of resuscitation is complete. actually realized; when anong the silent He opens his eyes-all is dark and dreary tombs, where my fellow-creatures, my around him whose every movement but friends, my teachers, repose, I am ab- a few days since was watched with unsorbed by moonlight in pleasing contem- ceasing vigilance by a multitude of plation on my present and my future friends and attendants. He calls his condition, and the idea arises within mo wife, his children, his servants, who used

1815.) Method of ascertaining the reality of Death.

117 to basten to him at the slightest sound; number of those who, being considered but he calls in vain, the deadenied tones as dead, have revived in the grave, and expire upon his lips. He tries to reach expired in unutterable misery, without the refreshments which used in such thicir melancholy fate being known to the abundance to surround his bed; but he, survivors! It is, therefore, a duty infor whose activity perhaps the most ca- cuinbent on us to endeavour to discover pacious mansion, and the most extensive infallible means by which apparent may garden, lately afforded not sufficient be distinguished from real death. These scope, now perceives that he is confined alone can prevent us from consigning between boards which prevent him from persons apparently dead to the fomb, stretching out his arms. lle sighis, he tilt the signs of real death leave no room weeps, he implores ; le would fain resign for doubi. The next question then is : all the wealth which he has amassed Are there such means? and how are with such labour, and which gave him so they to be applied ? much consequence, for a little food: but The change which a dead body undernothing can be obtain-he languishes un goes is produced by a series of fermenheard. He touches his couch, and, instead iations, which follow one another in of the softest down, be grasps a handful the following order: 1. an acid; 2. an of cold amp mould, all alive with worms. ammoniacal; and 3. a putrefactive. The He strives to change his place, and a acid fermentation manifests itself by the current of pestilential vapour from the exhalation of an acid smell, which is neighbouring corpses overpowers him. lle given out by the corpse; and may be now begins to suspect liis miserable situa- ascertained by holding a splinter of wood tion; his surmises soon grow into cer- dipped in a solution of ammonia near taiaty that, under the idea of his pre- to different parts of the body, when visivious decease, he is doorned to suffer the ble vapours are formed from the mixture most horrible of deaths in the grave its of the acid gas exhaled and the ammoself. The pleasing images that it inoment niacal gas. The second, or ammoniacal before filled his soul with joy-his wife, fermentation, is discovered by means of his children, his dependents, bis house, a splinter dipped in concentrated acetic his garden, his faults which he hoped to acid, which, when lield over the body, repair-110

-now pass before it in the most developes a visible vapour, formed by dismal forms, and are succeeded by the the mixture of the ammoniacal gas, proidea of his cruel and near-approaching duced by the commencing putrefaction, end. His strength redoubles with his with the acetic gas. exertions; his breath grows starter; his None of these phænomena can be exbosom heaves violently; his face glows; bibited by a living body; since, in the the blood rushes from every aperture; latter, the functions of animal life, susanguish overpowers him; lie tears liis pended only, but not extinguished, forhair, he lacerates his body, be welters bid those changes in the component parts in his blood. He now musters all his of the body by which an acid or ammoremaining strength, raising his head, nia are formed. clasping his hands, and praying to his That a person may continue for sevemerciful Creator for a specdy release. ral successive days in a state of appaAt length the death-rattle ceases, and rent death, without breathing or exhibithis suiferings are over.

ing any other symptom of animation, is “ Such is the situation, my humane attested by too many examples to need brethren, in which we my place our farther deinonstration; and it is equally friends, thie oljecis of our fonidest affec- certain that the unfortunate beiny often tions, and even ourselves. Yet whose sees and hears all tint is passing without beart is so obdurate that he would not being able to give the least sign of con. prefer the state of such an unfortunate sciousness. Such a circumstance occorcreature to that of him whose conscience red very recently in France with a Prusa proclaims, Thou art the cause of all this sian volunteer. He was carried sick to

Vesoul, and conveyed to a convent of It may, perhaps, be objected, that the Sisters of Mercy, to whose care he cases of apparent death rarely occur, and was especially recommended. Extraorthat many of the statements collected on dinary attention was paid to him, but, this subject are fictitious; but I believe to all appearance, he expired. His kind neither to be the case. It may, indeed, nurse could not persuade herself that lie very rarely happen that persons appa- was dead, and left hin for two days in rently dead recover animation : but how bed; till the sudden arrival of the Freila great, on the other hand, may be the levy en masse obliged the little garrison Ney MONTHLY MAG.-No. 14.

VOL. III. R

misery!"

118

The Rev. Mr. Scragg's on English Poetry. [March 1, of the place to retire, and thus the sup- has many technical words in it, and the posud corpse was left to itself.

When sentences are often too long; yet it is the savage bordes were chased away in full of sublime thoughts in grand lantheir turn, the tender nurse returned to guage. 2. Dr. Young's “Night Thoughts, " her charge, who had suffered no ill- in nine books; a work not without faults, treatment from the enemy. Still con- yet replete with brilliant sentiments on vinced that he was not really dead, she religious doctrines, as well as on devoapplied, with the assistance of a sur- tional and moral subjects, especially in geon, all the means that could be thought his first and fourth Nights. He is also of to recal him to life, but in vain. At celebrated for his “ Love of Fame," and length, a few hours afterwards animation “ The Last Day," poems in rhyme. 3. returned of itself, and rewarded the Thomson, the author of “ The Seasons," good nun for her benevolent attentions. the best of which is on Winter, but The poor fellow had seen and heard all throughout the whole he delineates nathat passed around him; he had wit- ture in a striking manner, and internessed the griet of his nurse when overy sperses various reflexions on human life. expedient seemed to have failed, without 4. Dr. Armstrong, a contemporary with being able to manifest the least sign of Thomson, and who in his best piece, consciousness. He is still alive and “ The Art of preserving Health,” comes hearty.

the nearest of any modern English poet I trust that due attention will paid to his style and diction. 5. Dr. Akento my suggestions; that in future no side, author of “ The Pleasures of Imacorpse will be committed to the earth gination," a poem containing fine ideas, till the signs of real death(that is to say, in correct language. 6. Robert Blair's those of putrefaction) bave manifested “Grave," a small, but well-written poem, themselves, even though several weeks containing many awful and strong relja should elapse before their appearance; gious sentiments, in very appropriate and if I should be the means of saving language. Besides the above-inentioned, the life of one single fellow-creature, I there are a few more small poems in ask no better reward.

blank verse which deserve to be noticed,

as “ The Splendid Shilling," by Phillips; For the New Monthly Magazine. A Sea Voyage," by Dr. Hurdis; “The

Day of Judgment," by Dr. Glynn; “ The THE short general definition of poe- English Orator," by Polwhele; and some try is, " The art of making poems or pieces by Ogilvie, Mallet, and Barbauld. verses;" yet it is an art in which none With respect to the British poets in can excel without a native genius; nor rhyme, they are by far too numerous to Will any

have a fine relish for the beau- be specified with their best pieces in ties of poetry but such as find in them- such an essay as this; I shall, therefore, selves an aptitude for it. Since, then, select six of the principal; as, 1. Drynothing which is merely artificial can den, celebrated for his translation of make a real poet, I shall not attempt to Virgil, though it is above 100 years ago teach the art of making verses, but only since first published; he also wrote a offer such hints as tend to promote or

number of excellent poems. 2. Pope, regulate the study of classical English not only famous as the best translator of poetry.

Homer in rhyme, but for a great variery To do this judiciously, it will be ne- of very correct and elegant poems of cessary to specify some of the best Bri- various kinds. 3. Dr. Watts, held in tish poets, then shew how poetry should high estimation by persons of taste for be studied, and, lastly, point out the his " Lyric Poenis," and by the religious peculiar advantages of having a taste for his incomparable Psalms and Hymns. for elegant metrical compositions. 4. Gray, who published only one volume

As I do not intend to include in this of his poems; but he was raised to emiessay the consideration of the English nence as a first-rate British poet by bis draina, no dramatic poet will be men- “ Elegy in a Country Church-yard, tioned; I shall, therefore, only observe, which has been translated into several that the two general divisions of British modern languages. 5. Dr. Goldsmith, poets are either those whose best pieces celebrated as a poet for bis“ Traveller, are in blank verse, or such as are in and various other elegant poems. 6.Com. rhyme. The chief blank-verse British per, held in very high estimation, not poets are--1. Milton, whose best piece only for his “ Task," a poem in blank is lis " Paradise Lost," first published verse, but for a great variety of elegant about 150 years ago, for which reason it poeins in thyme, some of which are on

ON THE STUDY OF ENGLISY POETRY.

1815.] The Rev. Mr. Scraggs on English Poetry.

119 religiocs topics. In addition to the above ler's Hudibras, Peter Pindar's works, and principal poets in rhyme, many would Anstey's Bath Guide. reckon Shenstone, Prior, Gay, Beattie, With respect to the best way of stuBurns, Langhorne, Mason, Pomfret, Swift, dying any of the British poets, they Dyer, and Darwin. There are also the ought to be read with close attention, wiror poets; as Anstey, Cotton, Collins, with energy, and with discrimination. Cunningham, Hughes, Jago, Mallet, Ogil- They must be read with particular atvie, Parnell, Pye, Mrs. Robinson, Savage, tention, for although most pieces have a Somerville, Smart, Waller, Warton, and specific title, and some their argument or Whitehead. Nor must we omit the ce- contents progressively printed, yet the lebrated living poets; as Walter Scott, sense is not so easy as in prose. As the Southey, Hayley, Crabbe, and Bloom- figures in rhetoric are so often used, and field; but it is to be lamented that some various allusions to history and the arts of these have employed their fine talents and sciences, it requires much previous on abstruse or trivial subjects.

learning fully to comprehend the poet's The classification of these, and all meaning. There must also be a strico British poets, is in most selections are attention paid to the grammatical stops ranged under six general heads : viz. and marks, much more than is necessary 1. Pastoral, mentioned first because na- in reading prose; and, indeed, it is either ture is the standard of poetry, and some because so many readers of poetry are of its choicest pieces are on rural sub- not thorough scholars, or they will not jects. The best in English are Ramsay's pay more attention to find the meaning Gentle Shepherd, and many pieces in of the author, that so sew admire beauShenstone, Phillips, Pope, and espe- tiful pieces of poetry. All kinds of cially Bloomfield. 2. Lyric, under which poetry must likewise be read with a deare included odes, hymns, and whatever gree of animution, or vigor, and some may be set to music. The most cele- with peculiar energy and pathos; but a brated in our language are those by Dry- canting lone should be most carefully den, Pope, Watts, Gray, Collins, Scott, avoided. The nature of the piece, whéa Langhorne, and Mrs. Robinson. 3. Di- ther didactic, descriptive, pathetic, or dactic, the express design of which is to humourous, should be carefully observed, convey knowledge and instruction. The and read accordingly, with a judicious pieces of this kind, as they are likely to stress laid on emphatical words. And be the most useful, so they are the most in the third place, much discrimination is valuable in poetry; and some of the best necessary in understanding and reading are Pope's Essay on Man, and on Criti- fine metrical pieces, for often they are of cism, Young's Night Thoughts, and his a mixed kind. Above all, it requires Love of Fame, most of Cowper's Poems, uncommon judgment to understand Armstrong on Health, Akenside's Plea- blank verse, wherein there are, generady, sures of Iinagination, and all moral fa- the most sublime thoughts. Herein, ali bles. 4. Descriptive, which, excepting the powers of the mind must be engaged the epic kind, prove the highest degree to distinguish the sense, as the verse is of original poetical genius. The most so different from the unmeasured periods celebrated in English are Thomson's of prose. Seasons, Pope's Windsor Forest, Den- I come now, very briefly, to point out ham's Cooper's Hill, and Dyer's Grongar some principal advantages of delighting Hill. Some also mention Milton's Allegro in poetry, which are the following, viz. and Penseroso. 5. Elegiac and Pathetic, 1. It affords much entertainment. Elegans These include everything, which is prosaic compositions may be very please mournful, plaintive, and tender-hearted, ing and instructive, yet they never cau and the best in our tongue are Gray's be so entertaining as a tine poem. As Elegies, Goldsmith's Edwin and Angeli- poetry pleases the ear, it is highly useful na, some of Shenstone's pieces, and to allure youth into the path of learuing; several parts of Young's Night Thoughts. the bower of the muses, also, in the vigor Lastly, the Humourous, under which is of manhood, is a retreat from the hustle included every thing which is satirical as of business or the abstraction of study, well as witty, so that it embraces a large And to some it is entertaining even in the proportion of English poetry. Some of decline of life. 2. It qualifies for im the best in the way of satire are Church- structive conversation. Quotations from ill's Poems, Garthi's Dispensatory, De- authors in prose are seldom so acceptable foe's True-born Englislunan, and most in company as those from celebrated epigrams. Others, very, witty or hu- poets. It is true, indeed, that it requires livurous, are Cowper's Jólin Gilpin, But a nice judgmoni in selocting suitabie

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