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Alexander 1.-Canora-Countess of Bedford.

[March 1,


greater part, slaves ; it is unnecessary for me to enlarge upon the degradation The circumstances attending the death and misery of such u state. I have sworn, of the Countess of Bedford, wife of the therefore, not to increase the number of fifth earl, who was afterwards advanced these wretched beings; and have laid it to the dukedom, were very remarkable. down as a principle not to dispose of This lady, equally accomplished in mind peasants as a property. This estate is and person, was the daughter of Robert granted to yourself and your posterity Carr, Earl of Somerset, by the dissolute as a tenure for life; which is a tenure Countess of Essex : but the quilt of her differing in this point alone from the parents and the murder of Sir Thomas generality, th’t the peasants cannot be Overbury had been industriously consold or alienated as a beast of burthen. cealed from her, so that all she knew was You now know my motives; and I am their conjugal infelicity, and their living convinced you would act in the same latterly in the same house without ever manner were you in my place."

meeting. Having one day entered her A nobleman, in the government of lord's study, with a mind oppressed and Woronesc, bad bought 6,000 peasants dejected by the tragical end of Lord of Prince Trubeczkoi, and, at the in- Russell, and the earl being suddenly calstance of Alesander, offered them their led away; her eye, as it is supposed, was freedom, on condition of their making caught by a thin folio, lettered, Trial of good the purchase-money. This they the Earl und Countess of Somerset. She gratefully and joyfully accepted; and took it down and turning over the leares the first use they made of their liberty was struck to the heart by the guilt and was to write a letter of thanks to the conviction of her parents. She fell back, Emperor, for his mediation in this affair; and was found by her busband dead in to entreat his permission that they might that posture, with the book lying open build a church, and give it their bene- before her. factor's name; and make a canal at their

EPITAPH IN ST. MARY'S CHURCH, OXFORD. own expense, fifteen wersts in length, to facilitate the internal intercourse.

This Memorial of

CHARLES HENRY JOHNSON, M. A. When Canova was executing the sta

was intended by his lamenting friends to

reinind them of his distinguished virtues, tue of Buonaparte in marble, a friend asked him, whether he did not take par

and of his awful dissolution, ticular delight in a work which in future

O! 'twas a spirit, reader, like the calm ages was likely to command the admiration of millions. “ No, indeed;” peev. For, o'er its bright and settled character

And placid aspect of the evening heaven; ishly replied the artist. “And why not?"

Of goodness, beam'd with softer radiance “ Because I have before my eyes the The social charities, those wreaths of light first of my works that will be destroyed.” That stream'd and mantled o'er it. This anecdote is related by a German

12 March, 1813. artist who was present during the conversation.--Canova knew the Parisians, above in a late excursion, remarks, that nei

A correspondent, who copied the and he likewise knew Napoleon. In six

ther age nor residence is given by this somedays this brazen Colossus was over- what mysterious epitaph.

Some of our thrown; for his feet, like the image seen

readers may possibly be able to furnish by Nebuchadnezzar in his vision, were of some account of the person whose virtues clay, and the heart of flint,

are here recorded.




have acquired over all nations, and perAnalysis of the Labours of the Class of sons of all ranks. Innumerable armies

the MathiMATICAL and PHYSICAL from the farthest extremities of Europe Sciences, during the year 1814. have visited our monuments, surveyed Physical Part, by Chevalier Cuvier, our collections, and examined every obPerpetual Secretary.

ject with curiosity. Friends of the sciTHE memorable events of which ences embarked in this great crusade, this capital (Paris) lias been the theatre, partly undertaken for the purpose of reso far from interrupting scientific re- storing the liberty of thinking and writing, searches, have furnished fresh proofs of had no sooner laid aside their arms than the respect which the sciences inspire, they came to inquire concerning our laand of the happy influence which they bours, to take part in them, and to ac

1915.] Proceedings of the Royal Institute of France.

131 quaint us with what had been done in gral parts into its composition; whereas, their respective countries. The foreign by considering the so-called oxygenated sovereigns seemed to dispute who should muriatic acid as a simple substance whose give the most striking demonstrations of combination with hydrogen would prozeal for the progress of knowledge, and duce common inuriatic acid, we are reexhibit the strongest proots that theirs lieved from the necessity of adopting was the cause of science and humanity, this supposition. Our chemists, though Our princes have emphatically expressed they exhibited these two views of the their satistaction at the flourishing state subject, adhered to the former, which of our institutions, and the king has not had more analogy with what passes in only granted to thein his august protec- the generality of acidifications. tion, but has already shewn by deeds Davy, who had been led to the same with what noble liberality he purposes conclusions, more boldly adopted the to increase their activity and to extend second theory, and in consequence gave their importance.

Under such happy to the oxygenated muriatic acid a partiauspices, the efforts of the mind must re cular name, that of chlore, from which ceive a new impulse ; while the re-esta- be derived those of the two other acids blishment of the intercourse with other into which it enters. The one (the munations, and the emulation which will riatic) in which it is combined with hyhence result cannot fail soon to cause drogen, he called hydro-chloric ; the the sciences to produce fresh wonders. Other (the super-orygenated muriatic) The researches of this year already dis- which results from its combination with play this renewed energy; they do still oxygen, received the name of chloric acid. more: they evidently shew in many points The experiments on the acid hitherto that hesitation, that want of more explic denominated fluorie led to the idea, first cit solutions, which those persons who started by M. Ampère, that its composihave studied the progress of the sciences tion is similar to that of the hydroalways consider as the necessary fore. chloric; that is to say, that it is comrunners of great discoveries.

posed of hydrogen, and of a body of a CHEMISTRY.

peculiar nature, which it became necesOne of the most curious substances re sary to distinguish by the name of fluore. cently discovered is iode, which has so Thus the property of'aciditying hydrogen, long lain coocealed in sea-weed, which or of becoming acid by its means, was appears, on the application of heat, in found to be admissible in three subthe form of a beautiful violet coloured stances, sulphur, chlore, and fluore. To vapour, and which acting with other these, iode has now added a fourth. bodies in a similar manner to that lode, was discovered by M. Courtois, of chlore, or to what was lately called a manufacturer, who seems to have first oxygenated muriatic gas, has imparted obtained it about the end of 1811, but new force to the ideas produced by sul- the fact was not communicated by him phuretted hydrogen-ideas which tend to his friend Clement, and made public io introduce into the theory of chemistry by the latter, till near the end of 1813. this important modification, that oxygen This delay was soon compensated for; is by no means the only principle ca as in a few days Gay Lussac and Davy pable of effecting acidification.

bad ascertained the principal properties Bertholet, indeed, lad slewn, near of this substance, and especially the close thirty years ago, that sulphuretted hy- analogy which it exhibits to chlore, and drogen, in which there is no oxygen, the two acids which it forms like chlore, possesses all the properties of acids, and with oxygen and hydrogen. Davy the German chemists strongly insisted brought forward this analogy as an addion this fact, to impuga part of the French tional support of the theory which he had theory. In 1809, Thenard and Gay adopted. Lussac made experiments, the results of Since that time, iode has engaged the wbich were, that it is impossible to ex- attention which it deserves. M. Colin tract oxygen from what is commonly has examined its combinations with mercalled oxygenated inuriatic acid, and cury and aminonia, and found that that we cannot continue to believe that it iodic acid, or a combination of iode and exists in it, without supposing that in all oxygen, is formed whenever iode is treatthose cases in which this acid is converted td with oxyds, or the oxygen is slightly into ordinary muriatic acid, there is condensed. Ile has clearly explained formed water which indissolubly come the generation of the fulminating powder bines with the acid produced, or at least of iode, also discovered by M. Courtois. that the elements of waivi uliler as muit The aminoniacad gits is absorbed by the


Proceedings of the Royal Institute of France.

[March 1,

iode, and forms with it a viscous liquid, still takes a lively interest in new chemiwhich, when put into water, changes its cal facts, has also bestowed attention on nature : the hydrogen of one part of the iode, and sea-weed from which it is exs ammonia forms with part of the iode hy- tracted. He remarked the alteration driodic acid, which combines with the produced by iode in silver vessels in rest of the alcali, and the azute of this which it is heated. The weed yielded first portion of ammonia forms fulininat- by distillation over the open fire, proing powder with the other part of the ducts similar to those of animals; and iode.

by macerating them in diluted nitric M. Colin, in association with M. acid, he obtained a cartilaginous netClaubry, another young chemist, bas en- work, like that left by bones and madredeavoured to ascertain the manner in porez when divested of all their earthy which iode acts with organic substances. parts. From these two facts, M. Saye They have found that the substances in was of' opinion that the fuci are polypi. which the oxygen and hydrogen are in The same chemist likewise presented a the same proportion as in water, merely paper on the reduction of galena by fire, mix with iode; that those in which there in which he maintains that a much greater is more oxygen closely combine with it; quantity of lead is obtained in this way that neither of them, however, alter it so than by the ordinary methods. much but that a degree of beat may be M. Theodore de Saussure, who, in employed capable of decomposing them: 1307, read to the class a memoir on the on the contrary, those in which hydrogen composition of alcohol and sulphuric abounds convert the iode into hydriodic acid, tending to prove that ether is more acid; and the same thing happens to the charged with carbon and hydroge! than former on the application of a heat suffi- alcohol, resumed last year ibis important cient to disengage their hydrogen. These subject of inquiry, and by applying to it experiments exhibited several curious processes both inore simple and more phenomena: a mixture of iode and accurate, he has arrived at a more prepounded starch, for instance, assumes a cise result. By causing those two liquids red, blue, or black colour, according to to pass through a heated tube of porcethe greater abundance of the iode. lain, he obtained water and a gas, the

None, however, has operated upon analysis of which was not attended with iode so carefully and so extensively as any difficulty; and he thus ascertained our colleague Gay Lussac, whose papers that alcohol and ether are each formed were printed in the Annales de Chimie. of the same proportion of carbon and He there considers iode itself, as well as hydrogen, and in the same relation as its combinations, and those of its two they exist in the olefiant gas, but comacids with the different bodies, or what, bined with different proportions of water according to the received rules of che- reduced to its elements. In alcohol, the mical nomenclature, ought to be termed elements of the water form one third of iodures, iodates, and hydriodatcs. In the total, and in ether they form one treating of iode, he reverts to chlore, and fifth ; so that the action of the sulphuric gives several new remarks on its combi- acid on the alcohol, to produce ether, nations which had not all been justly ap- would only have the effect of taking preciated'; then considering Prussic acid away a portion of its water, and that this as essentially formed of azote, hydrogen, same acid, in greater quantity, would proand carbon, he concludes that azote duce the olefiant gas, by taking away the ought to be added to the list of the sub- whole of the same water. M. de Sausstances capable of producing acids with- sure's analytical results agree with those out oxygen; and this induces him to obtained by the late Count Rumford on look upon acidity and alcalinity as in- the quantity of heat produced by the trinsic properties of certain bodies and combustion of alcohol and ether. certain combinations not necessarily One of the chief difficulties in the anaconnected with their composition; thus lysis of organic substances consists in he nearly coincides with the ideas of this, that chemistry possesses but a small Winterl and certain German chemists. number of re-agents capable of separatThis memoir is full of delicate inquiries ing their immediate principles without and ingenious inferences which cannot destroying them. M. Chevreul, assistant fail to give a fresh impulse to the most chemist to the Museum of Natural Hisprofound and important part of chemise tory has endeavoured to multiply the try.

uses that may be made of them by emOur worthy colleague M. Sage, who, ploying them at very different degrees of notwithstanding his age and informities, heat, and thus varying their dissolving

its escape

1815.] Proceedings of the Royal Institute of France.

133 powers. For this purpose he has con- entitle it to a distinct place among the trived a machine which he calls a Distil- immediate principles of vegetables. latory Digester, which consists of a We have already seen that crude plaPapin's digester closed by a valve sup- tina, as extracted from the ore, contains ported by a spring: the force of the certain foreign substances, and among spring, which may be changed at plea- others four several metals which have sure, determines the degree of heat that lately been distinguished ; and we last the liquid ought to receive in order to year stated the means by which M.

The produce of each degree Vauquelin succeeded in separating from is successively collected by means of a the solution of platina in nitro-muriatic tube which conducts to a receiver. The acid, and obtaining in a pure state two solid matter to be analysed is held in of these new metals, called palladium the digester by a moveable piece by and rhodium, which dissolve at the same which it may also be compressed, and time as the platina. We have also stated the remaining liquid squeezed out of it. that M. Laugier, having perceived that M. Chevreul has operated upon cork by this solution contains a considerable this method; he subjected it twenty quantity of a third metal, remarkable times to the action of water, and fifty to for its volatility, which bas procured it that of alcohol; and after having thus the name of osmium, pointed out an easy detached from it very various matters, manner of obtaining it. A black powthere remained a cellular tissue wbich be der, which does not dissolve in nitrocalls suberine, and which when treated muriatic acid, and consequently forms with nitric acid is transformed into sube- the residuum of the solution of platina ric acid. Among these matters extracted still remained to be examined.' It is from cork there is one which he believes chiefly composed of this same osmium, to be new, and which he calls eerine, be- and of a fourth new metal, which, from cause it possesses several of the proper- the vivid and varied colours of its comties of wax. He has also applied' his binations, has been denominated iridium. method to yellow amber, and ascertained These two metals are united with chrothat succinic acid' exists in it readymium, iron, titanium, silica, and even a formed.

small quantity of alumine; and the diffiThe same chemist has continued his culty consisted in separating them cororesearches on saponification; and from pletely from this mixture, and obtaining a comparison of the grease in its natu- them perfectly distinct This point M. ral state with that which has been con- Vauquelin has accomplished, but not verted into soap, he concludes that the without laborious and complicated opeproperties of the latter are not the result rations. Simple levigations divide this of the addition of certain substances, black powder into two parts: the one, but of a new mode of combination, oc- finer and more brilliant, contains a larger casioned by the action of the alkali, proportion of iridium and osmium, and which imparts to the grease an analogy scarcely any chromium; the other, with acids independent of all oxygena- browner and coarser, contains less of tion,

the first two metals and more of the M. Pelletier has examined the colour- others. M. Vauquelin first triturates it ing matters extracted from sanders-wood with double its weight of nitrate of potand bugloss, and hitherto considered as ash; the oxygen of the acid oxydates simple resins. The first combines with the iridium and the osmium, which cominost of the properies of resins that of bine with the potash set at liberty. The being soluble in acetic acid, even when beat then disengages a great part of the very weak, of acting in this state with acid and osmium, which is received in gelatine like the substances termed as- lime-water; the residue, diluted and tringent, and of yielding oxalic acid by the saturated with nitric acid, yields a preaddition of nitric acid. It exhibits also cipitate of iridium, titanium, iron, alusome other characters which seem to mine, and a small quantity of oxyd of claim for it the character of a new vege chromium; and there remains a liquor table principle. The matter extracted composed of potash combined with acid from bugloss dissolves in ether, alcohol, of chromium and osmium. The latter and all fatty substances. With nitric is separated from it by adding nitric it yields oxalic acid and a bitter matter; acid, distilling and receiving the osmium the alcalis and water change it to à in a vial surrounded with ice : into the variety of colours ; in short, the whole water which has received it pour a little of its phenomena, according to Pelletier, muriatic acid, and put into it a bit of NEW MONTHLY MAG-No. 14.

Vol. III.


184 Original Poctry.

[March 1, zinc, which precipitates the osinium. To colour and lustre nearly resemble those obtain it very pure, levigate with water of platina; it is not so easily fused, indashed with sulphuric acid. The chro- soluble in simple acids, and dissolved iniuin must then be extracted: for this with difficulty in nitro-muriatic acid; purpose evaporate, dissolve again in wa- potash and nitre oxydate it, and comter, filter in order to procure the silica bine with it to form a black dust which that may remain, pour nitrate of mer- yields blue solutions; with boiling nitrocury at the mwimum, which produces a inuriatic acid it gives a red solution; its precipitate of chromate of mercury at blue solutions themselves become red the minimum, whicis, dried and calcined, with ebullition; but both the blue and yields greev oxyol of chromium. The the red are discoloured by the sulphate first pricipitate of iridium, titanium, iron, of iron, sulphuretted hvdrngen, iron, zinc, chromium and alumine, then remains, and tin; they regain their colour by There is also a small quantity of os means of oxygenated muriatic acid: it mium, which is separated by muriatic is iridium that gives the red colour to acid, distilling and precipitating the zinc the last precipitates of triple salt of plaas before. Should undissolved portions tina, while the first, in which it is not be left, trilwate them with nitre, as at contained, are yellow. The properties the beginning, and observe that the of osmium are not so easily ascertained, oftener these operations are repeated, on account of the facility with which it the bluer the muriatic solutions become, becomes oxydated, and immediately vobecause they contain less and less iton latilized. Its oxyd is white and very and titanium, which, as being the most caustic; it exhales an insupportable easily dissolved, are first scized by the smell: flexible and fusible as wax, it acid, and leave a great proportion of blackcns every animal matter that it iridium Now iridium possesses this touches. Its solution in water is turned property, that in a state of oxydation, blue by nut-yall. when its solutions in acids are red, it M. Mongez, member of the Class of forms no precipitate except with muriate Ancient Literature, has read to us a of ammonia, and under the form of a

memoir on the bronze of the ancients, triple salt. Into this state it is brought in which he proves, from the experiby boiling its muriatic solution with ments of M. Darcet, that bronze is not nitric acid; the liquor is neutralized by hardened, as steel is, by immersion in ammonia; ebullition precipitates from its cold water, but that, on the contrary, it iron and titanium; the iridium is then is rendered hard by being left when precipita ed by muriate of ammonia; heated to cool slowly in the air. M. and the triple salt thus obtained yields, Darcet has availed himselt of this proupon exposure to a red heat, extremely perty to make cymbals, instruments pure métallic iridium. This metal, so hitberto manufactured no where but in difficult to be separated from the singu- Turkey, and, as it is pretended, by one lar alloy which conceals it from our view, workman only at Constantinople, who is possesses remarkable properties, Its in exclusive possession of the secret.




Their gulls were lib'ral-could they well be OR THE POWER OF CONSCIENCE.

less, (Continued from page 65.)

When fortune promis'd wealth and happiTHEY for a period from our town withdrew, An artful scheme of knav'ry to pursue ; Two sisters kept the laouse where they abode, For now the most fastidious took alarm, Advanc'd in years, the wane of life they And common sense dissolv'd the tear-fraught shew'd ; charm.

By constant industry and care combin'd, They straight assum'd a crafty deep disguise, They sav'd a sum to aid as life declin'd: Old Joe feign'd slumb; the vulgar called These rogues descried, without dark magic's him wise;

aid, He knew each trine, each aspect of the stars, The spot in which the secret sum was laid, Could shew which fortune makes, or fortune Bent to possess, by means or foul or fair, mars ;

The hard-earn'd savings of this aged pair, So deeply skill'd in astrologic lore,

The arch-fiend Joe a hellish plot contrives, He tar surpass’d the famous Francis Moore. He dooms their female hosts to pay their Crowds daily throng'd this modern Delphic lives. -shrine,

At conscience's upbraidings loud he laugh'd Young Tom interpreted cach mystic sign. His hand infus'd into their ev'ning draught

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