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1815.] The Sansage-maker, from Aristophanes.

313 II. On the Doctrine of Transubstantiu- is nothing new under the sun;" for much tion,

1s we have been accastomed of late In considering the expressions of our years to consider the revolutions of our Saviour, in Luke, xxit. 19 and 20, the times in the light of new d scoreries, Papists hold that there is a conversion it will appear, I think, from the conor change of the whole substance of densed' view which I now send you of bread into the wbole substance of the the comic delineation of the Athenian body. “1." There is no necessity för un- satirist, that he was perfectly well versed derstanding the words in this sense; in all the arts by which states may be they are mere fizurative expressions ; overthrown, and the vilest of the people putting the sign for the thing signified: raised to power and popularity, while as when be said, “ I am the true vine;" the virtuous and honourable are reduced so he says, “ This bread is (signifies) iny to wretchedness. body." ' 9. It is not a convenient or pro- i Jo the comedy to which I allude, the bable

sense; it is neither agreeable to poet introduces a leading character of the subject spoken of, por the occa- that day, who is generally supposed to sion of speaking them. 3. It is not a bave been Cleon; noted for his mischievconsistent sense, or suitable to the ac- ous oratory, and bis ennity to the best companying expression of " Do this in men of the age, but without having a semembrance of me.” With what pro- particle of common honesty in his own priety can it be said, " Take myself to character. This worthy personage, who remember me by?” 4. It is not reason- is represented as always on the alert to able or ayrecable to the principles of make converts, m-ets with a poor sausagehuman nature. 5. It is an impossible maker, with whom he immediately enters sense, and cannot be true; for it implies into conversation upon the affairs of go. a great deal of contradiction : as when vernment, the hardships of the people, and our Lord instituted the Sacrament before the peculations of their rulers. The man he suffered," that his body was broken appears at first to treat the orator rather and not broken, his bloodshed' and not rudely, as one who intended to laugh at shed at the same time; that his natural a poor fellow who had other business to body, which is but oné, is at the same mind than the study of politics. Upon "time many this one body in heaven, this the poet very adroitly describes the and 10,000 bodies on earth; that it had wheedling orator as removing this vulgar a being * 1700 vears ago, and is made prejudice, by awakening the attention afresh every day. This sense also sup. of the sausage-maker. “Behold,” says *prises accidents to subsist without any he,“ all these classes of society, and all

subject. Consult John, xv. 1, &c.; 1 Co- the orders in the state: I tell you, my Tirith? xi. 26, 127, and 28; Jolin, iv. 24. friend, that you shall be their leader and *6. These words were not so understood their sovereign; you shall rule the

in the first ages of the Christian church; senate, and give orders to the generals.” mouk in the seventh century. 7. This maker. “Yes, you shall do it," quoth

doctrine Jeads, -as has been often found, the orator; " and as a proof that I am 140 great immorality, to idolntry, cruelty, in earnest, get upon the table where *and profaveness. And lastly, It is an you are making sausages, and look out

infinite seandal, especially to unbelieve at the window. Do you ste that world ters, and an effectiial prejudice to the of business going on at the custompropagation of the gospel.

house, and the number of vessels that On these particulars I could easily are loading and unloading their merenlarge; but enough has, I trust; been chandize?”-“ See therri !” exclaims the e said to convince every 'unprejudiced man: “to be sure I do: but what then?" mind of the utter want of support these “ Why then I tell you that all these Ytwo great doctrines have, either from things shall be at your disposal : for the scripture or reason.

oracle says that you shall be the greatest The subject stall be perhaps resumed of men.”-" How can this possibly bapat a future period. Mear.while I remain, pen?" cries the fellow almost out of his yours, &c.

THEOPHILUS. i wits, “ how can I be a great man who

am still but a sausage-maker, and for *#! MR. EDITOR,

aught that I can find must die in that I WAS very much struck the other occupation?"_" My reason for judging day with a scene in one of the comedies so is this," answers the advocate, “that of Aristophanes, which forcibly brought the oracle has so declared it, because to my mind the trite remark that "there you are both bold and wicked. But, NEW MONTHLY Mac.-No. 16.


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Chateaubriand's Visit to Mount Vesuvius. (May 1, for all that, I think myself unworthy of at seven o'clock in the morning, and prograndeur," rejoined the fellow. " What ceeded to Portici. The sun had chased does that signify,” replied the other; away the clouds of night, but the head of “ do you think yourself to be a good or Vesuvius is always wrapt in mist. I a bad man?"- Nay, for that matter," began my journey up the mountain with honestly returns the sausage-maker," I a Cicerone, who provided two mules, one am bad enough.”—“Then I give you for me and one for himself.* joy, for you will find yourself so much The ascent was at first on a tolerably better qualified when you come to do wide road, between two plantations of your business; since our state has now vines, which were trained upon poplars. no need of men of letters and principle, I soon began to iecl the cold wintry air, but must be governed by the bold and but kept advancing, and ac length perthe ignorant, the audacious and immoral; ceived, a little below the vapours of the therefore do not despise any longer wbat middle region, the tops of some trees. the oracles have predicted, and by which They were the elms of the hermitage. you are assured of the great honours The miserable habitations of the vine that await you and persons of your de dressers were now visible on both sides, scription."

."" But," answers the sau. amidst a rich abundance of lachryme sage-maker, " how is it possible that I Christi. In other respects I observed a should be able to govern the people, not parched soil, and naked vines intermixed having the least knowledge of such con with pine-trees in the form of an umcerns ?"-" With all the ease in the brella, some aloes in the hedges, indoworld, my good friend," replies the merable rolling stones, and not a single Orator, “ do only what you have been bird. used to do in your former line of busi On reaching the first level ground of ness, mix, jumble, disturb, and confound the mountain a naked plain lay stretchmatters; feign and invent any thing to ed before me, and I had also in view the please and delude the rabble; and as two summits of Vesuvius on the left to the rest, you have many great talents the Somma, on the right the present that are proper to gain their good opi- mouth of the volcano. These two heads nion. You have a false tongue and a were enveloped in pale clouds. I preşnischievous disposition: you love quar- ceeded. On one side the Somma falls Telling, and are naturally cruel, besides in, and on the other I began to distine which, as I can perceive, you are ex- guish the hollows made in the cone of tremely obstinate, and possess no small the volcano, which I was about to climb. portion of low cunning; which are all, The lava of 1766 and 1769 covered the in fact, so many qualities of which the plain which I was crossing. It is a Republic at present stands in great frightful smoky desert, where the lara need, and therefore as you have them all cast out like dross from a forge displays happily blended in your own person, no its whitish scum upon a black ground, doubt can remain that in a very short exactly resembling dried moss. time, by the application of your powers, Leaving the cone of the volcano to the you will be the first man in the state, right, and following the road on the left, though now you are no more than a I reached the foot of a hill, or rather & sausaye-maker.”

wall formed of the lava, which over Such is the picture delineated by that whelmed Herculaneum. This species of incomparable satirist, and the applica- wall is planted with vines on the borders tion of it to our own times will not be of the plain, and on the opposite side is difficult.

J. W. a deep valley, filled by a coppice. The March 31, 1815.

air now began to " bite shrewdly.".

I climbed this hill in order to visit the

hermitage which I perceived from the [This interesting article forms part of a volume from the pen of the eloquent Cha- intended for the public eye, as will easily be

* The following observations were not TEAUBRIAND, which will speedily appear perceived from the particular character of under the title of Recollections of Italy, the reflections which they contain. They England, and America. An Historical, Moral, and Political Essay on Revolutions, cended to the crater of the volcano. I have

were principally written in pencil as I as Ancient and Modern, by the same writer, is also nearly ready for publication, and must journal, that I might not in any degree in

not chosen to correct any part of this short be allowed to be peculiarly appropriate to the terfere with the truth of the narrative; but present crisis.)

for the reasons mentioned the reader is ree ON the 5th of January ļ left Naples quested to peruse it with indulgence.


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1915.) Chateaubriand's Visit to Mount Vesuvius.

315 other side. The heavens lowered; the and caused them to pass over the lava clouds descended and flew along the road, upon which I was pursuing my surface of the earth like grey smoke, or way. I heard nothing but the sound of ashes driven before the wind. I began my inule's footsteps. to hear a murmuring sound among the At length I quitted the hill, bending to elms of the hermitage.

the right, and re-descending into the The hermit came forth to receive me, plain of lava, which adjoins the cone of and held the bridle of my mule while Í the volcano, and which I crossed lower alighted. He was a tall man with an down on ny road to the hermitage ; open countenance and good address. but even when in the midst of those He invited me into his cell

, and placed calcined fragments, the mind can hardly upon the table a repast of bread, apples form to itself an idea of the appearance and eggs. He sat down opposite to me, which the district must assume when rested both his elbows on the table, and covered with fire and molten metals by calmly began to converse while I ate my an eruption of Vesovius. Dante had, breakfast. The clouds were collected all perhaps, seen them, when he describes in round us, and no object could be dis- his Hell those showers of ever-burning tinguished through the windows of the fire, which descend slowly and in silence hermitage. Nothing was heard in this _" come di neve in Alpe senza vento. dreary abyss of vapours but the whistling

“ Arivammo ad una landa of the wind, and the distant noise of the Che dal suoletto ogni pianta rimove waves as they broke upon the shores of Herculaneum. There was something Lo spazzo er' un'arena arida e spessa singular in the situation of this tranquil abode of Christian hospitality-a small Sovra tutto 'l iabbion d'un cader lento cell at the foot of a volcano, and in the Pioven di fuoco dilatata e falde, midst of a tempest.

Como di neve in Alpe senza vento. The herrit presented to me the book, Snow was here visible in several places, in which strangers who visit Vesuvius and I suddenly discovered at intervals, are accustoined to make some memo- Portici, Capri, Ischia, Pozzuoli, the sea randum. In this volume I did not find studded with the white sails of fishingone remark worthy of recollection. The boats, and the coast of the Gulph of French indeed, with the good taste na. Naples, bordered with orange trees. It tural to our nation, had contented thein- was a view of Paradise from the Infernal selves with mentioning the date of their Regions. journey, or paying a compliment to the On reaching the foot of the cone we hermit for his hospitality. It would alighted from our mules. My guide gave seem that this volcano had no very re me a long staff, and we began to climb markable effect upon the visitors, which the huge mass of cinders. The clouds confirms me in the idea I some time closed "in, the fog became more dense, since formed, namely, that grand objects and increasing darkness surrounded us. and grand subjects are less capable of Bebol.i me now at the top of Vesugiving birth to great ideas than is gene- vius, where I seated myself at the mouth rally supposed; for their grandeur being of the volcano, wrote down what had evident, all that is added beyond this bitherto occurred, and prepared myself fact becomes mere repetition. The for, a descent into the crater. The sun ".nascitur ridiculus mus" is true of all appeared from time to time through the mountains.

inass of vapour which enveloped the I left the hermitage at half-past two whole mountain, and concealed from me o'clock, and continued to ascend the hill one of the most beautiful landscapes in of lava, on which I had before proceed- the world, while it doubled the horrors ed. On my left was the valley, which of the place where I was. Vesuvius, thus separated me from the Somma; on my separated by clouds from the enchanting right the plain of the cone. Not a country at its base, has the appearance living creature did I see in this horrible of being placed in the completest deregion but a poor, lean, sallow, half- sert; and the sort of terror which it innaked girl, who was bending under a load spires is in no degree diminished by the of faggots, which she had cut on the spectacle of a flourishing city at its mountain,

foot. The clouds now entirely shut out the I proposed to my guide that we should view; for the wind blew them upwards descend into the crater. He made sevefrom the black plain, of wbich, if clear, ral objections; but this was only to obI should have commanded the prospect, tain a little more money; and we agreed

Chateaubriand's Visit to Mount Vesuvius.

(May 1, upon a sum, which he received on the with its head bent under its wing, and spot. He then took off his clothes, and its long neck stretched over its back like we walked some time on the edge of the a roll of silk. abyss, in order to find a part which was dd vada Meandri concinit albus olor." less perpendicular, and more commodi. I found here that perfect silence which ous for our descent. The guide disco- l bave, ou other occasions, experienced vered one, and gave the signal for ine to al noon in the forests of America, where accompany bim. We plunged down. I have held my breath, and beard no

Fancy us at the bottom of the golph:* thing except the beating of my heart I despair of describing the chaos which and tenporal artery. It was only at surrounded me. Let the reader figure intervals that gusts of wind, descending to bimself a basin, a thousand feet in from thic top of the cone to the bottom circumference and three bundred bigh, of the crater, rustled through my clothes, which forms itself into the shape of a or whistled round my staff. I also beard funnel. Its borders, or interior walls, some stunes, which my guide kicked on are furrowed by the liquid fire which this one side as he climbed through the civbesin has contained, and vomited forth. ders. A confused echo, similar to the The projecting parts of these walls re- jarring of metal or glass, prolonged the semble thuse brick pillars with which noise of the fall, and afterwards all was the Romans supported their enormous silent its death, Compare this gloomy masonry. Large rocks are hanging down silence with the dreadful thuodering din, in different parts, and their fragments, which shakes these very places when mixed with cinders mto a sort of paste, the volcano vomits fire from its entrails, cover the bottom of the abyss.

and covers the earth with darkness. This bottom of the basiw is ploughed A pluilosophical reflexion may liere be and indented in various manners. Near made, whicli excites our pity for the sad the midvile are three vents, or small state of human atlairs. What is it, in 'mouths, recently opened, which dis- fact, but the famous revolutions of emcharged flames during the occupation of pires, combined with the convulsions of Naples by the French in 1793.

nature, that changes the face of the Smoke proceeds from different points earth and the ocean? Happy circumof the crater, especially on the side to stance would it, at least, be, if men wards the Torre del Greco. On the op- would not employ themselves in renderposite side, towards Cuseste, I perceived ing each other miserable during the short Bames. When you plunge your hand time that they are allowed to dwell togeinto the cinders, you find them of a ther! Vesuvius has not once opened its burning heat several mches under the abyss to swallo'v up cities without its suf.ce. The general colour of the fury surprising mankind in the midst of gulph is black as coal; but Providence, blood and tears. What are the first as I have often observed, can impart signs of civilization and improved kumagrace at pleasure even to objects the nity which have been found, during our most horrible. The lava in some places days, under the lava of the volcano? is tinged with azure, ultramarine, yel- Instruments of punishment, and skelelow, and orange. Blocks of granite are tons in chains !* warped and twisted by the action of tire, Times alter, and human destinies are and bent to their very extremities; so liable to the same inconstancy. “Life," that they exhibit the semblances of the says a Greek song, “ is like the wheel of leaves of palms and acanthus. Tbe a chariot. volcanic matter. baving couled on the 4 Τροχος αρματος γας οια rocks over which it flowed, many figures

Βιοτος τρέχει κυλιθεις.are thus formed, such as roses, giran

Pliny lost his life from a wish to con doles, and ribbons. The rocks likewise template at a distance ihe volcano, in assume the forins of plants and animals, the centre of which I was now tranquilly and imitate the various figures which seated! I saw the abyss smoking round are to be seen in ayates. I particularly me-I reflected that a few fathoms below observed on a bluish rock, a wbite swan,

me was a gulph of fire-I reflected that modelled in so perfect a manner that I the volcano might all at once disgorge its could have almost sworn I beheld this entrails, and launch ne into the air, beautiid birds.ceming on a placid Jake, with all the rocky fragments by which I Incre is taugue, but very little danger,

was surrounded, attendant on a descent into the crater at

What Providence conducted me hither? V couvius, unles& the investigator should be By what chance did the tempests of the surprised by a sudden eruption.

At Pompeii.




1815.) . On the Holidays allowed in Public Offices. American ocean cast me on the plains may be much shorter than the ordinary of Lavinia ? " Luvinaque venit littora." standard, ought to awaken in every one I cannot refrain from returning to the a desire of possessing a good name, by agitations of this life, in which St. Au- morality and a strict observance of duty, gustin says, that things are full of mise- without which no one can acquire respect ry, and hope devoid of happiness—“gem from his fellow creatures, or protection plenam miseria, spem beatitudinis ind- and support from the Disposer of all nem." Born on the rocks of Armorica, Events.

S. T. the first sound which struck my ear on

March 25. entering the world was that of the sea; and on how many shores have I seen For the New Monthly Magazine. the same waves break that I now find RECOLLECTIONS OF here again! Who would have told me LECTURES OF AN EMINENT PROFESSOR. a few years ago that I should hear these wanderers moaning at the tombs of Of the Freedom of Trade as applied to Scipio and Virgil, after they had rolled

Money. at my feet on the coast of England, or the strand of Canada? My name is in HAVING considered the general printhe hnt of the savage of Florida, and in ciples of trade, it will be necessary to prothe berimit's book at Vesuvius. When ceed to some applications and limitations shall I lay down, at the gate of my of thein as proposed even by Mr. Smith fathers, the pilgrim's staff and mantle? himself. The principal of these are the

O patria! | Divum domus llium!" expediency of restraints on the commerce How do I eavy the lot of those who bave of money in pecuniary loans--on the never quitted their native land, and commerce of those articles which form have no adventures to record !

the necessaries of life--and thirdly, re

strictions on the commerce of land. MR. EDITOR,

The ancients in general reprehended THE remarks of one of your corre- the practice of usury in all forms and spondents on the number of annual fairs under all limitations, as may be seen in held in the metropolis and its vicinity, the 10th Ch. Book I. of the “ Politics have produced a few reflexions upon the of Aristotle," and in Books I. and II. of days allotted by public offices to amuse- Cicero de Officiis. The Jewish lawgivers ment: they will appear on calculation entertained similar notions, and hence it to amount to no less than forty-tive, not came to be considered odious by Chrisincluding those at Easter, Whitsuntide, tians; and the Christian fathers, as Giband Christmas. An act bas lately been bon reniarks, declared unanimously &passed to abolish them in the Excise gainst it, making it by the canon law, Office and Custom House, it being found excommunication. Thic infuence of these that the numerons holidays at those opinions maintained its ground among ofices were a great obstruction to public the English divmes of the 16th and 17th business. Could the persons more iin- centuries, who considered the transacmediately concerned reflect but for a tions of loans contrary to morality, and noment on the bad consequences of ha- even so late as the 18h century such bitual indolence, they would soon dis- opinions were held by some British cover that its banofül effects contam:- lawyers in the house of commons. A nate the mind, by preventing the acqui- late law treatise on usury, employs a long sition of useful knowledge, which is sacri- argument of 50 pages to prove that it is ficed to the frivolous amusements of neither sinful nor unlawful for a man to pleasure; that, in a short time, a pro- receive interest for his money; and crastination of their daily duties will be Neckar in his Eloge on Colbert, only 30 added to indolence, and either fear, years ago, thought it necessary to state which mostly accompanies sloth, will that he wished his opinions concerning probibit endeavours, by producing de- interest to be considered as mere politispair of success, or the frequent failure cal speculations, and not trencning on the of irresolute struggles, and the constant established maxins of the religious ordesire of avoiding labour, will impress ders. Hence we see that ideas of the by degrees false terrors on the mind, crime of usury are not confined to partiand the individual will, as his last re- cular nations or religions, but have their source, be compelled to abandon a per- foundation in moral and political causes, maneni and advantaycoas situation. The commerce of the ancients was so

The reflexion that the days of this life totally different from that of the moderns, are shurt, and the probability that they that from the little demand for Capital in

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