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Ón Gunpoeder, Fire-arms, &c.

323 in which the Saguntii repelled t!e Afri- of pots, or sent forili in red hot shells cans, who had penetrated into the town, of stone and iron, or lurted by means describes a tire-arın which be calls fulu- of javeling or arrows, 'over the enemy sicui It was a square-formed dart, with 'and bis ergines; and was held to be in an iron head three feet long, whose shaft extinguishable by any other matters than was bound round with low covered with vinegar, urine, and sand.

mich. The middle or shaft being set on So late as the year 1106, it was made fire, it was launched ainong the enemy, use of in a fluid state by the people of and though it might fail of penetrating Dyrrachium, when besieged by Bueinto the body of one of the adversaries, it mond, Prince of Antioch. About the was still of use in obliging biin to throw same time also, the Mahomedans having away his shield, to which it adhered, discovered the secret, took revenge and thus exposing him without defence for an invention originally contrived against succeeding blows.* These fire. against themselves, and made a de dárts, which were probably of Iberian structive use of it against the Chrisinvention, were also hurled against the tians in the Holy Wars. They gemachines brought to beat down the ram- nerally, if not always, combined with it parts, and against the wooden. lowers other ardent or combustible matters which were placed close alongside brittistonic, wax, grease, pitch, and towa of them, in order to attack tudi drive wlien it was called inextinguishable oil.t away the besieged froin their


James de Vitry speaks more distinctly When u sed for these purposes, the falu- than any other writer we are acquainted rica was prepared with inore art.-Ve- with of the principal ingredient of the getiust tells us how to bedaub che tow Grecian fire, which he assures us to bave with iloich the shaft is bound, with been naptha. He says, briinstowe, pitcli, rosin, and turpentine, dam in Oriente, ex cujus aquis ignis and a particular kind of oil, which he Græcus efficitur, quibusdam aliis admircalls oleum incendiurium. It was launched tis; qui postquum vehementer fuerit ucby means of the balistæ.

census, zir, aut nunquam potest extingui, We are not aware of the use of any nisi aceto, et hominum urina, et sabulo." other fire-arın than this previously to the

To ie concluded in our nert.) seventh century, in the tiine of the Eine peror Constans; in the latter part of

MR. EDITOR, whose reign (A. D. 665).one Calliniens, I observed your attention in giving a a native of [leliopolis, deserted from the place in your esteemed publication to Saracenic to the Grecian service, and the descriptive sketch of '

iy invention, imparted to the Byzantian monarch the after being laid before a meeting of the important secret of the Greciun fire, Edinburgh Institute, and for which I which became the palladium of the lut return you mý, sinceré, ihanks. I am tering empire of the East. With this sensible of the advantage derived in con position, which Paul the Deacon giving it publicity through such respectcalls “ignis marinus,"I Callinicus taught able channels, and am happy to transhis new countrymen to destroy the fleets mit you a particular account of it, which of the Saracens. Some writers have was published in the Scots Magazine for quarrelled with the name given to this February last, accompanied with endestructive weapons but, as the secret gravings. As this may be too extensive was unknown to the Saracens them- for your work, you may make what use selves, though the chemist was born in of it you think proper; and if a pera place in their possession, and as the spective wood-engraving be annèxed to Byzantian government confined it for what you insert, it would tend very much above 400 years within their own breast, to illustrate it. we know not what more suitable appella As there are now several of the large tion it could have received: an equal presses in diferent offices here, and all want of justice has also apparently

' in- of them giving complete satisfaction, I duced them to strip hiin of any honour can with the greater confidence submit beydid that of inventing a machine for this invention to the public, from having discharging it. From this time the Greeks been thus practically proved. The portalways kept particular ships for the able presses are made wholly of iron, or express purpose of employing it against brass; the smallest size, as you will oli their adversaries' vessels. At first, it serre in the accompanying description, was poured from the walls, either out are not longer than a cubic foot; they Lib. xxi. cap. 9..

* Alb. Aqu. in Gest. Rei per Franc, hi. + De Re Milit, lib. iv. 18. De Gestis longobard, xix. 15.

+ Ibid. xii, 6. Also Willerni. Pyr. vi

X. 40.


Mr. Ruthven on his Printing Press. [May 1, are delivered, completely fitted up and am fully aware of the importance of ready for working, at 12 guineas; one having a few for inspection in London ; pair of cases, with a fount of types, 4 and I expect to have one or two sent off guineas; the other requisites are supa in the course of a few days. As I also plied for 2 guineas; these consist of iron intend being in your city in about three fraines, for making fast the types or weeks, I shall take the liberty of leaving pages; ink case; pair of balls; iron my address with your publisher, and be composing-stick, &c. &c. Portable happy to give you, or any of your friends presses for printing a royal quarto, an opportunity of inspecting them. or copying large quarto letters ; 18

I ani, &c. John RUTIVEN. inches square by 12 inches high, 16 gui- Edinburgh, Murch 17, 1815. neas; the types and other necessary ar Since this article was sent to the printicles, are the saine for both sizes; when ter, we have received an information from they are made of brass an additional Mr. RUTHven that his press may be exacharge is made.

mined at work at Messrs. Haines and TUR. Though I have not yet been able to NER's, 75, Margaret-street, Oxford-streetsend up any of the portable presses, I EDITOR. Description of a Patent Printing Press, invented by John Ruthven,

Printer, Edinburgh.


Bergaan Before entering into a description of der to shew that there is occasion for one this invention, it may not be inuproper to on vew principles and an improved plan. give a sketch of the constrụction of the For many may probably conceive, that common printing press, with a brief ac- the presses at present in use, are sufficoant of the improvements that have ciently adapted for the purpose, else been attempted to be made on it, in or they would uot have continued for such


1815.) Description of Mr. Rathven's Printing Press, 325 a series of yearseven of centuries, surface of the sheet is printed by one without attracting the atteation of the exertion : but the means adopted to proingenious : for it is a fact, that on com- duce this effect, prove, that the advanparing representations of the oldest tage gained in power, is over balanced presses, we find that both the principles by the time lost in motion, before the and construction are nearly the same impression is given, which has consewith those of the present day !

quently prevented its being generally It appears that the screw was early used. The most important improveapplied in the printing press for produc- ment, however, was brought forward ing pressure; and that the construction soine years ago, by the present Earl of all presses bas had the types placed Scanbope, under the name of the Stan

a moveable carriage, where, after hope Press; this press differed from being inked, they were passed under the others - hy being made wholly of iron, şurface for pressing, and then returned. and, by the introduction of a crank, atIt is remarkable, that this latter mode of tached to the lever, for taking down the moving the form of types under the upper surface, and pressing it on the pressing surface, has been uniformly types-thus affording a command of adopted in all alterations or improve- power sufficient for printing the surface ments that have been otherwise made; of a sheet. The principal objection to it has thus been always impossible to in- this methud is, the ininense force exertcrease the power, froin the radius of the ed against the upper part of the frame simple lever, which turns the screw, be- that confines the pressure; as it has ing confined. It is evident that this al- been found that, by the introduction of lowed but a limited surface, not larger an additional sheet or two of paper, and indeed than one-half of a large sheet, to the workman then drawing the lever, till be pressed at one descent of the screw. the periphery of the crank came in a line The difficulty seems to have been insure with the fulcrum, the press could be ine mountable: for the same construction stantly broken. still continues to be followed in the com With these considerations in view, the mon printing press. The limitation of present undertaking was commenced. service must always have proved a seri- Having ascertained, by experiment, the ous evil for various works, particularly immense advantage of the lever orer the duodecimo, because the pressure neces- screw, by removing the friction, it beó sarily came twice on the centre pages of came only necessary to discover how & every sheet, while the other parts of the parallel motion conld be procured from types received the pressure only once. an angular action. This was gained, by

Besides other disadvantages, the fol. making use of two levers of the second lowing may be briefly stated :—ist, The kind, having their fulera, or props, at opdifficulty of ascertaining when a proper posite euds, and joining both levers in degree of pressure was given, 2d, The the centre; and receiving their motion ifregular manner of polling the lever, from a crank. The construction was whereby the same sheet received very then commenced, ist, By having a stadifferent degrees of pressure. 3d, The tionary tablet for the types: 2d, By manual labour, and bodily exertion, placing the levers in tivo metal cheeks; whieh is not only excessive, but attend- or frame, and attaching them to the uned with fatal consequences to the ini- der surface of the tablet: 8d, By making tiating workman, as the shocks which the the platen, or pressing surface, suffibreast sustains in pulling the lever, fre- ciently large tu cover the whole sheet; quently produce pulmonary ailments. and fixing a strong bar of metal along 4th, The nice attentiod and accuracy the upper side of it, making each end requisite in having the types exactly rest on two wheels, or rollers, for carry, under the center of the pressing sur-, ing the platea on two rail-rods, placed face before bringing it down. 5th, The parallel with each end of the tablet, and same operation being necessary for the projecting sufficiently over to allow the smallest card, as for a whole sheet; and platen to stand clear of the types, and the necessity of placing small work al- the sheet of paper to be placed on them ways on the saine part-thus wearing in the usual way. After the types are out that part sooner, and making it de inked and the paper put on them, the fective for executing larger work. platen is drawn over, and unites at cach

These defects appear to have at- end with the levers under the tablet tracted the attention of the French, since which is then so forcibly, but at the same a press bearing their name has been time so easily drawu down, by means of long knowo. The principal object.at. turning a bandle about one-fourth of a tained by this press is, that the whole çircle, which actuates a crank, that the

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Reply to Mr. Taylor on Infinite Series. [May 1, impression on the whole sheet is produced orders might be distributed, exclusive of • at once, and with extremely liitle exer- exegating various other necessary regucion to the workman.

lations that require to be printed, will Farther, the advantages resulting certainly render them extremely desirafrom adopting printing presses construct- ble appendages to every regiment, or ed on these principles, may be briefly vessel of war. In public offices and stated as follows: ist, The types remain banking.houses their utility would soon stationary: 2d, The platen, or pressing be discovered. surface, is the size of the whole sheet : It is also expected that this press, oh 311, A saving of time is gained by the account of the very large surfaces it is platen heiny brought on from the side : capable of printing, will be found ad4th, By a regulator attached to the han. mirably adapted for calico-printers, or die, any requisite degree of pressore may one block of the achołe breadth of the be correctly giren : 5th, The platen be- cloth may be impressed at once; and ing taken down at each end, and the re- thos' a multiplicity of operations' bie sistance sustained against the under sure savcd, besides the work being pertorined face of the tablet, affords the most com with greater accutacy and elegance. plete security to all the parts : 6th, The large press will take off an impression MR. ENSIOR, troin a small piece of work, although IT appears that iriy answer to Mr. placed at one end, and without requiring Taylor on series is not satisfactory, notany block to bear up the other;-of withstanding he says, “ I have no dunha course, it is not necessary, in this press, hvis reply to me is exactly such as would to place the form of types in the centre have been made by the greatest of moof it: 7th, The two surfaces being press- dern mathemnaticians." Now this secms ed together without any connection with a sort of tacit acknowledgment i hat be the frame of the press, it requires no is not to be convinced by the reasonings levelling, or stuying; and a press for a of eminent mathematicians, though I do demy or royal shect, occupies only about not profess to be one of the number.. four cubic feet ! #th, The accustomed I should, bowever, have been more et. motions of the experienced pressman are plicit when I said, “ What is here at so completely retained in this invention, vanced will apply to the other two as to enable him, in the course of one series, and indeed to all series of tbe

two hour's practice, to work with kind;" because the series I alluded to equal facility as at the common press : Were those derived froin tractions where ochi, The principles and construction are the-two right-land terms in the deum. equally applicable for presses not larger nator are alike, but one plus and the other than one cubic foot; and which are ca- minus, as

-&c. siin pable of printing off an octavo or quario

7+1ー1512-2 page, with greater celerity than a large lar to those proposed by Mr. Taylor ia press; and may be worked on a table, his first paper. without being fixed. This not only re I have read the disputes between lieves the large press from doing such Wallis 'and llubbes, and shall decline work as tends to injure it, but it will also entering the lists with Mr. T.; for what furnish an interesting amuseincnt' to mathematician would engage in argieuch as desire to become acquainted ment with'a person who maintains that with the useful art of printing."

1--1, -, &c. are infinitely smni Another important use, for which quantities; and that nothing divided by these presses have been found equally a number, will produce a quotient wit well adapted as the excellent machines some value.

PutloMall. of the ingenious Messrs. Walt and Bola April 6. ton, has been discovered by Mr. D. Bridges, jun. of Edinburgh, who has · For the New Monthly Magazine.' applied them for copying letters; of ILLUSTRATIONS OF AMERICAN NANKERS, which a dozen may be copied at'once; LITERATURE, ALT, AND POLITICS. so that they serve both as a printing TIE customs and manners of the inpress and letter-copying machine. habitants of the United States by Ane

Although it cannot be attempted-to rica are as different as the climate which point out the many useful purposes they inhabit, and this,'climate varits wirich this invention embraces, it must through all the degrees of heat and cold. appear evident, that the introduction of In the northern States you meet with the portable press into the army or nary much that is English ; in the southern would prove highly advantageous; the you are disgusted with all the sloth, aut correctness and expedition with wbich all the degrading cruelty of the least in



Illustrations of American Manners.

327 telligent planters of the West Indies. few months since a duel was fought near America is certainly not the country, at: Norfolk, between Pollard Davis, a mid-' this time, for the adventurous Earo- shipman, and Richard C. Gregory, a sur. pean, particularly the Englishman, who geon's mate, both belongiog to the Conleaves home and country with the wish stellation frigate. They continued to and expectation of increasing his fortune. fire with savage insensibility till both Arrived in the United States, the only fell. One died almost immediately, and thing he finds congenial is the language; the other in six hours. This is only one in most other respects he is an isolated of a thousand instances, even now that being. Society, the charm of European a sort of reform has been brought about, life, in the proper sense of the term, does, as it respects public sentiment, concerne not really exist there. It is true the ing such combats. Americans are fond of balls, of drioking As in England Bacchanalian Societies and smoking parties, but they are Ame- amongst the middle orders are in high rican entertainments. The company will repute : they have their “Odd Fellou's," divide off in pairs, or trios, and in this their “ Free and Easy," and even “ True way, putting smoke in each other's faces, Blooded Yankeeclubs." But at New discussing their every-day affairs, or York there is a species of club, I believe taking liberties with the concerns and perfectly novel, and that is “ The Ugly characters of their neighbours, the even- Club." As may be expected, this club ing is spent. It is not meant to be as- has no lack of members ; and to give serted here that all of this country are' them their due, they must at least be alike, such an assertion would be strange called merry mortals, for they generally indeed; but that it strikes the ob- spend the night in drink, noise, and servant Englishnian as the general cha- smoke-this latter is an ererlasting acracter of the people.

companiment to a party of Americans Boston and New York are preferable met together, whether on business or to any other towns in the States for án' pleasure. In the oui-settlements they Englishman. Here, during the progress go so far as to smoke all the time the v of the war just concluded, the most are in church, if the place where publie liberal feelings have been evinced, and worship is performed may be so denomi. it is here that the measures of the go- nated. Perhaps the reader will be vernment are more particularly scruti amused by the following Poetical Ades ized. In Boston there are several be- vertisement of a meeting of this “ Voły nevolent societies which were instituted, Club,” published in the New York Gör and are supported by humane and public zette only in January tast :-im spirited individuals. During the whole of the last winter, in this city, the friends

“ Ugly Brothers, 'tis received of benevolence have been most active in “. In lemale circles, there believed,

"Nay told, declared, and almost swom, promotie actuel Society, for the purpose of distributing fire-wood.ta-those Thur beauty, miserable cub,

«Thatbeauty, lovely, bright as morn quinerous poor resident there, and

Exists among the Ugly Club! whose situation was rendered still, inore

« Now in our turn, we all declare ule pilied, by the heavy pressure of the " That nought but ugliness is there ; war--in breaking up cominercial estab « Such idle tales we laugh to scorn, lishments, and consequently in throwing " Our beauty's like the clouded morn, men, women, and children, out of their “ Which casts a gloom, but ne'er molests Lisual employinent. This Fuel Society, by The peace that reigns within our breasis. public subscripcion, were enabled to “. But to disprove the vile vexation: distribute, during the severest winter" We'll undergo exainination"; months, from five to six thousand dollars “ Our censors grave, both good and wise,

« Will us inspect with wary cyes, in wood, and those only who have felt the --ffects of a North American winter,

And each one strictly scrutinize. will be epabled to appreciate the bles

appear that foppery,

" Or beauty in the least degree, sings thus conterred. 'A Duelling in America was some time con le must depart, or we must fall!

“ Poes there pollute our sacred hall, since carried to a very high pitch, and Then must out rising institution was productive most frequently of scenes « Suffer immediate diminution, gavage and disgracetal. But virtunas “ For beauty cannot, must not stay men have difted up their voices on this « Where ugliness should hold the stray. subject, as well as against the great use of « Be patient, rest, do not despair, spisituous liquors, and ij a certain deyree There's no sucli aning as beauty there's Succeeded in bringing down a stigma on "" After the work of Censor's past, those who resort to such practices. A “ His UGLINES, elected last,


o Should

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