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1915.] Dr. Clarke on Submission to established Governments. 413 ners in the farmer's daughter when sit. him ; for, without this, there could be ting on a wooden three-legged stool by no society, no security, no private prothe side of a cow ? Sir, ihis is no satire perty; all would be confusion and anaron the times. As to my young masters, chy; and the habitable world would soon they sport their gigs, their nine-cape be depopulated. In ancient times, God, coats, their hunters, dous, and double- in an especial manner, on many occabarrel guns; and when they go to mar- sions, appointed the individual who was ket, too often return flushed with inso to govern, and he accordingly governed lence and wine.

by a Divine right; as in the case of The soft climate of Asia could not Moses, Joshua, the Hebrew judges, and enervate the vigour of the fariner, and several of the Israelitish kings. lo afdissolve the firmness of bis virtue, so much ter times, and to the present day, he does as the high price of corn has. In these that by a superintending providence, times, the farmer's sons are not permit- which he did before by especial designated (as they used to be) to enter into the tion. In all nations of the earth, there service of the esquire. I know the is what may be called a constitution, a time when it was thought an honour that plan by which a particular country or the tenant's son should be a servant to state is governed ; and this constitution the landlord, and black his honour's is less or more calculated to promote ile. shoes. But now, alas ! they scorn to be interest of the community. The civil servants, neither are they brought up to governor, whether he be elective or hethe trade; no, they must be at home, reditary, agrees to govern according to or in the profession.

that constitution. Thus we may consiThink you, Sir, that the old ones blush der, there is a compact and consent beat these enormities? No, they grin ap tween the governor and governed : and, plause; and then selves assume an air in such case, the potentate may be conand grande ur far beyond the cut of their sidered as coming to the supreme authocoats. They lord it despotically over rity in the direct way of God's provitheir estates, which perhaps they have dence: and, as civil government is of bought; and so tenacious are they of the God, who is the fountain of law, orgame, that if a sportsman happens to der, and regularity, the civil governor deviate from the right.line, and commit who administers the laws of a state aca trespass, he is sure to be attacked with cording to its constitution, is the minister something that resembles the barking of of God. But it has been asked, if the Tiger, the house dog.

ruler be an immoral or profligate man, This is a retrospect of the last twelve does he not prove bimselt, thereby, to be years. Perhaps, Sir, I have spoken my unworthy of his high office, and should inind with too much freedom; but let he not be deposed? I answer--no: if me assure you, it is with pain and indig- he rule according to the constitution, nonation I view the profligacy of the exist- thing can justify rebellion against his auing tenantry. I am, &c.

thority. He may be irregular in his Proper PROPRIETY. own private life; he may be an immo

ral man, and disgrace himself by an imMB, EDITOR,

proper conduct; but if he rule uccording IF you should think as highly of to the baw ; if he make no attempt to the following extract from Dr. ADAM change the constitution, nor break the Clarke's valuable Cominentary on the compact between him and the people; Sacred Writings as I do, I make no there is, therefore, no legal ground of doubt of your inserting it in your va- opposition to his civil authority; and luable Magazine. It cannot, in my every act against himn is not only rebelopinion, be too widely circulated; nor lion, in the worst sense of the word, but do I know what subject can be more is unlawful, and absolutely sinsul. interesting to your numerous readers. Nothing can justify the opposition of I am, &c.

RUSTICUS. the subjects to the ruler but overt atBaldock.

tempts on his part to chunge ihe constiFor there is no power but of God." tution, or to sule contrary to law. (Rom. 13, v. 1.).-As God is the origin When the ruler acts thus, he dissolves the of power, and the supreme governor of compact between him and the people; the universe, he delegates authority to his authority is no longer binding, bem whomsoever he will; and tbough, in cause illegal; and it is illegal, because many cases, the governor himself inay not he is acting contrary to the laws of that be of God, yet civil government is of constitution, according to which, on beNiw MONTILLY MAO.--No. 17. VoralII.

31

414
Character of his present Majesty.

[June 1, ing raised to the supreme power, lie pro- tentates by name, as apt examples of the mised to govern. This conduct justifies doctrines I have been laying down, my opposition to his government: but I readers will naturally expect that, on so contend, that no personal misconduct in fair an opportunity, I should introduce the ruler, no immorality in his own life, another-one in whom the double bleswhile he governs according to law, can sing meets -one who, through an unueither justify rebellion against him, or sually protracted reign, during every contempt of his authority. For his po- year of which be has most conscienlitical conduct, he is accountable to his tiously watched over the sacred constitupeople : for his moral conduct, he is ac tion committed to bis care-one, who not countable to his God, to his conscience, only did not impair this constitution, and to the ministers of religion. A king but took care that its wholesome laws nay be a good moral man, and yet a should be properly administered and trenki, and indeed a bad and dangerous who, in every respect, acted as the father prince. He may be a bad man, and of his people; and, added to all this, the stained with vice in his private life, and most exemplary moral conduct perhaps yet be a good prince. Saul was a good ever exhibited by a prince, whether in moral man, but a bad prince; because he ancient or modern times ; not only taendeavoured to act contrary to the’Is- citly discountenancing vice, by his truly raelitish constitution; he changed some religious conduct, but by his frequent essential parts of that constitution-e proclamations, most solemnly forbidding was therefore lawfully deposed. James sabbath-breaking, profane sivearing, and the Second was a good moral mun, as immorality in general: more might be far as I can learn, but he was a bad and justly said, but when I have mentioned dangerous prince; he endeavoured to all these things (and I mention them alter and essentially change the British with exultation, and with gratitude to constitution, both in church and state; God), I need scarcely add tlie venerable therefore he was lawfully deposed. It name of George the Third, King of would be easy, in running over the list of Great Britain, as every reader will at our own kings, to point out several who once perceive that the description suits were deservedly reputed good kings, no potentate besides. I may just obwbu, in their private life; were very im serve, that notwithstanding his long oporcil. Bad as they might be in private reign has been a reign of unparalleled lite, che constitution was, in their hands, troubles and commotions in the world, ever considered a sacred deposit; and in which his empire has always been iathey fridfully preserved it, and trans- volved; yet, never «lid useful arts, ennobmited it unimpaired to their successors; ling sciences, and pure religion, gain a and took care, while they held the reins more decided and general ascendancy: of government, to have it impartially and and much of this, under God, is owing effectually administered.

to the manner in which the king has It must be allowed, notwithstanding, lived, and the encouragement be in rarithat when a prince, however heedful to ably gave to whatever had a tendency to the laws, is unrighteous in private lite, promote the best interest of his people. his example is contagious: morality ba- Indeed it has been well observed, triat, nished from the throne, is discounte- under the ruling providence of God, it Lanced by the community; and happi- was chiefly owing to the private and ness is diminished in proportion to the personal virtues of the sovereign, that increase of vice. On the other hand, the house of Brunswick remained firmly wien a king governs according to the seated on the throne, amidst the storms constitution of his realm, and lias his arising from democratical agitations, and leart and life governed by the laws of revolutionary convulsions in Europe, his God, he is then a double blessing to during the’years 1792-1794. The stabis people; while he is ruling carefully bility of the throne amidst these dangers according to the laws, bis pious example and distresses, may prove a useful lesson is a great means of extending and con to his successors, and show them the firming the reign of pure morality amo:g strength of a virtuous character; and bis subjects. Vire is discredited from that morality and religion form the best the throne, and the profiigate dare not bulwark against those great evils to which hope for a place of trust and confi- all human governments are exposed. denice (however in niher respects he This small tribute of praise so ihe chamay be qualified for it), because he is a racter and conduct of the British king, dicious man.

and gratitude to God for suc. a goverAs I have already mentioned somo yc 00r, wil oot ge suspected of sinister mo

1815.)

Strictures on Rees's Cyclopædia.

415

tives; as the object of it is, by an in- matters of religion. Thus, sir, the ques. scrutable Providence, placed in a situa- tion before you assumes a different comtion to which neither endy, flattery, nor plexion, and the answering of it requires, even just praise, can approach, and fortunately for you, more leisure than I where the majesty of the man is placed am at present master of. Should it, in the most awful, yet respectable ruins. however, be my fate to live in a country,

But to resume the subject, and con- whose ruligion differs from that estabclude the argument; I wish particularly lished in my own, I should derm myself to shew the utter unlawiulness of rehel- happy in being permit to worship, unlion against a ruler, wlio, though he may molested, according in the dictates of be incorrect in his moral conduct, yet my conscience; and would cheerfully rules according to the laws; and the ad set apart any day the ligher powers ditional blessing of having a prince, who, night think proper to appoint in comwhile his political conduct is regulated memoration of our coinmon Saviour. hy the principles of the constitution, bis When a man is in search of truth, it heart and life are regulated by the dic- may be as well to read the arguments tates of eternal truth, as contained in urged by our opponents; but I. P. S. that revelation which came from God.” answers me through the medium of per

sons of his own habits of thinking. I MR. EDITOR,

am answered, sir, by an avowed friend I AM under the necessity of once of the Reverend Doctor's, and by opimore intruding myself on your pages, for nions similar to his own.' Let J. P.'s. a longer silence on my part may lead consult the fathers, and he will no doulot J.P. Š. to conclude that I am convinced find many reasons in support of the proby his arguments that I have made a priety of setting apart one day in comfalse accusation. It is also of importance memoration of the nativity and crucito me, that your readers do not fall into fixion; a custom which probably the the same mistake. In debates of all sensibility of the Protestant Dissenter's kinds, I believe it is usual to permit the heart would have adopted, had he not original mover of the question to answer been commanded by an establishment in reply; I must therefore claim this in- which regal power is suspected to indolgence from you, and in so doing fuence. A very good sort of a man, a Johnpromises never to claim your Protestant Dissenter, an acquaintance of attention on the same subject again. I mine, kept the day of the martyrdom of shall pass over the ba:sh accusations of King Charles the 1st, by invariably dinJ. P.'S., at the commencement of his ing off a calf's bead!!! and I do not communication, as I conceive he only see why a commemoration of love may means them as a sort of spur to preju- not as well be kept alive as a comme. dice, or to give weight where his argu- moration of enmity. I shall now sir Inents may fail. It is the first time that conclude, not by a quotation from men I have ever heard an editor defended likely to err as myself, but by a quotafor allowing improper matter to find its tion from a book which J. P. S. will perway into a work which is under his sole haps consider less fallible than those direction; and I am also not at all sur- opinions to which he bas resorted; and prised that Dr. Rees should be eulo- if he is not convinced that the lives of gized by“ a Protestant Dissenter.” This a Porteus and a Pitt were suffered to is indeed the age of liberality, a word paas without implicating the industry or that J. P. S. must be fully aware may be prejudices of ani Editur, I will bid 'bim substituted for indifference: and those turn to the article * GENERATION" in wbo profess to bave most of the former the Cyclopædia, where useless and dishave too often the greatest share of the gusting experiments are detailed in such latter-I mean with regard to religious plain terms, that those who run may read affairs.

to no one good purpose whatever, and I But now in referring to the communi- think he will then say with me, that the cation of J. P.S. I can proceed to com- Rev. Editor could not have perused it bat his opinions no farther, for my op- before it went to press, or he would have ponent has taken up my question upon never suffered such a violation of dedifferent premises. It is no longer a cency in a work intended for the referdispute, whether it be right or immoral ence of persons of all ages. To conto set apart one day for a remembrance clude, the passage I would offer to the of Christ's crucifixion, but a point of consideration of J.P. S. is this :--Subright, which he would agitate of obeying init yourselves to every ordinance of or not the commands of our superiors in man for the Lord's sake, whether it be

416

Erlracts from Cawood Castle, a MS. Poem. (June 1, to the king as supreme, or unto gover Sliould you think proper to present nors as unto them that are sent by him these extracts to the public, through the for the punishment of evil doers, and for medium of your useful and widelythe praise of them that do well

. For extended miscellany, and should you 80 is the will of God; that with well further deign to hint at the intentions of dbing ye may put to silence the ignor- its humble author, it would be rendering ance of foolish men. Honour all men, assistance in obscurity, as well as conlore the brotherhood, fear God, honour ferring a lasting obligation upon the king. Jouin.

Yours, &c.

Finchley, March 6, 1815. Avicus. NR. EDITOR, I HAVE lately received from York

ARGUMENT. blire a manuscript poemn from the same Introduction - Origin of the Castle pen as 'The Convicts, inserted in the late Feudal times--Early distracted state of Brinumbers of your miscellany. It is en- tain, contrasted with its present tranquil and titled Cawood Castle, and I have ven- exalted situation–The Castle becomes the Cured to lay some extracts from it before seat of the Sec of York-Repaired by Cardi. you. I know it to be the unaided pro- Memorable dying words— Reflexions on his

nal Wolsey-Wolsey's character and fallduction of a young man whose situation fall- Archbishop Montagu Character in life is very humble, and whose means

Final destruction of the Castle - Reflections of improvement have not been superior — The Watch-tower Court-yard - Ancient to many who have been cried up as pro- hunting scene--Chase of the wild boardigies both by the learned and unlearned. Castle hall--Galliard-Great feast by ArchThe poem in question, including an in- bishop Neville --Chivalry—Tournamentfroductory address to a friend, at whose Knight Errane-Dungeon-Castle chapelinstigation it was attempted, contains Youthful recollections Conclusion. about 12 or 1300 lines. The young person, by the advice of some friends, seems

When royal Alfred held the regal sway desirous to bring it forward, if possible, O'er Britain's empire in that early day, by public subscription, if it should be Alfred the Great, the pious, and the sage, thought worthy of public notice. The The boast and wonder of a barb'rous age ; extracts I have made are promiscuous, Cawood, thy antique towers first rose from and may be admitted as a fair specimen That grand epocha marks their distani birth." of the work. Though the subject is local, he has rendered it as generally in- Thy Gothic halls were destin'd long to be teresting as possible; as you will per- The seat of York's exalted sacred see ; ceive by the subjoined analysis of its Her mitred prelates sought this calm retreat, contents. His motives for publishing And here forgot the toils of church and state; are commendable, and will, I am per- Charm'd with thy sylvan shades and frage suaded, meet the approbation of the rant bow'is, friends of literature when explained- In them were passed their choicest, happiest should any profit arise, he wishes to de hours. vote it to literary purposes, such as the Where erst were seen, helm, corslet, shield purchasing of books, &c., from which he is entirely excluded in the contracted Now mitres, crooks, and rochets sheen station of life in which he is placed, and appear : to which he so feelingly adverts in the Where war's loud roar had thunder'd to the covcluding stanzas attached to the poem, Now rose the sacred choir's sweet melody.

sky, *here he supposes himself to be addiressed in the ruins by an invisible be- Revolving centuries rolld o'er thy head, ing

And on thy towers their boary honours shed;

'Gainst warring elements they firmly stoot, " What are the ills of life which thce sur

Defied alike the tempest and the flood.t round, Urge the big tear, and heave the deep Cawood castle is of great aliquity ; drawn sigb?

some say it was built by Athelstan, others Has envious Fortune on thy prospects frown'd, still more early, though all agree it was be

And c-st thy lot with frigid Poverty, stowed by that monarch on the church.

And all those ills which her attendants be? The first archbishop that resided here was Has Knowledge, too, withheld her ample William de Grenefeld, 1305 (Edward L.) page,

his arms being yet to be seen upon its ruins. Yiraught with science and philosophy? Cawood is situate upon the Ouse, about tea Du vain regrets for these thy thoughts engage? milcs south-east of York, Ilere inay'st thou learn their end, and reap + Cawood is subject to frequent inun-ainstruction sage."

tions in the winter, in consequence or the

and spear,

had past,

more

wore;

drew;

1815.]
Full of Cardinal TVolsey.

417
But when contending Roses shook our isle, Ere the third sun through Heav'n his course
Neglected then thy venerable pile
Ran to dilapidation and decay,

At postern gate was heard a bugle's blast; And for a time in partial ruins lay;

The cautious porter, ever on his guard, Till lordly Wolsey, driv'n by royal hate, Still kept the gates both lock'd and firma Here sought a shelter from the storms of barr'd: state ;

Till PERCY, who, a royal courier, came, 'Twas then thy towers and battlements once Demands admittance in King Henry's name;

At that dread name reluctant he obeys, Upreard their heads, their pristine firmness But firmly still maintains his post and keys.

The Earl his high commission now display'd, He to thy halls their former splendour gave, And Wolsey sought its import to evade; Repair'd the whole revolving years to brave. 'Twas all in vain, Northumberland must bring

Here would I pause one moment to survey The fallen Cardinal before the King. Proud Wolsey's fall! O Muse inspire my These dreadful tidings thence like light'ning lay!

flew, Teach me to draw conclusions just and true, A weeping crowd around thy towers they To reap instruction from the useful view! WOLSEY, whose power no subject could Throng'd here to bid adieu to their lov'd lord, controul,

The neighb'ring poor by whom he was ador'd; Who set no bounds to his aspiring soul, Since fallen from his high and dazzling post, What though of low descent and humble Much of his pride and haughtiness he'd lost. name,

Taught by what fav’rites in disgrace endure, Yet in his breast burnt fierce ambition'sfiame; To feel compassion for the suff'ring poor, And though the proudest of the proud were he He made their wants his unremitting care, Low could he bow and bend his servile knee, Freely with himn his princely board they Assume the monarch, grovel in the dust,

share ; And act the pander to h s sov'reign's lust. Both far and wide his charities extend, Beneath his ! ondage long did Englandgroan, And ev'ry poor man claim'd him for his While vicious Henry idly fill'd the throne ; friend. His hopes aspir'd the triple crown to wear, While' kings as slaves his servile chains him the fall of his great crosse upon Ds, should bear,

Bonner's head. Quuth my lord, hath it And prostate Europe trembling at his nod, drawne any blood ?-Yea, quoth 1; with Revere bis mandates as the word of God,

that he cast his head aside, and soberly sayd Behold him now rejected and forlorn,

Malum Omen, and thereupon said grace, Of his ambition and his glory shorn ;

and rose from the table, and went to his In this retreat he sought his shame to hide,

bedchamber. Now marke how my lord ex"Till the impending storm was blown aside, pounded the meaning thereof to me at PonHis absence might his sov'reign's bosom tefract, after his fall: first, that the greate move,

crosse that he bare as Archbishop of Yorke Plead his forgiveness and awake his love ;

betokened himself; Dr. Austin, that overBut vain these hopes the tyrant whom he threw the crosse was he that accused my served,

lord; it fell on Dr. Bonner's head, who was From his fell purpose never could beswerv'd: then master of my lord's spiritual jurisdicNor beauty's youthful bloom, nor age's snow, tion, wha was then dampnified by the fall Could move his breast who mock'd another's thereof; moreover, the drawing of blood

betokeneth death, which did shortly after Nor spar'd the man that roused his fierce follow.” Nor lovely woman in his brutal lust. [disgust, after he had set the hall in order, he com

* “ The frst thing that the Earle did, Warn'd by an omen of his coming fate,* Not long expectant was he doom'd to wait. manded the porter to deliver the keyes of

the gates to him, which he would in no wise overflowing of the Wharfe, which empties, doe, although he was threatened in the resell into the Ouse, about a mile above the king's name; he saide to the Earle, that the town Ancient piles may still be seen at · keyes were delivered to him hy his lord and Tow w

water, intended, no doubt, as a defence 'master, both by oathe and other commands. for the forexshore of the castle, against these The Earle hearing the porter speak so stoutsapid and overwhelming floods.

ly, said, hee is a good fellow and a faith* “ Upon All-hallow-day my lord sitting fulle servant to his master, and speakes like at dinner—you shall now understand that an honest man: thou shalt wel and truly my lord's great crosse, which stood by, fell, keepe the keyes to the use of our Sovereigne and in the fall broke Dr. Bonner's heat, in. "Lord the King, and you shall let none passe asmuch that some blood run downe. My in nor out of the gates, but such as from lord perceiving the fall thereof, demaunded time to time you shall be commanded by us, of those that stood by him, what was the being the king's commissioners during our Indtii diat they stool so amazed; I shewed stay here."

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