페이지 이미지
PDF
ePub
[merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

MONTULY MAGAZINES have opened a way for every kind of inquiry and information. The intelligence and discussion contained in them are very extensive and various; and they have been the means of diffusing a general habit of reading througla the nation, which in a certain degree hath enlarged the public understandioy. HERE, too, are preserved a multitude of useful hints, observations, and facts, which otherwise might have wever appeared.--Dr. Kippis.

Every Art is improved by the emulation of Conpetitors.---Dr. Johnson,

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

MR. EDITOR,

belles lettres, mathematics, and the TO che most extraordinary events of higher branches of education, the Jesuits the day belongs the restoration of the have, upon the whole, been serviceable Jesuits so prematurely decreed by Pius to science, and that in this respect, VII. On this subject, the patriotic Bacon's words, talis cum sis utinani nosARNDT, whose works during the last ter esses, might be applied to many three years have so powerfully contri- learned Jesuits. Much, too, might be buted to rouse the spirit of Germany said in praise of their missions, and the against the tyranny of Buonaparte, thus model of a state founded by them in Pa. expresses himself in one of his late per- raguay; but it is no longer for such purformances :-" Every thing in the world poses that the Holy See wants these lias its appointed time, which it cannot emissaries, or that they are now re-estaescape. That time came for the Jesuits blished. They are destined by ancient also. The Order fell in a manner that incantations to lay the new spirit of the astonished the world. Men of the most times, as they were when a new æra beprodibus means, of the most resolute gan with Luther; in a word, to found courage, of the utmost subtlety and ad- afresh the empire of darkness. When dress, were puffed away as by a breath Catherine admitted the Jesuits into her by persons every way inferior to thein- dominions, it was for the sake of the poselves. What was so easily demolished, litical advantages which the Russian ought not to be again erected. The Je- trade to China and South America was suits, who have since that time with dif- expected to derive from thein. But why ficulty prolonged their existence, were should they again be let loose upon Eua with their arts, with their skill in lan- rope ? To secure thrones from revoluguages, with their crooked policy, with tions?-.to counteract free-thinking by a their sneaking, adulatory, and casuistical more rigid morality? Should such an versatility, a paltry instrument in the idea be held out, it could not be better hands of the church. If the latter de- refuted than by extracting their political sires to become again a truly catholic maxims and secret instructions from church, it must renounce all that is their own writers, and laying them anew worldly and little in the treatment of ex. before a 100 forgetful public. Such a ternal things, and in the use of external work might have the effect of rousing means." - It is only by maynanimity and those minds that are now lulled into å mildness towards those of a different per- dangerous security. Meanwhile, the folsuasion, and by laying aside every thing lowing extract of a letter from Rome, that looks like defiance and a spirit of written at the end of February last, may proselytism, that it can recover its splen- afford some matter for reflection :-dor and honour. Thus, then, the wish “ New embellishments, and even the of Riccini, the new general of the Order, continuation of those already com(who, on the festival of St. Ignatius, pro- menced, are now entirely out of the quesnounced a panegyric upon Loyola in the tion. This is but natural; for bread presence of the Pope and all his cardi- must first be obtained, and even this his Dals), that his Order might have a nest; Holiness can no longer procure for the that is, a college, in every town in Eu- people, who are reduced to the last exrope containing 10,000 inhabitants, can- iremity. But, as if the government wese not but be considered as premature. It bent on rendering itself odious, it strives cannot be denied, that in whatever re to undo all that has been done. The lated to instruction in philology, the arena of the Coliseum, whose works and New MONTHLY MAG-No. 18.

VOL. III.

3T

[ocr errors]

494
Mr. Böttiger on the Restoration of the Jesuits.

(July 1, aqueducts have occasioned so much spe- grees, and which has spread from Hamculation, has, with the whole wonderful burgh over the greatest part of the north substructure, been again covered with of Germany. rubbish, that the chapel and the stations

C, A, BÖTTIGER. of the Passion night be replaced where Dresden, March, 1815. they formerly stood. The whole army of monks is again in active service. At

MR. EDITOR, Rome, and in all the Ecclesiastical State, SOME of the later biographers of the convents have been re-established. Milion bave in the warmth of their ada The order of the Jesuits is here making miration of his political principles, considerable progress. Young men of the thought proper to wander into a discusfirst families in Rome and in all Italy, sion of the merits of the Restoration, fer are admitted into it. A Marchese Pa- the purpose of vilifying the royalists trizi, son of the Senator and the Princess and panegyrising Oliver Cromwell and of Sasony, a Prince Altieri, a Pallavi- John Bradshaw. This republican zeal cini of Genoa, a Marchese from Turin, has gone even so far as to pour a torrent belong to the number. There are alrea- of abuse upon Charles the Second for my eighty of them in Rome alone; in one his cruelty, though that accusation is at college in the Quirinal are not fower than direct variance with all that we read of eighty novices. Hence some idea may this monarch's character in the writings be formed of the extensive views of the of those who knew hin most intimately, Propaganda of the Order. Nevertheless and who had little inclination to speak well-informed persons of long experience of him in terms of flattery. That Charles, and profound' knowledge of the world however, did not deserve the obloquy are of opinion, that on the return of which has been heaped upon his name, more tranquil times, the furious bigotry I shall now prove, by the adduction of a which is the consequence of irreligion very curious fact and document, from and despair of earthly assistance, would which it will appear, that at the very be $000 subside, and that the Order, which ginning of his restoration he shewed in these days can scarcely expect gifts more indulgence to Milton than the and endowments, will langnish and ex- llouse' of Commons would have wished pire for want of support. May the Pro- him to extend towards that great man. testants only avoid 'ewo rocks, indiffe. On the 16th of June, which was less rence and mysticism ! The past will than three weeks after the landing of the never return."

king, the house came tu a resolution, I shall conclude these observations " That his Majesty be humbly mored to with the following just remarks by the call in Milton's two books, and John late Charles Villers in his prize essay Goodwin's, and order them to be burut On the Influence of the Reformation : by the common hangman.” “ To model science according to the pa

In consequence of this vote the fula pal interest, was the sole tendency of the lowing proclamation was issued :systeni of instruction adopted by the Je

“ BY THE KING. suits; to place certain objects in a clear light, and to envelope others in profound pressing of two books written by JOHN MIL

“ A Proclamation for calling in and supdarkness; to cultivate the memory and Ton; the one entituled, Johannis Miltoni the imagination, whilst the fields of rea- Angli pro Populo Anglicano Defensio, contra son and judgment were left tallow; to Claudii Anonymi, alias Salmacii, Defensio. instil learning, but at the same tiine sube nem Regium; and the other in answer to a mission into the minds of their disciples, book intituled, The Pourtraiture of his sacred whom they wished to keep iu ignorance Majesty in his Solitude and Sufferings ; and of such things only as inight shake that also a third book, intituled, The Obstrue-. submission. In this respect, the Jesuits tors of Justice, written by John Goouresembled the slaves of the greai among

“ CHARLES R." the ancients, who were grammarians, poets, rhetoricians, skilful dancers, and

“Whereas John Milton, late of Westinusicians—in a word, who understood minster, in the county of Middlesex, hath every thing, except the science to be published in print iwo several books, the

one intitled, Johannis Milioni Angli pri free." An effectual antidote to the Loyolists Anonymi, alias Salmatii, Defensionem Rt

Populo Anglicano Defensio, contra Claudio upon the Continent would be the frater- gium; and the other in Answer to a book nity of Freemasons, especially if upon entitled, The Pour traiture of his sertat the system of the old English lodges, Majesty in his Solitude and Suffering. which admits of no more than three de: In both which are contained sundsy tears

WIN.

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

1815.) Dr. Watkins on a Proclamation respecting Milton. 495 sonable passages against us and our Govern- pen: and the said sheriffs are hereby also ment, and most impious endeavours to jus- required, in time of holding such assizes, to sify the horrid and unmatchable murther of cause the same to be publ cly burnt by the our late dear father of glorious memory.

hands of the common hangman. “ And whereas John Goodwin, Tate of “ And we do further straightway charge Coleman-street, London, clerk, hath also ard command, that no man hereafter prepublished in print a book intitled, The Ob sume to print, vend, sell or disperse any the structors of Justice; written in defence aforesaid books, upon pain of our heavy disof the traitorous sentence against his said late pleasure, and of such further punishment, as Majesty. And whereas the said John Milion for their presumption in that behalf, may and John Goodwin are both fled, or so ob- any way be inflicted upon them by the laws scure chemselves, that no endeavours used for of this realm. their apprehensiva can take effect, whereby “Given at our Court at White Hall, the shey might be brought to legal tryal, and 13th day of August, in the twelfth year of deservedly receive condign punishment for our reign, 1660." their treason and offences.

When we consider that near two “ Now to the end that our good subjects months were suffered to elapse before may not be corrupted in their judgments any thing was done in coinpliance with with such wicked and traitorous principles as

the parliamentary resolution, we shall are dispersed and scattered throughout the

see cause to admire the lenity of the before-mentioned books, we, upon the mo- king and his government, rather than to cion of the Commons in Parliament now as

censure either the one or the other for sembled, do hereby streightly charge and command all and every person and persons this interval that Milton saved his per

unreasonable severity. It was during whatsoever, who live in any city, borough, or town incorporate, within this our kingdom

son and his property; in return for of Englani, the dominion of Wales, the

wbich favour it appears to me,

that town of Berwick-upon-Tweed, in whose though be continued a sectary in relihands any of those books are, or bereafter gious matters, his politics underwent a shall be, that they upon pain of our high very material change ; but the proofs of displeasure, and the consequence thereof, do this I must reserve for another commuforthwith upon the publication of this our nication. com mand, or within ten days immediately Muy 5, 1815.

J. WATKINS. following, deliver, or cause the same to be delivered to the mayor, bailift, or other chief MR. EDITOR, officer or magistrate of any of the said cities, ON turning over the pages of your boroughs, or towns incorporate, where such . magazine, I was surprised to find that person or persons so live ; or if living out of any city, borough, or town incorporate, it necessary to solicit the opinion of your

one of your correspondents had found then to the next justice of the peace adjoin. readers on the giammatical construction ing to his or their dwelling, or place of abode of the adjective in the comparative deas if living in either of our Universities, then to the Vice-Chancellor of that University, gree, and that he should find an oppowhere he or they do reside.

nent to argue himself, not only out of “ And in default of such voluntary deli- temper, but against what appears to me very, which we do expect in observance of as obvious as any other established gramour said command, that then, and after the matical rule can be. If you compare time before limited is expired, the said chief one thing with another, one can only magistrate of all and every the said cities, be better than the other by comparison; boroughs, or towns incorporate, the justices but if you compare one thing with a of the peace in their several counties, and number, it may be the best of the spethe Vice-Chancellors of our said Universities cies or of the class, and the superlative respectively, are hereby commanded to degree may be adınitted with propriety.. seize and take all and every the books afore

I perfectly agree with your corresaid, in whose hands of possession soever spondent in thinking, that in the exam, they shall be found, and certify the names

ples he has given, “the best of the two," of the offenders to our Privy Council.

isibe worst of the two," &c. are wrong, “And we do hereby also give special and that the superlative could not be charge and command to the said chief magistrates, justices of the peace, and vice used without a viölation of the generallychancellors, respectively, that they cause the received and acknowledged rules of prosaid books that shall be brought so unto any priety. Dr. Campbell observes, “ilmt of their hands, or seized or taken as a fore the comparative degree implies comsaid, by virtue of this our proclamation, to monly a comparison of one thing with be delivered to the respective sheriffs of one thing," and that " consequently, it those counties where they respectively livc, requires to be followed by the singular the first and next assizes that shall after hap- number.” And Mr. Grant, in his very

LAND WHALE.

496

Rev. Mr. Bingley on the Greenland Whale. [July 1, excellent treatise on grammar, says," the sometimes measures 18 or 20 feet in superlative compares a thing or an ag. length, and 9 or 10 in breadth: it is a gregate with its own class, and is ein- soft spongy body, of white colour, spotployed when more than two are implied; ted at the sides with black, rounded at we say,

“the wiser of the two,” but the end, and so connected to the under " the wisest of the three."

jaw as not to be capable of much mo. Nany examples and opinions might be tion. The gullet for so huge an animal cited in confirmation of this opinion; is very small, seldom exceeding the width but I trust I have said sufficient to mo of four or five inches. The eyes, which derate the temper, if not to convince, are situated a little way above the corthe gentleman who held so opposite an ners of the mouth, very near the pectoopinion. If you think I have seized the ral fins, and consequently somewhat bemeaning of your correspondent in this low the middle of the body, are particuhasty letter, your insertion of it will larly surprising for such an animal : they oblige your constant reader

are so minute, that an observer is not Paddington, May 11, 1815. T. F. able to discover them without some at

tention, since they scarcely exceed in Tor the New Monthly Magazine. size those of an ox; they are on a small A DESCRIPTION, AND SOME SKETCHES OF convexity, by which, although the space THE HISTONY, OF THE GREAT OR GREEN-, from one to the other is frequently be.

tween 15 and 20 feet, the scope of Balana Mysticetus, of Linnaus.

vision is so much enlarged, that the ani

mal is enabled to view objects which By the Rev. W. BINGLEY.

present themselves at some distance in Description. These, the largest of all front with both its eyes at the same time. known animals, measure from 20 to 30 The eyes are protected by eye-lids, but yards and upwards in length, and their these have no eye-lashes, and are so weight has been known to exceed swollen with fatty matter, as in general 300,000 pounds! When viewed from a

to have very little motion. The external little distance, they have the appearance opening of the ear is likewise very small, of an alımost shapeless mass; and it is and is merely an auditory hole. The only on approaching, and beholding them pectoral fins are large, as is likewise the more attentively, that we can discover tail or caudul fin. In a wbale that mea. this mass to be an organized body. To sured about 70 feet in length, the two a person who looks upon the under part lobcs of the caudal fin extended upwards of the whale, the shape appears not of 1? feet, or were equal to about onemuch unlike a shoemaker's last. Their sixth part of the whole length of the thickness is nearly equal to one-fourth animal. The skin is very thick and part of their length; so that this enor strony, entirely destitute of hair, and mous animated mass is sometimes more always covered with an oily substance, than seven yards in height! The head, wbich issues through the pores, and, which is generaliy equal in bulk to one when exposed to the rays of the sun, third of the whole animal, is so convex makes its surface appear almost as reabore as to resemble the segment of splendent as that of polished metal. an immense sphere, having on the back The colours of bese animals rary part, but near its summit, an elevation, much in differeut individuals: some are in which are situated the orifices of the

entirely black; others are reddish or two spiracies or spout-holes. The jaws black above, and white beneath ; others are rounded in front: the lower jaw ap- again variously mottled with black, or pears swollen underneath, and is broader brown and white: they are said to be across the middle than it is in length. sometimes seen in the seas near SpitzNo animal whatever has a mouth of such bergen entirely white. The marks of enorious size as this: it extends even the wounds they receive almost always as far back as the eyes, and almost to become wbite spots. the base of the pectoral fins; or, as we It has been already observed, that the should say of a quadruped, to the shoul- mouth of the great whale is of enormous ders. When the lips are closed, they size. This is destitute of teeth, and, present a curve, in form not much vo for the pur; ose of catching and securing like the letter S reversed, and placed food has, attached to the upper jaw, 3 horizontally. In an individual, about 70 horny kind of substance, well known 10 feet in length, the mouth was sufficiently commerce by the name of ahalobune large to admit of two persons standing It is there arranged in thiu lamine of in it without stooping. The longue blades, some of them of cousiderable

[ocr errors]

497

[ocr errors]

1815.] Rev. Mr. Bingley on the Greenland Whale.
length and breadth, and in several rows, When near the surface they leave be-
encompassing the outer skirts of the jaw hind them a track or waké, like that
like the teeth in other animals: they made by a large vessel under full sail.
stand parallel to each other, having one It has been calculated that, allowing one
edge towards the circumference of the of these animals to swim at this rate, and
mouth, and the other towards the centre straight forward, and even to repose for
or cavity, and are very different in size twelve hours every day, he might make a
in different parts of the mouth; since voyage round the world, in the line of
the upper jaw does not extend parallel the equator, in forty-seven days, and
with the under one, but makes an arch, siviin from pole to pole, along the me-
the semidiameter of which is about one- ridian, in twenty-four days.
fourth part of the length of the jaw. Notwithstanding this amazing strength
The outer row is composed of the longest and power the natural disposition of the
blades, and these are in proportion to great whales appears to be peaceful and

the different distances beiween the two unoffending. They always endeavour to ce jaws,-some being 14 or 15 feet long, avoid an attack where it is possible for

and 12 or 15 inches broad, but towards them to do so; but when wounded, they
the anterior and posterior part of the often plunge with such violence, and
nuouth they are very thick. They rise strike their tails upon the water with so
for half a foot or more, nearly of equal much strength and fury, that it requires
breadth, and afterwards shelve off from great care to prevent them from upset-
their inner side until they come almost ting and sinking the boats.
to a point at the outer. The exterior of It is stated that these animals, parti-
the inner rows are the longest, corre- cularly during the breeding season, swiin
sponding at the termination of the decli- in pairs consisting of a male and female ;
vity of the outer, and becoming shorter and it is believed that the same pair
and shorter till they scarcely rise above will remain constant to each other for
the gum. The inner rows are more close many years. The females seldom pro-
than the outer, and rise almost perpen- duce more than one, and never more
dicularly from the pum, being longitu- than iwo young ones at a birth. These
dinally strait, and have less of the de are nourished for about twelve months
clivity than the outer. The blades of on milk supplied from teats situated at
the outer row laterally are not quite flat, the under and posterior part of the body
but make a serpentine line: the outer of the parent. This milk is, in most
cdye is thicker than the inner. All round respects, like that of the cow, but it con-
the line made by their outer edges rans tains more cream, and a considerably
a 'small white beard, which is formed greater quantity of nutritive matter.
along with the wbalcbone, and wears With respect to the natural duration
down with it. The smaller plates are of life of these enormous creatures we
nearly of an equal thickness upon both are perfectly ignorant, and very probably
edges. In all of them the termination shall ever continue to be so, since it is
is in a fringe of a kind of hair, as if the altogether impossible that human know-
blade were split into innumerable small ledge or experience should ever be able
fibres; the exterior ones being longer to develope it with any degree of accu-
and more strong than the others. The racy. All circuinstances considered,
two sides of the mouth are furnished there can, however, be little doubt that
with these rows, meet nearly in a point it extends to much inore than a century,
at the front of the jaw, and spread or though we can scarcely admit the infer-
recede laterally from each other, as they ence of M. de Buffon, that " is a carp
pass backward.- There are generally has been known to live two centuries, à
about 350 blades on each side of the whale may live ten.” The whale-fishers
mouih; and of these, in the old animals, believe that they are able to form some
more than 200 are sufficiently large to judgment of the age of a whale by the
be of use for commercial purposes. length and appearance of the fibres or

History.—The great whales are those beards at the extremities of the blades of principally which are sought for in the whalebove which border its mouth. northern seas, on account of the oil or From the following account commublubber which their bodies yield, and nicated to M. de La Cepede by the the whalebone which is found in their French vice-admiral, Pléville-le-Peley, mouths. The muscular powers of these it appears that these animals are posanimals are such, that illey have been sessed of some very delicate organs of said to move through the water at the perception.-" The whales, off the coast rate of more than thirty feet in a second. of Newfoundland, in pursuing the cod,

[ocr errors]
« 이전계속 »