« 이전계속 »
Mary. Rennet! what is that', Ma?
Ma. It is the stomach of a calf'; nay', Mary', dont turn up your little nose at it'; it is made perfectly clean' before it is put into milk'. Is not the liver of a fowl considered a great delicacy', and the gizzard served up as a savory dish?
Mary. They are, indeed', Mamma'.
Ma. Can it be less cleanly to eat food prepared by the aid of the inside of one animal, than to eat the inside itself of another'? Do not the most refined epicures eat the whole of the wood cock, without the least reservation'?
Jane. I have been told they do', Ma'; but I should not like to be an epicu're'.
--LESSON 23, Exercises in the Division of Compound Terms. 1. A. bo’t. 24 yards of cloth, for $47 87 5; what was it a yard?
Ans. $1 - 99 4+ 2. B. sold 4 ewt. sugar for £18 - 17 6; what is the price of 1 cwt.?
Ans. £4 - 14 - 4 2 3. C. bought 1000 gallons of wine for £557 - 18 9 2; what is 1 gallon?
Ans. £0 - 11 - 44+ 4. D. divided g150 - 2 - 1, among 89 men; what had each?
2 - 1+ 5. E. bought 63 cords of wood for $125; what was one .cord?
Ans. $1 - 99 - 47 6. F. divided c9 1 25 of sugar among 19; what had each?
Ans. CO 1 27+ 7. G. sold his farm of 300 acres for $3875 50; what was that an acre:
Ans. $12 - 91 - 83+ 8. H. bought b.450 - 3 2 of 16 different men; what had he of each?
Ans. b28 . 0 5+ GRAMMAR. LESSON 24. Relative Pronouns. A relative pronoun is that which relates to some foregoing noun or pronoun, which is therefore called its antecedent.
Of this class there are only three; viz: who, which and that.
But that, is a relative pronoun only when it can be changed into who or which.
Who, has case attached to it, and is capable of being declined, as: nom. who, possessive whose, odjective whom.
Interrogative Pronouns. There are three interrogative pronouns, who, which, and what; for they are used in asking questions.
Who and which
may relate to some foregoing noun, and be relatives at the same time they are interrogatives. Hence, relative, interrogative pronoune.
Which and what, may be joined to nouns, and become adjective pronouns, and still used interrogatively. Hence, adjeclive interrogative pronouns.
Nore. There are many similar distinctions in the relations of words, and their application to practical purposes, all of which need vot necessarily be known in order to constitute a sufficient acquaintance with the language.
SPELLING.--Lesson 25. budg-et būdj'it bur-den būr'dn bus-tle būs'tl buf-fet buf/fit bur-dock būr'dok bus-tler bús'iūr buf-Me būs/fi bur-gess būr'jes
bus-y biz'zē bug-bear būgʻbare burgh-er búrg'ŭr but-tler büt'lür build-er bild'úr bur-lace būr'läse but-ter būt'tur build-ing bild'ing bur-lesque būr'lěsk but-ton bắt'tn bul-bous bul'bus bur-ner búr'nŭr but-tress būt'tris bulk-head būk'hěa bur-net būrnit bux-om būks'um bulk-y búlk'kē bur-rel būr'ril buz-zard būz'zūrd bun-chy bùn tshề bur-row būr'ro cab-bage kābbidje bun-dle būn'd! bur-then búr't'hěn cab-in kăb'bin ban-glo băng gì bur-y běr're
cac-kle kak2k1 bun-gler bũng glūr
Cheese, Salt, fc. Ma. My daughters, I hope you will early learn to form just notions of persons and things', and not allow yourselves to be carried away by fanciful whims', and fashionable caprice'; nor by the current of popular prejudice'. Pray what preparation of food', can stand the test of minute investigation? But we have wandered from our subject'.
Jane. Yes', Ma'. You observed that milk' or cream', was warmed', and then curdled by the aid of rennet'.
Ma. The milk or cream is divided by this operation into two parts'; the curd or coagulated part', and tho whey or watery part'.
The curd is pressed dry', and salted'. It is then formed into one large mass', put into a boop or vat', and pressed together'; this forms the cheese'.
Jane. What a useful article salt is!
Ma. It is', indeed', my child'; not only in giving food a pleasant flavour', but in preserving it from corruption'.
Mary. Then', Ma', do tell us something about it.
Ma. Salt is procured from sea-water', salt springs', or mines'. When made from sea-water' or salt springs', the water is collected into open, shallow vats', and exposed to the rays of the sun'; the heat draws of the watery parts in the form of a vapour, and leaves the salt'; this is collected', cleansed', and made fit for use'; or the water is sometimes boiled away in kettles, and the pure salt is lelt'.
Jane. You said', Ma', that it was procured from mines'; where are the mines'?
Ma. They are found in various parts of the world'. The most noted are in Cracow in Poland'. In America, there are said to be whole mountains of pure rock salt'; one of which will afford enough to supply the whole world for a thousand years.
Of Miced Nunbers. In the foregoing operations of division, several small remainders have been left which are called fractions. They are in fact a part of the dividend, and their value is determined by the divisor, which in reference to the remainder, may be regarded as unity; for as often as the divisor is had in the dividend, so often is unity placed in the quotient. Hence, remainders are fractional parts of unity, or one. They are expressed thus: į 1, 2, 1, 1, 3, 5, 4, 13, t, f, &c. These are vulgar fractions. When the fraction is expressed with the whole number, they are together, called mixed numbers, thus: 31, 41, 53, 11}, 167, 1313. In vulgar fractions, the smaller or upper term is called the Numerator, and the lower term or larger, the Denominator.
Î'hey are read thus: 1, one fourth; }, one half; 4, two fourths; ž, one third; ž, three fifths; 163, sixteen, seven ninths, or less than 17.
Exercises in Parsing. Rule 11. Relative pronouns must agree with the nouns to which they relate in person, number, and gender, as: the boy who reads with you, speaks well.
In this example, who, is a relative pronoun, referring back to the noun boy for its antecedent, and agreeing with it in person, number and gender, rule 11, and is the subject of the verb reads.
Mary, whom you teach, loves her book. The man who rode with you is a friend. Those whom we love, your friends
love. The things which are sinful, do not. Who reads this lesson? Which of you will read? Where is the book which Joseph gave you? What is your name?
What is your name? Whom sees he? Whom did he marry? What wants be? . Whom love you? Which book is yours? Which is hers? Whose pen is this? Who loves his book? What have they done?
SPELLING.---LESSON 29. cal-ice kal'is
can-dy kăd'de cap-tain káp tín cal-id kăl'id can-ker kăng kůr cap-tious kắp'shús cal-let kål/lēt can-non lăn năn cap-tive kăpʻtiv cal-lous kăl'lūs can-not kăn'not cap-tor k=p'tur cal-low kăl lo can-on kă n'ün
cap-ture kăp'tshūre că m-el kă m'ěl can-ter kăn'tūr car-at kărăt cam-lit kămʻlit can-thus khăn?t his car-ol karù1 cam-phire kim?fir can-tle knot) car-rot kār'rūt can-cel kằn’sil cant-let känt'lit
car-ry kărre cail-cer bănosur can-to lăn tỏ
cas-sock kăs'suk can-did kăn'did can-ton kõn'tăn
cast-er kăst'ur can-dle kă n'di
can-vass kă n'văs cas-tle kăs's1 can-dour kăn'dūr
cap-stan kăp'stăn READING.-LESSON 30.
Salt, Sall-peler, s.c. Mary. Ma', do tell us something more about the salt mines' and mountains'. Does not the rain dissolve them'?
Ma. The mines', my child', are deep under ground'; and in. that at Cracow', there are houses', chapels', and streets of pure rock sālt', which', when illuminated', present a most beautiful scene!
Jane. How astonishing', Ma'! It must be beautiful indeed'. pe: Ma. There are several kinds of salt'. But the common salt of which we have been speaking is the most useful of all the saline substances'. Though some of the other kinds are equally capable of resisting putrefaction', there are none so friendly and agreeable to the taste and the stomach. It is pleasant not only to us', but all animals show a fondness for it."
Jane. Has salt any other uses', Ma', besides those of giving flavour to food and preserving it in a wholesome state?
Ma. Many other uses', my child'. It is used to glaze or vitrify the surface of pottery. This is done by throwing a quantity of it into the furnace where the clay is baking'; it is there volatilized by the heat', in which state it applies itself to the surface of the pottery'.
Mary. Volatilized', Ma', what does that mean?
Ma. It means that the coarser parts are drawn off in the form of a vapour. Common salt is used in making glass'; it renders it whiter' and clearer!.
Mary. How pleasing it is to know all these things! Pray', Ma', is sall-peter a preparation of common salt?
Ma. It is not'; salt-petre', or', more properly', nitre', is sometimes found in its native state, perfectly pure'; but it is inore generally mixed with earthy substances This is also used in glass making'; and likewise in making powder!. It is highly inflammable
Mary. Here comes the candles'! Well, my work is done', and after supper, comes the Geographical game'. To-morrow we'll ask Ma about gun-powder'.
Addition of Mixed Numbers. Rule. In fractions, add the numerators into one sum, and divide by the denominator; set the remainder under the column of fractions, and carry the quotient to the whole numbers. (1) 13 1
37 Obs. When , one half is used for, tvo fourths, in the same column with fourths, it must be regarded as :
25 37 15 37 13 37
87 128 96 128 127 128 112 128
Exercises in Parsing. RULE 12. The Relative Pronoun is the subject of the verb. when no subject comes between it and the verb; as: the man who teaches you pleases your parents.
In this example, who, is a relative pronoun, agreeing with its antecedent man, in the third person, singular number, masculine gender, agreeably to rule 11, and is ibe subject of the rerb teaches, rule 12, for no subject comes between it and the verb.