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agrees with its subject pride, Rule 1; his, is an adjective pronoun, referring to the noun prospects, in possession, Rule 9; prospects, is a noun common, third person, singular number', of neither gender, and the object of the transitive verb destroycd, Rule. 3.

Hope, the charmer, lingers still behind. Clinton, the governor, lives near the capitol. Honour your parents, them that protected you. Mary has two brothers, James and John, them that were here last week. The butterfly, child of summer, flutters in the sun beams. Every leaf, twig, and drop of water, teems with life. Every man and mother's son is at work.

SPELLING.--LESSON 9. craf-ty krăf te

crim-ple krinı'pl cross-bow kros'bo crag-ged krăg'gěd crim-son krim’zn cross-ly krós'lē crag-gy kräg gõ crin-cle kring kl

cross-ness kros'něs crank-le krăngʻkl crip-ple krip'pl

cross-way kros'wă cred-it krēd'it crisp-ness krisp'nės crum-ble' krūm'bl cres-cent krēs'sẽnt crisp-y kris'pē

crum-my krūm'mē cres-cive krēs'siv crit-ick krit'ik crum-ple krūm'pl crest-ed krēst'ěd crop-ful krop'ful

crup-per krūp'pūr crest-less krēs'les crop-sick króp'sik cryp-tick krip'tik crev-ice krev'is

crop-per krop'pur crys-tal kris'tăl crib-bage krib'bidje cros-let krõs'let cud-den kūd'dn crick-et krik'it cross-bite kros bite cud-dy kūd'do


Brandy, Gin, Wine, fc. Mary. But, Ma' the drops distilled from the vessel of rose leaves', were perfectly colourless'.

Ma. All distilled liquors are colourless', and the dark hue of rum, &c. is subsequently produced by admixture of some other matter'.

Jane. But brandy is not produced from sugar'; is it Ma'?

Ma. Brandy is made of wine by a similar process'. It is distilled generally, from pricked or spoiled wine'; and the mode of doing it, practised in France, is esteemed the best'.

Janc. And Gin', Ma': we wish to know how that is made'.

Ma Gin, or Geneva', from Geneivre', the Juniper', is an ordinary inalt liquor', distilled a second time with the addition of Juniper berries'.

Mary. We have seen the Juniper', Ma', among the shrubberry'; and have often squeezed the berries to extract the perfunnet,

Jane. You said', Ma', that brandy is distilled from wine'; do inform us how wine is made'.

Ma. Wine is the fermented juice of vegetables'; of which there are many kinds'; but the wine made from grapes is by far the most valuable'. Mary. I have tasted of several kinds', Ma', and you

know we have the raspberry', the gooseberry's and the currant wines all of which are better, I think, than those which Pa drinks with the gentlemen who visit him'.


English and Federal Money. RULE 1. To reduce dollars to dimes, multiply by 10. Thus: 231X10=2310 dimes, and 2310:-10=231 dollars.

Rule 2. To reduce dollars to cents; multiply by 100. Tnus: 231X100=23100 cents, and 23100;100=231 dolls.

RULE 3. To reduce dollars to mills, multiply by 1000. Thus: 231 X 1000=231000 mills, and 231000-=-1000=231 dollars.

Note, Hence, it is obvious that to multiply by 10, is simply to add a cypher, and, by a 100, two cyphers, and, a 1000, three cyphers, &c, and to divide by those numbers, is nothing more than to cut off the cyphers respectively.

RULE 4, To reduce pence, N. Y. currency to cents, multiply by 12), and divide by 12. Thus: 1440 X 121=1800:-12=150 cents, and 150cts. X 12 =1800, and 1800-12}=144d. The proof, and also the mode of reducing cents to pence, N. Y. currency.

Rule 5. To reduce pounds in money to shillings, multiply

by 20.

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Thus: £231 X 20=4620s. and 4620-20=£231, proof.

Rule 6. To reduce shillings to pence, multiply by 12. Thus: 5.4620X12=55440d, and 55440:12=4620s.

RULE 7. To reduce pence to farthings, multiply by 4. Thus: d.55440X4=221760qr. and 221760---4=55440d.

Rule 8. To reduce pounds in money, N. Y. currency to dollars, multiply by 21, or by 20, and divide by 8. Thus: £234X2}=$585, and 585;21=£234, proof. Or, £234 X 20=4680s. --8=$585, and $585 X 8=4680---20= £234.


E.cercises in Parsing. RULE 16. Nouns or pronouns, used in the form of a direct address, are said to be in the Nominative case independent. As: My son, give me your heart.


In this example, The noun son is not an agent that performs any act, but is merely addressed by another agent; hence it is independent of any verb, and acknowledges no government, nor does it hold any agreement with any other word in the sentence. Case in fact does not attach to it; yet it has been found convenient to call it the nominative case. In parsing, you will merely run over its qualities, and say nominative case independeni.

Mary, has Jane left the room? James, bring me your copy. Child, your conduct is faulty. Hope, aid my efforts. Hoy, shut the door.

Obs. 1. The nominatire case independent, is always in the

second person.

George, how old are you? Mary, hear John read. Joseph give him a book. Stand up my boy, and read with care.

OBs. 2. For the sake of brevity in speech, the prepositions, to and for, are generally omitted, but in parsing, they must be supplied, as:

Boy, give me your attention, or, boy, give your attention to me, or, boy, give to me your attention. Mary, provide mo a seat, or, Mary, provide for me a seat.

SPELLING.-LESSON 13. cud-dle kūd' di cun-ning kūn'ning curt-sy kúrt'së cud-gel kūd'jil cup-board küp'burd cus-tom küs'tüm cul-dees kül'dēze cup-per kup'pur cus-trel küs'trěl cull-er kül'lūr curd-le kurd'di cut-lass kūt'lăs cull-ion kūlyun

curd-y kurd'de cut-ler kūt lūr cull-y kül'le

cur-few kur'fū cut-ter kūt'tur cul-prit kūl'prit cur-lew kūr'lū cut-throat kūt'throte cul-ter kül'tur cur-rant kurorăn cut-ting kūt'ting cul-ture kül'tshūre current kūr'rent

cyg-net sig'nět cul-ver kül'vůr cur-rish kūr'rish cym-băl simbăl cum-ber kum'búr cur-ry kurrë

cyn-ick sin’ik cum-brous kūm'brúscur-ship kūr'ship cys.tis sis’tis cum-frey kŭm'frē curst-ness kŭrst'něs cys-tick sis’tik cum-in kūm'min cur-tain kūr'tin


Different kinds of Fermentation. Jane. In describing the mode of making wine', you said', Ma’, it was the fermented juice of vegetables'; what is fer“ mentation'?

Ma. Fermentation is the state into which vegetables pass when deprived of the vital principle. The juice of gathered fruits, ferments or, if fruit is left too long on the tree, it soon becomes fermented".

Jane. I have observed in some very ripe gooseberries, a peculiar sour taste', or an over ripe flavour' Is not that fer-. mentation'?

Ma. The gooseberries exhibited the first stages of it probably'; for there are three distinct kinds of fermentation which generally succeed each other'. The first is the vinous', or spiritous'; the second is the acetous', or acid'; and the third is the putrid fermentation'

Jane. Let me try to explain them', Ma', if you please'. The first, I imagine, produces wine'; the second, vinegar'; and the third presents the vegetable matter, what ever it is', in a spoiled state':

Ma. You have done well my daughter! Moderate heat is necessary to produce fermentation'; but a high degree of it', will produce the acetous fermentation instead of the vinous'.

Mary. I now remember', Ma', that the cook', last year', complained that the warm weather had turned her raspberry wine into vinegar'.

Ma. The addition of a little yeast', which is a product of the yinous fermentation', tends to quicken the operation of fermentation's

Mary. I thought vinous meant wine'; does it not Ma'?

Ma. That is the import generally', but in chemistry,', vinous means the first fermentation of vegetable juices'; and yeast is the first of that of malt'.


Reduction. Weights and Measures.— Troy Weight. 1. In lb.47 10oz. how many grains? Ans. 275520 gr. 2. Bring 12960 grains into ounces.

Ans. 27 oz3. Bring lb.3 - 10 - 17 - 5 into grains. Ans. 22235 gr.

4. A. sold 7 Ingots of silver each lb.23 - 5 - 7, at 4 cents a grain, to what did the whole amount?

Ans. cts.3781344=$37813.44

Avoirdupois Weight. 1. In 13 tons, how many quarters? Ans. 1040qrs.

13x20=260 X4=1040qrs. 2. Bring 36 quarters into pouuds. Ans. 100810.

3. Bring 17lbs. into onnces.

Ans. 27202. 4. Bring 2002. into drams;

Ans. 320dr. 5. Bring 892245oz. into tons. Ans. T.24 - 17 - 3 - 17 - 5. 6. Bring T.5 - 12 2 into quarters

Ans. 450qr. GRAMMAR. LEESON 16.

Of the Moods and Tenses of Verbs. Moon. Mood implies a particular form which the verb assumes to show the manner of the action which it expresses.

Note. 1. As the manuer of actions are various so the mode of representing them must also be various; to this end verbs must take different forms.

English verbs adopt five forms, called noods, to wit:

The Indicative mood, Subjunctive mood, Potential mood, Imperative mood, and Infinitive moods.

The Indicative mood. The indicative mood of a verb, is that form which it takes when it indicates or declares a thing, or when it denies a thing or asks a question, as:

The man walks. The man does not walk. Will the man walk?

Tense. Tense means time. Verbs refer to six divisions of it or, they have six tenses, to wit: The Present tense, Imperfect tense, Perfect tense, Pluperfect tense, and First and Second Future tenses, as: The man walks. The man walked. The man has walked. The man had walked. The man will walk. The man will have walked.

Note. 2. The verb expresses the act, with the person and number of the agent or subject. Mood expresses the manner of the act, and Tense shows the time ořit.

Now, when you parse a verb, you can give its mood and tense, and you will soon be able to inflect it; that is, tell its changes of person and number through all the miods and tenses; and also distinguish the participles which are derived from them. This will fit you to enter upon the rules of syntax.

SPELLING.-LESSON 17. dab-ble dăb'bl dan-druff dăn'drúf debt-or dět'tūr dab-bler dăb'lūr dan-gle dáng dec-ade děk'ăd dac-tyl dak til dap-per dăp'pur deck-er děk'ur dad-dy dăd'de dap-ple dap pl del-ver děl'vur dag-ger dăg'ur dead-en děd'dn del-uge dělūje dag-gle dăg'g! dead-lift děd'lift dem-i děm'ě dal-ly dălle

dead-ly děd'lē des-cant děs'kănt dam-age dă m'āje dead-ness děd'něs des-sert děz’zért dam-ask dăm'ŭsk deaf-en děflen dev-il děv'vi damp-y dămp'ē deaf-ly deffle dex-ter dēks'těr dam-sel dăm'zēl deaf-ness děf'něs dex-tral děks'trăl dam-son dăin'zn death-like dět'h'lik dib-ble dib'lē danc-er dans'ūr debt-ed dět'ěd dic-tate dik'tā-te

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