« 이전계속 »
Jane. Poor thoughtless child! I feel now as though I wanted to take hold of her', and draw her away from the fire'.
Na. Her error is a very common one';-many people think they are safe, while engaged in the very act by which others have suffered', and have found their mistake totheir cost'.
Jane. Poor Miss Foster found to her cost', that she could not always escape.
Ma. Indeed she did! While reading', intently', close by the fire', a coal fell on her muslin frock', and in a moment she was wrapped in a blaze!
Decimal Fractions.-Multiplication. Rule. 1. Place the factors, whether mixed or pure, as in whole numbers, and multiply accordingly.
2. Point off to the right of the product, as many places as there are decimals in both factors.
3. Proof as in the Multiplication of whole numbers.
(1) .0261X.0035=.00009135, and .000091357.0035 =.0261 Proof. (2) .625 X.625=
(3) 32.146 X.81= (4) .6009 X.0009=
(5) 7.346 X 1.234= (6) 3.7641 X3.605=
(7) 13.334 X 5.326= Note. In the first example, the decimals in both factors amount to eight, but the significant figures in the product are only four; hence, four cyphers mire prefixed, by which the valise of the .9135 is divinished ten thousand foll. Therefore the product of a fraction, or even a mixed number, multiplied by a decimal fraction, is less than the multiplicand; for.50 or 2-4 multip jed by 50 or 2-4 equal.25 or 1-4, The same result may be produced by division, thus: .50- 2525 consequently, the multiplication of any numbers by a decimal fractirn, serves to diminish the value of that number, by as much as the fraction falls slort of unity.
GRAMMAR. LESSON 36.
of Defective Verbs. There are a few verbs which cannot be used in all the inoods and tenses, and which have no participles. These are styled Defective verbs; they are generally employed as helping verbs.
The Defective verbs used in the present time, are, may, can, must, will, shall, and ought; and those employed in the imperfect time, are, might, could, must, would, should, ought, and quoth; but the two last are never made helping verbs. Must, is the same in all the tenses, and ought, is rendered in the inperfect time, only when it is followed by a verb in the infinitive mood, perfect tense, as: Mary ought to have walked. She
ought to have gone. The boy ought to have given a proper
If Ann can write, she ought to write. The child ought to read, write, and spell.
In the first example, ought is a defective, transitive verb, indicative mood, imperfect tense; and agrees with its subject Mary, in the third person, singular number, rule 1,—to have walked, is a regular, intransitive verb, infinitive mood, perfect tense and is governed by the verb oughi, rule 19, which says, a verb in the infinitive mood may be governed by a verb.
SPELLING.-LESSON 37. mcr-sion měr'shún mill-cog milkog mir-ror mir'rur mes-sage měs'sidje mill-dam mil'dăm mirth-ful měrt'h'ful met-al met't] mil-ler mil'lur mis-chief mis'tshif meth-od met'h'üd mil-let millit mis-len mis'lin mid-day mid'da mil-lion mil'yun mis-sile mis'sil mid-dle mid'dl mim-ick mim'ik mis-sion mis'shun mid-dling midling min-gle min'gl mis-sive mis'siv mid-night midnite min-im min'nim mis-ter mis'tur mid-riff mid'drif
min-ion min'yun mis tress mis'tres mid-sea mid'sē min-now min'no
mis-ty mis'te mil-dew inil'dū min-ster min'stūr mit-tins mit'tinz milk-ev milk'n mint-age mint'idje mixt-ly mikst'lē milk-er milk'ŭr mint-er mint'ur miz-zen miz'zn milk-pale milk ́pāil min-um min'num mob-by mòb'bē milk-y milk'e min-ute min'nit mock-er mok'kūr:
READING.--LESSON 38. Mary. Was there no body in the room to assist in putting the fire out'?
Ma. Yes'; her younger sisler was there'; but her fright was such that she could render no assistance'; she stood shrieking by the side of the sufferer!.
Jane. Oh! Ma! what a scene!! what agony the ill fated girl must have felt', both of body and mind!
Ma. And yet it is nothing more than your sister Mary may realise', if she continues her imprudent habit of crawling close to the fire',
Mary. Oh! indeed, Ma! I hope I am not destined to suffer such a death'.
Ma. Why', my child', if you expose yourself as others have done', you lay yourself open to the visitation which others have met'. Like others', you are mortal'; like others', you are sensible to pain', and liable to aceident'; why', therefore',
should you not', like others', pay the penalty due to rashness', and disobedience'?
Mary. But', Ma', I will', indeed', try to obey you', and keep away from the fire'. Now go on with the story', if you please'.
Ma. The shrieks of the two girls, reached the ears of a servant in an adjoining room', who ran to their assistance! With great presence of mind', she snatched the hearth rug, and wrapped it round the suffering girl and extinguished the flames'. But, alas! the relief came too late! All that could be done by medical and surgical aid, was done, but to no effect'; after suffering for about twelve hours' the most heart rending tortures,' she resigned her breath'.
Deciinal Fractions.-Division. RULE. 1. Place the given terms for operation, and proceed therein the same as in division, whether long or short, of whole numbers.
2. Point off to the right of the quotient, as many places for decimals, as tho decimal places in the dividend exceed those in the divisor.
3. If the places in the quotient fall short, supply the deficiency by prefixing cyphers.
4. When a remainder occurs, cyphers may be added and the operation continued to any given degree of accuracy.
5. The Proof is the same as in division of whole numbers. Thus: (1).192800--032=6.025 Ans, and 6.025X.032.=
.192800 Proof. (2) 2.734:51.2=
(8) 31.416-3.625= (4) 2--1.8875
(5) 1.•.99= (6). 5.5-.625=
(7) 2.251.125= Note. Fractions, divided by fractions, produce whole numbers, or figures which approximate nearer to whole numbers than did either dividend or divisor.
Of Verbs, Parliciples, &c. Mr. Murray divides the verb into three kinds; the active, passive, and neuter. This distinction appears to be based upon characteristics derived from the subjects or agents to wbich the verbs respectively refer. These are also of three kinds. The agent that performs the act which is expressed by the active verb; the agent which receives the act expressed by the passive verb, and the agent to which belongs the state of being expressed by the neuter verb. Thus:
The active agent, as: Mary writes a letter; the box rolls.
The passive agent, as: a copy is written by Mary; the box is rolled.
And the neuter agent, as: the boy is well; the tree is dead.
Hence, the kind of verb may be readily determined by the character of the agent or nominative case.
Sometimes the neuter verb is placed before the past participle of an intransitive verb; as: the boy is gone. This forms what Mr. Murray styles a neuter verb in a passive form.
Sometimes the neuter verb is put before the present participle, as: the boy is writing a copy; this is what is called an active transitive verb, or if the participle is derived from a neuter verb, then the whole is termed neuter.
SPELLING,LESSON 41. mod-el mod'di moth-er mõt'h'ùr mur-der mŭr'dūr mod-ern mod'dărn mot-ley mot'lē murk-y múrk’ē inod-est mòd'dist mox-a möks'ă
mus-cat mūs'kåt mol-lient mol'yént mud-dle mòd'dl mus-cle mūs's! mon-arch mõn'nàrk mud-dy múd'dē musk-cat mūsk'kặt mon-day mūn'de mud-wall mŭd'wal musk-y musk'ē mon-ey mŭn'no
muf-fle muf'i mus-lin mūz'lin mong-rel mūn'gril muf-ti muf'të mus-tard mūs'turd monk-ey mũnk'ké mug-gy mug'gē mus-ter mūs'tūr monk-ish múnk'ish mul-ler múllur
mus-ty mūs'të mon-ster mõn'stur mul-lin mül'lin mut-ter mŭťtūr month-ly mũnt'h'le mul-let mullit mut-ton mut'tn mop-sey mop sẽ mum-ble mům'bl muz-zle mūz'zi mor-al mõr'ră mum-my múm'mē myr-tle měr'tl mos-tick mos'tik mum-per mum'púr mys-tic mis'tik
Reflections, Cottan Plant, fc. Mary. Oh! Ma, I shall never forget this story'. How the poor girl must have suffered'! What a change in all her hopes and prospects' in the space of twelve short hours! The thought makes me dread the fire!
Ma. I hope', my daughter', the remembrance of this sad catastrophe will lead you to avoid the risque of a like painful death!
Jane. Muslins and calicoes are so very easily set on fire', and they búrn so quick', that I think they must be dangerous. clothing for children'.
Ma. They certainly are'; and yet na fabric is more gene-.
rally worn'. It is so abundant and cheap, that the poor find it more convenient than any other fabric.
Mary. I suppose cotton is the material of which muslins and calicoes are made'; where does it grow', Ma'?
Ma. It grows in Asia', Africa', and America'. Some of the cotton plants are annuals'; that is, they live but for one season'; others are perennials', and live many seasons. These are pruned', and not allowed to grow above four or five feet high'. The pods in which the cotton is enclosed, are gathered twice a year'; in November and in February'. These pods are generally as large as a good sized apple'; and, when picked', they are dried in the sun' When dry', and the outer husks are taken off', and the seeds taken out by a mill', then the cot: ton is picked clean by women', packed in large sacks', and sent to market'.
Exercises in the Foregoing Rules. 1. Find the amt. of 16.1235+3.16125+362,5+7.53785 +75.16125.
2. Find the difference between 12.3625+-19.571, and 23.87125 +1.13275.
3. Find the product of 136.2235 X 3.04-132.3525 4. Find the result of 21.123X5.52_121.16875--2.375, 5. Find the result of 19.1375X3.16—375.1551-3.335.
5. A. bought 13.51, 5.625, 3.1625 cords of wood, and burnt 11.5, and sold 5.125 cords, what was left?
Ans. 3.6725. 7. B. bought 136.375 bu. of wheat, for $119.875, and sold . 49.25 bu. fo. $57.375, What had he left in wheat, and what was its cost?
Ans. 87.125 bu. and $68.5. GRAMMAR.-LESSON 44.
Inflection of the Neuter verb, To Be. Note. I have often experienced much difficulty in enabling the pupil to un derstand the nature of the passive verb, and have therefore thought proper to treat the auxiliar, as the principal verb, and the associate verb as a past participle. also separate the neuter verb from the present participle.
Indicative Mood.-Present Time.