페이지 이미지

able part of France. With regard to Russia, which This, as we have intimated, requires to be was returning to Asiatic barbarism, it was a profound

worked out by our readers in their own way ; judgment which prompted Comte, more than fifty years ago, to substitute the West' for Europe,' thus

in such a necessarily compact review the ethical counting Russia as completely outside the order and thread is not apparent on the surface; but it progress which he included in the former term. is there for those who have an eye to see it, as * Earope' was a geographical expression, and they

indicated in the ironical phrase "moral conmust never use the word as connoting civilisation or the vanguard of mankind. They must never forget

tinuity.” Thank thee, my Lord Rosebery, for that Russia and Turkey, alone in Europe, stood outside that tag! As to the Uganda outcry, that has civilisation in its highest form, and could never be spent itself for the present; the ultimate admitted without danger and disgrace to the political results may serve Mr. Harrison for another combinations of the Western aggregate. We could not

New Year's Day oration, say in 1895. As to reform them nor school them, and it was absurd to scold them ; we had quite enough to do to reform our. those "who are not so much convinced of the selves, and we must leave them alone to work out their moral character of the Empire "-whoever own destinies, as it was our duty to leave the Chinese." may be hit by that curiously elusive dictumHere, in passing, we may remark, whilst

there has been food for reflection in the wild leaving. Russia to Mr. Harrison's tender

shriek emitted by even the more ponderous of mercies, there is something to be said for the our daily journals at the bare prospect of some much abused Turk from the international point

design on the part of the present Ministry to of view. Whatever we may think of the

smash up Morocco. On the other hand, the administration of rapacious Pashas, the Sultan

same journals not only make no account of, but and his ministers have usually observed their

rather conspire to hide the grossly immoral treaty obligations when they have had a fair character of the policy, pursued for months, chance given them, and often to their own

if not years past, by the Indian Government hurt. The speaker's remarks on the perplexing

against the Ameer of Afghanistan. W. situation in France are worthy of note, he having very special knowledge of that nation; PATRIOTISM : TRUE AND FALSE. but we wish he could have made more allowance for the misfortunes of the French people, the What is patriotism? Can the true be fostered chief of which is distinctly pointed out in the and the false discouraged? These are imporabove passage. Let us rather consider our tant questions, which go to the very root of the own ways, and see ourselves as others see us, peace movement; but they have hardly received even these Positivists. Certainly we have our adequate attention, we think. The recent own hands full. Thus proceeded the mentor address of Mr. James Bryce, M.P., to the head of our professional politicians :

teachers of London, and the letter to the “A new Ministry, charged with the hopes and

London School Board from the Earl of Meath, promises of six years, had taken office, and yet, when will, however, arouse general attention to this they surveyed the Empire, how little it had changed. | subject. Its discussion may make our ideas "An Amurath, an Amurath succeeds.' It was the

more clear than they are at present. That they boast of the party lately in power, as of their successors, that 'moral continuity' was maintained. The British

are not as distinct as they should be was Empire was unchanged-there was but one Imperial frankly declared at the Berne Peace Congress statesman the more. To those who were not so much by the Dutch Society, “Pax Humanitate"; convinced of the moral character of the Empire, it

and its members expressed a desire that the would seem as if the advent of the Liberal party to

Congress Committee for 1893 should prepare a office were rather a sign of its inflation than of its retrenchment. When the Liberal party was in

full report on the ideas described as “Love of Opposition, its criticism was a check upon the standing Fatherland.” The Lombard Union and Mr. conspiracy of fire-eaters, traders, and missionaries to Felix Moscheles also moved resolutions—the enlarge our boundaries and absorb new lands. The

first that the relations between the two ideas empire had become rather a burden and a danger than a strength; it was an unwieldy, amorphous, and im

of humanity and nationality should be defined ; possible agglomeration of heterogeneous fragments, with and the latter that it should be considered no element of permanent cohesion, often debauching “how the sentiment of nationality may be the nation, leading it from one crime to another, and

reduced to its just proportions." drawing it off from its true duties. With these sentiments, Mr. Harrison went on to consider the

It is high time, then, that we should, in these question of Uganda, quoting with approval from a columns, commence the discussion. Before protest written by Professor Beesly, on behalf of the going further, let us see what light Mr. Bryce Positivist Society, against the retention of that country.

can give us. He fully acknowledged that He termed it Midsummer madness,' the grounds on

“there is really less interest taken in which this had been urged, and said he would not

our believe that Mr. Gladstone and Mr. Morley were bent national life and achievements than there used upon it. He prophesied that long before we could to be," and he urged the head teachers to adopt obtain our tea, bams, and shirts from Uganda, we

such instruction as appeared fitting to strengthen should be sore tested to find food for the forty million

“ loyalty to the State and the municipality." mouthat home, and that a score of different flags would be flying over those patches which were now

The Earl of Meath has followed suit by offering marked red on the map of the world."

£50 for the purchase of Union Jacks, and by

suggesting that periodical lectures of a national of such pride and inspiration as this kinship and patriotic character should be given to the gives us ? Surely not! children of the Board schools of London.

This justifiable, and, indeed, noble, pride need Now, it is easy to call names, instead of not, in any degree, diminish our admiration for giving a careful consideration of these sugges

true greatness or goodness, wherever it is to be tions, by applying to them the term "Jingoism." found. It would be a folly, and a grievous Nick-names, however, are not arguments, and fault, to shut our eyes to the great services it always seems to us like striking below the which men of other climes have rendered to belt to meet the honest opinions of those who

humanity. We are not to limit our sympathies differ from us by resorting to ridicule. That is nor our feeling of brotherhood to men of our all very well for sects and parties, but it does

own race; we are not to limit our horizon to not become men entrusted with a great cause, that of our own country. Every race and every which should be raised above all sectional

people has its special gifts, from which the animosities.

world is the richer in knowledge and in joy. It is a very singular fact, which has often

We all need each other, and none of us may forced itself on the notice of the present writer, say: “This people is the better or the greater when travelling in foreign countries, that in than that other." England alone is to be found a large and in: | Yet, this readiness to recognise all that other creasing number of persons who—in the press communities than our own have done, or are and on the platform-never use the word doing, should not lead us to a false cosmo“patriotism” except to mock at it. Yet this politanism. I am not to forget my own can hardly be because they are generally capacities or my own responsibilities because radical in politics, for alike in republican France I find much to admire in others. Yet and republican America, as well as in absolu there is some danger of this error on the part tist Russia and monarchical Germany,patriotism

of many Englishmen at the present time. There has unlimited influence, and evokes the highest is such a reaction against false and inflated enthusiasm. Indeed in French schools it seems nationalism that they are ready to ignore more and more to take the place of religious altogether what is truly good in our history teaching.

and in our character. They are even ready to It is a matter, therefore, of great importance depreciate their own country, and its influence that we should, each of us, have a clear idea for good in the world. Such exaggeration must, on the subject, and communicate our convictions as it would in the individual, weaken selfto others. Now, is this sentiment, which is

respect, and the sense of capacity for great such a power in the world, and gives such duties towards mankind. Surely to dwell upon strong gratification, and calls forth the greatest our national faults too exclusively is to take personal sacrifices—legitimate or not?

from us the inspiration for great national Is it a source of good or of evil ? We reply duties, and to destroy the roots of a high and that there is a patriotism which is powerful for worthy national ambition. Alike in child. good in national life, as well as one which is hood, youth, and manhood, the remembrance powerful for evil. The conception of a true of what England has done for liberty, justice, patriotism may, we think, be obtained by giving and mercy, all the world over, must give us personality to a nation, for indeed it has one. courage to go forward and achieve fresh A nation, like an individual man, has its own victories of the same sort. character, the special circumstances of its origin The false form of Patriotism which leads and gradual growth; its history and hereditary men to think themselves braver, stronger or influence, its special hopes and aims, and, above better than others, and the boastful spirit all, it has special duties to humanity and the founded on ignorance of what others have done, world at large. It is therefore essential that has, we rejoice to say, greatly disappeared among every people should know what that purpose the working classes, and is rapidly vanishing and duty is, by knowing their record of great among the more cultivated sections of the ness and goodness, their past achievements on middle class. If it were not so, neither Mr. behalf of justice, truth, liberty, and religion. Bryce nor Lord Meath would have thought it Surely, we need all the inspiration possible in necessary to have called the attention of the this work-a-day life of ours, to lift us out of teachers of Board Schools to the “decay of selfishness, materialism, petty and personal patriotism. ambitions, love of ease, money, and pleasure. We may take this opportunity of referring What, next to the love of God, can so arouse to a matter of detail, which, however, illustrates us to noble exertions as the desire to be worthy our point of view; and of saying that we do of what is best in our nation's past-worthy of not like that part of Lord Meath's proposal our highest traditions, knowing that we are of which includes the exhibition of the “ Union the same blood as our great poets, teachers, Jack” in schools. That sort of demonstration, martyrs, and statesmen ? Are we to be ashamed although general in other countries, is not in

accordance with the higher type of Patriotism. contributed to the progress of the world. In The "flag" is unfortunately too much identified some such way we may be true to ourselves with associations of conquest and battle. We and be true to others at the same time. For do not wish our young men or our old men to the individual and for the nation, Shakespeare's have any pride in such vain glories, involving, words have an everlasting value-"To thine as they do, radically false ideas, which have own self be true, and it must follow, as the been productive of so much injustice and night the day, thou canst not then be false to misery.

any man.”

H. P. Our association has done its part in attacking that worst form of false patriotism which is THE REAL FINANCIAL NIGHTMARE. founded on notions of military pride and achievement, by inviting men of various Far be it from us to intervene in the battle countries to prepare papers on peace and war royal that is still raging in all parts of the for the use of schools. The great work which great financial field between the monometallists has to be done is to teach a true patriotism and the bimetallists. Yet as that field is wide, and a true spirit of fraternity towards men of and the struggle sometimes leads the combatall nations. Surely there is room in the mind ants into byways where they have a few moments for both principles, and the one does not exclude | leisure to note the geological formation or the the other. We should be glad if it were natural history of the region, we chance on possible to supplement our model chapter on some remarks or other of theirs that can be peace and war by one indicating the character understanded of the common people. Such a istics of true, as distinguished from false, passage we come upon in course of that set patriotism. It might take the form of sug speech delivered as if ex cathedra by the gestions for the use of school teachers and eminent banker, Mr. Bertram Currie, who, on managers, and we would recommend that the the motion for adjournment, proceeded to object should be effected by the delivery of demonstrate that the cult of the British popular addresses to young and old, and to all sovereign is as “all Lombard Street to a China classes of the population, the duty being under- orange” when compared with the vagaries of taken by the best informed and most eloquent bimetallism. That may be so, or it may not: of our public men. If the French celebrate this is nothing to us here. It is quite an their national anniversaries and the Americans incidental passage in his speech that concerns theirs, why should not Englishmen do the same? us and all Europe–let the Mints stamp and There are many great events which should count their coins as they may. We regret not every year be celebrated by the whole nation, being able to quote the text of the passage such as the Abolition of Slavery, the Bill of here; but Mr. Currie, having been asked to Rights, the Reform Bill, the Repeal of the Test explain what he meant by saying that the and Corporation Acts, the Repeal of the Corn | present financial troubles of the nation, and Laws, the Education Act. We suggest these at the “malady” that afflicts trade and industry hap-hazard; there are many others of perhaps (as witness our own shrinking trade returns) equal importance. It would be equally useful are due to causes “political rather than for the true education of our people to celebrate financial,” replied to this effect: the birthdays of men whose example it is good! « What he had in his mind and also expressed wa to remember and to imitate. Of such men are | this—that the assumed scarcity of gold is due to the Wyckliffe, Shakespeare, Milton, Bunyan, Wilber accumulations of the yellow metal by Russia, Germany, force, and many others. The celebration of

and other nations, not for currency, but war purposes,

and that the distress, if it does exist, is the result not such events, carried out under the auspices of

of scarcity of gold, but of heavy protective tariffs, our greatest citizens, would teach true and enormous and costly armies, and bad investments, such legitimate patriotism.

as in Argentina. These, in Mr. Currie's opinion, are On the other hand, the international spirit

the real causes of the distress from which the nations

are suffering, and to the removal or minimising of these might be fostered by deputations from our causes the bimetallists should direct their energies Universities on the occasion of great University rather than to futile efforts to put silver on an equality celebrations in foreign countries, or of anniver. with gold for currency purposes." saries held in honour of such events as the | As to the latter remark, we leave that to Mr. birth of Luther, the inauguration of the French H. R. Grenfell, Mr. A. J. Balfour, and Senator Revolution, the Independence of the United Jones. The evening paper (Pall Mall Gazette) States, and so forth. The delegates should be from which we quote, made this comment : required to represent our nation, and, on their “ While experts may argue and differ on the return, report in a fitting manner the results question of standards, there will be little difand circumstances connected with such anni ference of opinion as to the evils catalogued by versaries. This would associate our own Mr. Currie.” And, if due notice be taken of countrymen with the citizens of other nations the items italicised, we are much gratified to in the joint celebration of events which have be assured that “there will be little difference


present opinions as the peace most trusteese ar

mecumb to theoubled with

and some this question, are told that these

as to the evils” so specified, which we submit a year to her fighting forces. In 1870 she could at the are of at least ten times more weight in the

utmost bring 7,000,000 of soldiers into active service

She now disposes of 12,500,000, and will soon havi scale of international impoverishment than the

22,000,000. The conclusion Captain Molard draws i “bad investments, &c.” But it is not enough to that Prince Bismarck's policy of blood and iron and the have this admitted. Who are the men who seizure of Alsace-Lorraine have given rise to thes will “ direct their energies to the removal of 1 monstrous facts, and that every nation might be led to

disarm were restitution made by Germany to France these causes” that are depressing industry and

He takes his military statistics, he says, from official making honest traders despair ? For we want sources only. such men to help us. It is necessary, however, that men who see these facts should realise

UGANDA : A REJOINDER. their overwhelming weight. Here and there a rising politician does realise that, above all ' It would be difficult to exaggerate the feelings other causes combined it is War, its deeds of of sorrow with which some of the staunchest destruction, its reducing to a cipher the pro- | supporters of the principles usually set forth ductive powers of millions of men, its crushing in this journal read the article on this subject weight of debt, and its intolerable annual in the last number, signed “H. P.” These are charges that weigh down the nations and per- the initials of one of the most trusted and petuates that unrest of society which is the devoted leaders in the Peace movement, with bane of our modern civilisation. And yet whose opinions as expressed in CONCORD the those same politicians, when they rise into the present writer has on almost every occasion ranks of statesmen, become "troubled with found himself in entire agreement. Our regret, many things,” and succumb to the delusion of then, may easily be appreciated when we found “Force, the only remedy.” There are a few in the article alluded to opinions expressed students of social and commercial dynamics which we cannot help thinking singularly at such as the late Emile de Laveleye and others, i variance with those usually proceeding from whose names will occur to our readers, who the same pen, and on one of the most burnalways realise the crushing effect of this night- | ing questions of the day. mare of the nations. But such men are seldom Now we venture to think that “H. P.," called into effective positions where they could | and some other good men who take the same give force to their convictions; and, meantime, side on this question, are misled by the the proletariat, maddened with misery, strike, missionary view. We are told that these out against the "agencies of production” and missionaries have gone out to this country are blind to the one great tyrant of war with for the good of the natives, that they have its mockery of armed peace, that is really crush already succeeded in converting large numing them to the earth. One method of getting bers of them, and that all their work will men of responsibility and influence to see what be destroyed unless we occupy the country. "the enemy" really is, would be to promote a Well, it may be doubted, in the first place, more practical and life-like study of the facts whether the religion and civilisation which of the perpetual waste of war and its prepara are said to be taken by the missionaries are tions. As a small contribution to this urgently necessarily the most appropriate for a race needed course of study, we subjoin a striking whose nature and development is utterly statement by a French military statistician, for different from ours; and, in the next place, which we are indebted to the Paris correspondent even granting that our religion and civilisaof the Daily News :

tion are the blessings they are claimed to be, THE GROWTH OF EUROPEAN ARMIES.

we cannot admit that for one moment as an

argument in favour of this policy of annexaCaptain Molard, of the Military School of St. Cyr, has

tion of territory which does not belong to us, published a pamphlet on the armies of Europe and their relative growths since 1869. France had then militia

of which we have seen so much in the last and regular soldiers to the number of 1,350,000 men;

few years. We can understand and appreGermany, 1,300,000; Russia, 1,100,000; Austria, ciate the heroic labours of many Christian 750,000 ; Italy, 570,000; Switzerland, 150,000 ; and

missionaries both in ancient and modern Belgium, 95,000. This year the French army has risen to 2,500,000, the German to 2,417,000, the Russian to

times, though we may not accept their 2,451,000, the Austrian to 1,050,000, the Italian to

principles, who have gone with their lives in 1,514,000, the Swiss to 212,000, and the Belgian to their hands and preached what they believed 128,000. When the new military laws come into full to be the truth to savage races, and frequently effect the French will comprise 4,350,000 men ; the

laid down their lives in the cause for which German, 5,000,000; the Russian, 4,000,000; the Austrian, 1,900,000; the Italian, 2,236,000 ; the Swiss,

they worked. But of all the curious pro489,000 ; and the Belgian, 258,000. The military ducts of the latter end of the nineteenth estimates of Russia, Germany, Italy, Denmark, Sweden, century, we can hardly imagine a more Norway, and Roumania have more than doubled since

amazing specimen than the Christian mis1869. The Swiss army estimates were in that year 2,500,000 francs. They are now 45,000,000. Europe

sionary demanding to be protected by Maxim now devotes nearly five milliards of francs ($200.000.000) | guns and repeating rifles. These men we of the Germans, Portuguese, English adventurers, &c., nearer home whose fetters we might do some “They WILL go there!" All that I want is that we, thing to unloose before taking upon ourselves or any other Government–they all, too, will go therethe duty of delivering those in Africa. And,

that this que for the purpoho would not of the

aeither understand nor appreciate, and we India), so that in the end he may enjoy all the decline to support this land-grabbing policy in privileges of the pursuit of health and happiorder to please them,

ness enjoyed by the Sheffield grinder and the But even supposing that the missionaries are

Staffordshire potter ?” all that their friends believe them to be, is it There is, of course, much to be said on this not perfectly clear that they have been mere

question from the economic point of view, but tools very cleverly handled by the financial

in these columns we are only concerned with speculators who have had to acknowledge the the ethical side of the question. If it is morally inability of their officials to manage the country wrong to annex land which does not belong to they were supposed to control? This it seems

you, no arguments as to trade and commerce is the “up-to-date” method of annexation. can be listened to for a moment. And it canFirst of all, some missionaries are sent out,

not be too often repeated that what is morally and then the trading company, really only

wrong in the case of individuals cannot be intent on getting territory and “exchanging

right in the case of nations. There are unworthless beads or poisonous liquor for valuable

fortunately a few honourable and enlightened ivory and pearls," steps in and claims that it is

men like “ H. P.” who have honestly convinced aiding and supporting the religious and civi themselves that the annexation of Uganda is lising work of the missionaries.

right. But these men have not the power to In the case of Uganda the Company makes insist that their policy is carried out, and they a mess of things, and its wonderful policy ends

will find when too late that they have been, in a fiasco. Then the missionary argument is

like the missionary, mere tools in the hands of again trotted out, and we are told that the unscrupulous traders, “men who care nothing Imperial Government must step in and protect for the 'honour of England,' though they loudly their work. Now, we say again, that we believe prate of it; and nothing for civilisation, save that this argument is used by interested per

what they can make out of it." SODS, simply for the purpose of throwing dust

One word more. Our forefathers in the days in the eyes of good men, who would not be in

of Elizabeth roamed about the world annexing fluenced by arguments about trade or the

the land of other people, but they never dreamt spread of British influence. And, verily, they

of apologising for so doing, or pretended that have succeeded, we should imagine, beyond it was done for the benefit of those from whom their wildest hopes; and we have the curious the land was stolen. They did not go about spectacle of men who have all their lives been

with cant phrases — "sphere of influence," opposing a policy of aggression and annexation “suzerainty,"" mission of civilisation,” and the supporting the retention of Uganda. We

like. We wish their successors and imitators suppose we shall next find these same sup

of the present day would be as honest. We porters of the policy of missionary propaganda

should then know where we were, and there plus buccaneering proposing an expedition to

would be less chance of good men lending their reconquer the Soudan, in order that the bles

support to schemes of annexation destined, as sings of Christianity may be put before the we believe, to bring lasting dishonour on the Dervish tribes. And we may naturally infer

British name.

CALVUS. that we shall not hear any more from them of the policy which some of them have long ad

UGANDA. vocated of “ Egypt for the Egyptians."

But there is one more argument the sup- | [Extracts from a letter by Mr. Felix MOSCHELES to porters of the retention of Uganda bring for

H. P.] ward, and that is the "terrible African slave ... “For myself, I must say that I liked your trade," and the necessity of our putting a stop to

article and approved of it without reserve. I start

from the same standpoint that you take, when you say, it. Well, we suggest that there are slaves

should behave better than those adventurers. Spread

we must. We meet our fellow creatures on the consupposing we did set to work to abolish the

fines of civilisation, and we must either let them put slave trade in that country, in the words of an us into their stewing-pan, or devise means to cultivate able writer in a contemporary, "Who knows higher taste in them. If we could build a sort of whether, after half-a-century's heroic effort at Chinese wall, between us and them, that would, improving the industrial and political conditions

perhaps, be the best, but that being impossible, I

should like our best men to undertake the task of of the Africans, we may not stamp out utterly weaning them from some of the vices we have already the baneful institution of slavery and give him shaken off, as for instance, from stewing-pans and slave the glorious freedom of the Bombay factory raids ; but then we should come with new methods, hand, the liberty to earn his own subsistence

introduce and act up to the principles of Christianity,

not force upon them the Bible, the brandy bottle and wage by labouring fifteen hours a day (Sunday

our old blunderbusses. When I see that everything included, if we can square the missionary as in all round, at home, is based on disobedience to the

« 이전계속 »