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theless of importance, and will require much thought tained if there be the requisite determination to get at and care ; but for the present it suffices to broach the the truth. And we feel compelled to repeat our propoidea, to educate sovereigns and peoples up to the point sition of two months ago- so long as no serious attempt of entertaining it, and by discussion to perfect and give is being made to ascertain what the demands of the to it a practical significance. It is the habit oi the Dervish leaders are, and no effort to negotiate with human mind to regard all that savours of novelty with them, bloodguiltiness will lie somewhere if the slaying distrust-to declare, at first, every new suggestion as of the tribes goes on. "impossible” of application—to fall back upon human nature as inherently incapable of ever realising an ideal ; It is not worth while to bestow serious notice on the yet every-day experience demonstrates that what was insinuation of the French Press to the effect that these but a mere effort of the imagination at one time may renewed attacks by the tribes have been purposely probecome, and generally does become, at another time, a voked in order to found thereon fresh excuse for conreality which, when matured, the world wonders could tinued British control over Egypt. But these bitter ever have been dispensed with.

E. H. taunts seem to indicate what an invidious, not to say

false, position the English name has to sustain so long

as we postpone, without limit of terms or time, the NOTES.

fulfilment of our repeated international promises in THE SOUDAN AGAIN.-Since we referred in

respect of the temporary occupation of Egypt. Here our

we cannot undertake to examine the renewed plea for November number to the renewed movements of the tribes in the Soudan, further conflicts have arisen. On

protracted and indefinite prolongation of our domina

tion at Cairo, put forward in Mr. Alfred Milner's the 3rd instant a sanguinary engagement—though the

“England in Egypt," by far the most ably-written and numbers were small took place between Ambigol and

skilful of the many works that have appeared from Sarras, the latter well-known during the great Nile

English apologists on that subject. But we must conexpedition. On this occasion the Egyptian force

fess to deep regret that such a well-informed, though suffered severe losses, including one British officer of

only recent, student of the question, should have fallen the "army of occupation." Of course the tribesmen

back on the old and often-refuted arguments on behalf fell before the resources of civilisation, and "a number of Dervish horsemen are lying dead on the scene of the

of the impracticable object of renewed occupation of

the Soudan by Egypt. engagement"; and their "loss is believed to be heavy." The Anglo-Egyptian military authorities are doing their duty. Colonel Wodehouse, commanding at Wady Halfa, at once went to the front, and the Sirdar,

OUR FOREIGN CORRESPONDENCE. Kitchener Pasha, proceeded from Cairo to arrange for more shooting if the brave barbarians are desperate

FRANCE. enough to come on again.

THE New Year opens under sad auspices in France ; And now let us ask once more, What is the cause of the winter is severe, as hard for the peasants as for the this recrudescence? But we shall get no intelligible townspeople. In Paris, as well as in London, the poor answer, and this because no effort whatever has been without work, without bread, without fuel, throng the made by the Anglo-Indian authorities to investigate streets. Distress increases and strengthens the claims that cause ; and no such effort has been made because of all those who believe in the evil of our social system, the authorities at Downing-street do not insist that and who wish to change it for another which they consuch investigation shall be made. We shall be only too sider more clement to all and more equitable towards glad to be corrected as to this, but negative evidence the poor. supports this conclusion. There is just this allowance In the great disarray of factions caused by the action to be made in this particular instance. The Dervish brought against the Panama Company, and against approach appears to have been so stealthy, and their those politicians who are, rightly or wrongly attack on New Year's Eve so prompt and determined, accused of allowing themselves to be corrupted, all the that there was no opportunity for parley of any kind. revolutionary sects who are longing to transform the How this surprise should have happened is a question present state of society by violent means have gathered which no doubt the Sirdar will put sharply to the fresh courage, and appear to be organising themselves Intelligence Department; and if he does not the friends in view of approaching action, and one might be led of Captain Pyne may very properly inquire. Waiving to believe from certain indications that the era of these incidental questions, there can be no doubt that peaceful transformation only just beginning might be there is now ample opportunity-or that one can be brought to an untimely end, and that advanced parties, made-to ascertain what has been the proximate cause renouncing all lawful measures such as the Press, of the new advance of the tribes, and whether that is public speaking, and voting papers, are on the verge one that can be accounted for and removed. If it be of resorting to more rapid and apparently more effidue merely to desire for plunder, let that be clearly made cacious means, which are strangely hazardous, and ont, and public opinion will be satisfied. But it is which might in reality as easily lead to the ruin of xcarcely likely that the tribes will Aling themselves into the people's cause as bring about its victory. hopeless conflict with arms of precision merely for the It is strange to note that, at the very moment when devilry of it. Something was said, in course of a plea | peaceful ideas are so rapidly gaining ground in our for renewed invasion of the Soudan which appeared in international intercourse, that there should exist the Blackwood for December, that leaves it to be understood thought that social conflicts can be terminated only by that the tribes are still kept under blockade both on 1 violence. It would seem that the voice of the violent the Snakin side and on the hill. If this be so, that in parties alone can make itself heard, and that they alone itself is sufficient-including the misery caused by our

hold in their hands the secrets of the future and the destructive raids of 1884-6-to account for the despair destinies of men, to fashion as they may think proper. ing attacks of the hopeless hunger-bitten Soudanese. This we believe to be a great mistake. The true The present Ministry may be fairly expected to insist means of ending those conflicts which may arise od knowing the facts of the situation, which are not between nation and nation, between employers and likely to be got at through the “ordinary channels" | employed, or between those who possess much and either at Cairo or Suakin. Those channels are tainted those who possess nothing, is through a cordial and at the source. In any case, our Foreign Office cannot mutual understanding, reciprocal concessions and alford to be ignorant as to the actual condition and sacrifices to the common interests ; and this can only the demands of the tribes. These facts can be ascer- / be effected by the arbitration of just and honest men,

TAUHUL

without interest in the questions under discussion. | victims will be as ever the weak and lowly." Violence In many cases, even Parliament might be appealed to, brings forth violence, and this blind desire for revenge, the representatives of the people being well-fitted for | which has been awakened by all these inconsiderate arbitration between the different classes. But this is accusations, may perhaps lead us on to bloodshed. only possible on one condition-faith in the integrity Paris, January, 1893.

L. MARILLIER. and disinterestedness of the arbitrators, however these may be chosen ; the one important thing is to have

ITALY. entire faith in them. If more cordiality has been apparent in our inter

In the usual reviews of the year 1892, the Italian national dealings, if thoughts of hatred and revenge are

journals, including those which are most favourable to gradually giving way before new thoughts of unity and

continued armament, cannot pass over without notice concord, it is because in spite of the suspicious hostility,

the sad condition of Europe at the present time.

I will only give an extract from Il Popolo Romano, which, notwithstanding their mutual conventional

a semi-official journal, which involuntarily renders protestations, the Governments are constantly mani

| homage to the aspirations and efforts of the friends of festing towards one another, the people have begun to

peace in the following terms :have more trust in each other. By degrees they have

“It is evident,” it writes, “ that the finances of all become better acquainted, and this has led to less dis

the Powers must have been more or less affected in the like and greater faith and respect; consequently to more trust in the promises and belief in the sincerity of

year 1892 by the incessant armaments which, from

motives easily understood, must tend only those who were formerly only looked upon as disloyal

to adversaries, and this has given rise to the belief in the

increased uneasiness abroad. “The balance-sheet of undoubted sincerity of their explanations.

each State presents, with rare exceptions, a most

disheartening aspect, and this condition of affairs However, electors and elected, employers and em is eloquently characterised by the fact that the ployed, the middle and the lower classes of the same | budget of Italy shows a relatively satisfactory country, are unknown to each other, and still less do

result as compared with that of Austria-Hungary. they understand each other—on all sides they are fully | Briefly," continues the Government organ, “everyprepared to accept any accusation which may be made where debts and necessity for increasing taxation ; against the other. The working classes only look upon everywhere expedients resorted to, and further their employers as dishonest task-masters, and em economies and sacrifices on the part of the governployers in their turn are mostly inclined to treat all ments in order to help their home industries and the working-men's claims with contempt and mistrust. prevent the increase of discontent among the people They look upon these claims merely as the ill-dieguised whose condition is becoming each day more and more desire to possess themselves of other people's property. serious, as is sufficiently proved by the large strikes in All look upon each other with suspicion, and this dis England, Belgium, Germany, &c. trust exists in the centre of each social group. Con There is no exaggeration in the sad picture thus servative employers accuse Republican employers as drawn by Il Popolo Romano, indeed, more might being the cause of their ruin. The employed mistrust perhaps be added, and it must also be admitted that the one another, and do not hesitate to call each other traitors.

responsibility for such a state of affairs may be variously It is for this that recent events in our country are attributed according to the different views taken of it, more especially to be deplored.

but certainly cannot in any way be imputed to the All these rumours indefinitely increased by the organisers and apostles of the great movement in favour polemics of the Press, and the interested intrigues of a of arbitration and peace. few party men, have engendered a strange feeling of Several journals in various parts of Italy, and particu. uneasiness. Doubts have arisen as to the honesty, larly La Corrispondenza Verde of Rome, have published loyalty and straightforwardness of all political men articles concerning the Pan-Republican Congress which without exception. The wildest and most obviously is being organised in the United States of America, and false accusations are credited with the greatest which it is decided shall be held at Washington after facility. It would seem that the enemies of the the World's Fair at Chicago, in order that it may not be Republic, who have tried to give the greatest importance confounded with the many other congresses which will to these sad events, and who have used the supposed be held during the Columbian Exhibition. indelicacy of some men as an arm against the

The names of the promoters and numerous adherents, Republican party, can hardly have reflected on the amongst whom it will suffice to mention Cardinal consequences of the campaign they have entered upon. Gibbons, the lamented General Sherman, Colonel Now that they have let loose the spirit of distrust, they Ingersoll, the Rev. W. C. Roberts, D.D., and even are without doubt destined to become its victims, as President Cleveland, impart unquestionable importance well as those whom they wished to strike.

to that Congress, and I will add that the American Seeing so many men who only yesterday enjoyed Societies for Peace will take a conspicuous place among public esteem now insulted as the worst of thieves, has | its promoters and adherents. In the programme of the brought to light the idea which has so long lain above-mentioned Congress we note the following passages : dormant in the minds of the people—viz., that those "..in particular as may promote the establishto whom they had entrusted the care of their interests ment of the principle of arbitration amongst all civilised were conniving with the employers to despoil and States instead of the barbarous code of war ...;" conquer them.

and again, “as may tend by their discussion to promote Pitiless in their blind desire for revenge, they cannot the disarmament of the nations, the dissolution of all distinguish the accused from the guilty; the Govern standing armies, and the substitution therefore of the ment desiring justice and the men who have traded on rule of intelligence, morality, and justice, among the their mandate. What do I say? They cannot dis people of the earth." tinguish even the accused from the accusers. Ministers, A recent circular or message from the Secretary of deputies, senators, functionaries of every degree, the Promoting Committee, Mr. W. O. McDowell, states bankers, manufacturers, and proprietors, are all victims that the Pan-Republican Congress will take into conof this universal mistrust. It is this crying injustice, sideration all remarks and discussions which may this exaggerated distrust, which drives the hungry occur in the different Congresses at Chicago. people to acts of violence.

It appears to me that this initatory action in Hatred and distrust have once more produced their | America ought to cause a certain amount of bad fruits, which will affect in their turn those who attention, and give rise to serious reflection on the have sought to entrap others but, alas ! the true part of the several Governments and Conseryative

parties of Europe. If they obstinately continue to "THE PERIL OF EUROPE,” pursue the present political and military system, so fatal to the prosperity of the people, is it not to be [Letter from the BARONESS VON SUTTNER.] feared that these same, in their increasing distress, ADVERTING to our recent article bearing the above may turn their eyes and aspirations towards the ideal

title, our distinguished friend writes as follows :-"It traced out by the above-mentioned Congress ?

appears to me that the path on which you have now The Directing Committee of the Roman Association entered is an excellent one. I refer to your efforts to for International Arbitration and Peace met a few persuade the European Governments to come to an days since under the presidency of Signor Bonghi, arrangement for a conference on the imminent peril of and constituted a central committee, entrusted with the time. Without desiring to influence the decision the collection of signatures to the universal petition | to be arrived at, it is an excellent thing to urge the for peace, according to the decision of the Congress necessity of holding an inquiry. To that course no of Berne. The commission was composed of many one can make any objection; but if you declared beforedistinguished persons belonging to both Houses of hand that right is on the side of A, then all on the side Parliament and the different districts of Italy, and of B would become distrustful, and morally unable to later on local committees will be formed. In the take part in the peace movement. If, however, it were course of the present month a general assembly of possible to induce the two adversaries to come to a the Society for Peace will be convoked, from which mutual interchange of views, and if, through the Te may hope for fresh vigour and impulse.

pressure of the other States (exercised for the purpose Rome, 1st January, 1893. VITTORE PRESTINI. of bringing this horrible prospect of a European war

to an end), then all France and all Germany would

join the movement. In that event justice would CORRESPONDENCE.

prevail. At present, national susceptibilities and

national “honour” do not permit the one to say they COLONISATION AND CIVILISATION.

will renounce their claims to their provinces, nor the To the Editor of CONCORD.

other to offer to give them back, in order to arrive at SIR,—I fully appreciate your remark that the

conciliation; but, once a verdict has been pronouncedExecutive Committee does not hold itself responsible

no matter what there would be no dishonour in sub. for the article on “Uganda" signed “H. P." That

mitting to it. ... article differs widely from the views generally put

"I am immensely pleased with the proposal you forward in your paper. H. P. wants Uganda to be

now put forward, and I will endeavour to make it part kept for the sake of civilisation. Now, of course, we

of our peace policy.' learnt at school that Prussia divided Poland with Austria and Russia for the sake of civilisation.

A GOOD EXAMPLE Everything that suits us is done for the sake of civilisation. Once leave the path of justice, and begin

We have great pleasure in printing the followto talk of "civilisation," and you are sure to go wrong. I do not know of a single case where civilisation has

ing letter from a much-esteemed member of been propagated by colonisation—at least in modern our Association, and earnestly commend his times. More than that, colonisation checks civilisa

excellent example to the imitation of others :tion. A colony is always constituted by a wrong done

"I have been much impressed with the able and to the nations. One morning you read in a paper that

forcible appeal for funds issued by Mr. Felix Mosch eles a place you never heard of has offered itself to the

in the current number of CONCORD, and beg to enclose German, English, or French Government, that foreign

cheque for £10. adventurers have excited the natives to begin war, but that the "rebels" (the usual name for natives defending

“Although a member of your Council, I have not

been able, from press of business and other engagetheir own country) have been duly punished..

ments, to attend the meetings, but I continue to take And what is begun with injustice is also carried on

the liveliest interest in the proceedings of the Comwith it. The Indians, at the time of their last revolt

mittee, and trust that the Association led, by its able against the Americans, said : “ You made fifty-six

and indefatigable President, Mr. Hodgson Pratt, will treaties with us and you kept none of them; of what

continue its noble and humanising work. use to make a new one !” Indeed, the native popula

"I am pleased to note the article on Disarmament, tion is not civilised where Europeans go, but andihi

and hope the Committee will take into serious conlated. According to a statement in the Mouvement

sideration the desirability of laying before the leading Géographique, not more than one-tenth of the African

statesmen of the continental nations the necessity of Continent any longer belongs to the natives.

putting a stop to these continued “bloated armaments," The false ideas that so many people have as to civilisation arise from their not making a difference

which are draining the very life-blood of the people,

impoverishing and bestializing them. between civilisation—the relation of man to man, and

"The Association will surely have done a noble, cultivation—the relation of man to nature. Cultiva

humane work when it shall have convinced the rulers tion is, no doubt, advanced by colonisation, but so is it

of the European nations of the wickedness and the if & usurer drives a man out of his estate. In public life there should be the same rules of morality as in private

suicidal nature of the work they are at present, and

have been for years, engaged in.-Wishing you every life. It is a great misfortune that this principle is not

“ ISAAC SELIGMAN." universally recognised.

success, yours very truly, The neglect of it causes much hypocrisy and is a fruitful source of war. But the results of colonisation are even worse for the

THE INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF mother country than for the colony. The love of war, contempt for the rights of weaker races, are kept alive

PEACE. by colonisation. Nations are prevented by it from minding their own affairs.

As we anticipated, the work already done by the If you really desire to promote civilisation (and Central Office of the Peace Societies at Berne fully Christianity) begin with Europe ; there is plenty of justifies its creation. In the hands of such a man as work to be done there without injury to the rights of M. Elie Ducommun, with his great organising experiother races. Charity begins at home. -Yours truly, ence and devotion to the object in view, the experiment Berlin, December, 1892,

was sure to succeed ; and it will be a great satisfaction

to our Association that it was among the first to support all others the chief, and the one which most needs the undertaking.

settlement. This could be obtained by constituting Its Honorary Secretary has resolved to include Alsace-Lorraine into a territory placed under the proamong the functions of the Bureau the collection and tection of a European Confederation, with an intercirculation of information likely to be useful to all national Court sitting at Strasbourg, who are actively engaged in the movement. He has, accordingly, started a lithographed letter, which will THE VIENNA SOCIETY held ite first annual meeting appear once a fortnight, or whenever he has sufficient last month; and there was a large attendance both of matter in hand, and it will be forwarded to societies its own members and of those belonging to the Univerand individual workers. This letter will contain items sity Peace Union, all wearing white badges. The of information, and when M. Ducommun has to reply Baroness Von Suttner, the President, bore testimony to to any of the numerous inquiries which he receives on the great progress of opinion on this subject. Numerous points of general interest he will insert his answer in letters and telegrams of congratulation were received, this news-sheet. It will not contain leading articles, among others from Count Rudolph Hoyos, President or in any way compete with the journals of existing of the Norwegian Chamber, who said that his countrysocieties; but is intended to feed the latter with im men were ready to enter into Arbitration Treaties with portant facts. This will enable each society to know all nations. Danish, Dutch, and Portuguese Members what the others are doing or projecting. He will also of Parliament also joined in these words of encouragebring to notice publications which have reference to ment; and letters were received from Signor Ruggiero our work, with brief indications of their contents. Borghi, of Rome, from the Rector of the Vienna

Last month we reported that the Bureau had-with University, from the Municipality of Padua, the Milan great promptitude-published a report of the proceed Peace Society, and others. Prince Wrede read the ings of the Berne Congress ; and we can now add that annual report, and Baron Pirquet, a Deputy, addressed our friend has arranged and has printed the Resolutions the meeting on the Berne Congress in a stirring speech. of the Four Congresses of 1889, 1890, 1891, and 1892, We offer our hearty congratulations to our honoured classifying them in such a manner that one may see at friend. She has the joy of seeing the fruits of her a glance all the conclusions arrived at in reference to noble and wise efforts. each of the subjects discussed. This has been published in French, and an English edition, in the pre A GERMAN PEACE SOCIETY.— With the greatest paration of which we have taken part, will appear satisfaction we learn that a society representing the forthwith.

empire at large has been founded at Berlin. This is We offer our cordial congratulations to our esteemed indeed an event of great moment, and full of encouragecolleague on the fact that he has been able, already, to ment for the peace-makers everywhere. The new render these services : and we wish him a Happy New society has been founded under excellent auspices, and Year of increasing opportunities for useful labour. its " committee of directors" contains the names of

PHIL. many eminent men. They are as follows, as the Peace

Bureau at Berne informs us :-Professor Foerster ITEMS.

(Geheimrath), Le Chevalier Georges de Bunsen, A. H.

Fried, D. Gisicky (late Army colonel), Grelling A GERMAN DEMAND FOR PEACE.—We are informed | (Barrister-at-law), Nilson (ditto), Professor Philippson, by Mr. Simon Hanauer, of Frankfort, that a pamphlet R. Schmid-Cabanis, F. Spielhagen, Count Bothmer (of has just appeared at Naunberg, in South Germany, Wiesbaden), Dr. Brasch (of Leipsig), the Rev. Mr. Hetzel under the title: "What do the People Demand ? (of Furstenwald), Dr. A. Richter (of Pforzheim), F. Neither Militarism nor War." . In this work the author, Wirth (of Frankfort). Herr Reuter, reviews the action of the different political parties, and, after condemning the Conservatives, makes SPAIN.-Don Arturo de Marcoarta has been, as an eloquent appeal to the Advanced Liberals (Freisinnige usual, sowing the good seed in Spain. We ought, Partei) to avail themselves of the great opportunity now ere this, to have recorded a meeting at Barcelona open of uniting the vast majority of the German people where he gave a long address on such subjects as in a permanent “Anti-War Party.” Mr. Hanauer the neutralisation of straits and isthmuses; the states that this manifesto is likely to have considerable responsibility for the declaration of war, and the influence.

arbitral clause in treaties. Subsequent to this

meeting, a discussion was held at a congress of PEACE CONGRESS AT CHICAGO.-The Fifth Inter geographers, Spanish, Portuguese, and Americans at national Congress will meet from the 14th to 20th Madrid. Here Don Arturo gave an historical sketch August; and it is hoped that the Members of the Inter of the movement in favour of arbitration ; and the Parliamentary Conference, at the conclusion of their president, in his closing address, expressed his opinion meeting at Christiana, Norway, will proceed to Chicago that he could see no reason why an arbitration treaty and resume their discussions there ; immediately after should not be concluded between Spain, Portugal, the conclusion of the Peace Congress it is proposed that and South America; although the time had not the latter shall conclude with three great public meet arrived for accepting this method universally. The ings in the auditorium of the Columbian Exhibition. | subject also came before a Juridical Congress at the We take this information from the Peacemaker, Spanish Capital. Philadelphia).

WHAT FRÉDÉRIC PASSY SAYS :-“ Arbitration is a OPINIONS IN THE GERMAN PRESS.- We find in the sacred arm-the arm of wisdom ; and it is for us to use Kleine Presse, of Frankfort, an expression of warm it. Nearer and nearer let us push on this great crusade. approval of a recent article in The Echo, of Labourers in the field of ideas, let us not fear to be London, as to "the intolerable burdens of the armed accused of pursuing a chimera. But for those who peace," and the editor says :—“Not only must a Con follow chimeras—and who are in fact the most practical gress of all the peoples be called to find a solution for of mankind, humanity would lie rotting in a condition the European crisis), but Europe has a right to inter

of barbarism.” (From an address delivered in February, pose for the next twenty years, with a view to terminate 1890.) these burdens and dangers." A Berlin newspaper has recently declared that it is absurd to pretend there is PALERMO.-A meeting of the Women's Committee no Alsace question; and that, on the contrary, it is of of the Palermo Peace Society has recently been held,

follows :

at which Signora Teresa Siciliano took the chair. She read a letter from the Baroness Boscogrande resigning her post of President. By a unanimous vote, those present thereupon resolved to go in a body to her house and beg her to remain at their head. The Baroness consented to comply with their request.

PRESIDENT HARRISON has signed the commissions of Jastice Harlan and Senator Morgan as arbitrators of the Behring Sea Commission, and of Secretary John W. Foster as agent on behalf of the United States before that Commission. These appointments were made on the 6th of last June. The Behring Sea Arbitration Tribunal will meet in Paris on the 23rd of February next. - Peacemaker.

Harrison, enabled to quote verbatim. They were as

• This thought has a special appropriateness to-day, which I learn is set apart in many chapels and churches as Peace Sunday-a day when the spirit of Peace is invoked with earnest prayers and aspirations. I am sure that all Ethical and Moral Associations whatever will not fall behind the worshippers of the Prince of Peace in genuine yearnings for the reign of Peace, and in genuine horror of the spirit of War. No Gospel believer can say with more truthful feeling than we can-'Give us Peace in our time. We will add—' and in the time to come. Nay, I think that the genuine aspirations for Peace of believers in morality and terrestrial agencies may be even more effectual than the prayers which have ascended to the Throne of Mercy now for 1800 years, and have ascended in vain. Peace, I think, will be sooner secured by man himself under a sense of human duty than by the prayers for peace, which too often alternate with hymns of triumph addressed to the God of Battles. Peace is a human question, an earthly question, and it will be made by man, and not showered down on us from Heaven. Nor cán I see any agency which is more likely to secure it than the essence that Industry is the natural business of man on earth, and Duty the inspiring genius of Industry.”

PRESIDENT CARNOT ON WAR.-In answer to the address presented by American students in Paris, during their reception by President Carnot, the President said: “ When you go home, you will best aid the American Republic by exalting the policy of peace above that of war and discord, for the latter paralyses the strength and dissipates the resources of nations." Peacemaker.

GIÙ LE ARME ! (GROUND ARMS!)

BERTHA VON SUTTNER.

(From the Echo Portrait Gallery.)

WE regret not having earlier noticed the Peace Almanack which, under the above title, the Società Internazionale per la Pace (Unione Lombarda) has admirably prepared. Inside the cover are to be found their statutes, then comes the calendar for the year 1893, and last, but by no means least, various essays. We need hardly say that the whole owes much to the care of our friend, E. T. Moneta, who himself gives a short account of the efforts of Captain F. Siccardi. "Eleven months have passed since we lost him," he sys, “and our sorrow still remains to us." The Milan peace cause has indeed suffered heavily by his loss, and yet his death has stimulated others to follow the aims that were his; so that in thinking of his energy and devotion we perceive them still at work amongst us ; though in the persons of his comrades. The Minister Villari has written some stirring words of encouragement; and our honoured friend, Miss P. H. Peckover, is well represented by her contribution. Signor Arnaudon, of Turin, writes on “Schools, books, and women." There are also contributions from the eminent author, Edmondo di Amacis, from the Marquis V. Pareto, from Frédéric Passy, from the wellknown journalist, Gabriele Rosa, from the ex-Minister, R. Bonghi, from F. Angiolini, from the Baroness B. Von Suttner, from G. Ferrero, A. Maffi, from Judge Meale, of Milan, under his title of “Umano," from M. Edmond Thiaudière, of Paris, from the well-known woman authoress, “Neera," E. Ducommun, and others. It will be seen how truly international a work has thus been brought out, and we are certain that all Peace friends will feel, on seeing “ Giù le Arme," that E. T. Moneta has once more done valiant service for the ideals we and he alike hold dear.

BARONESS VON SUTTNER was born forty-nine years ago in Prague. She was twenty-three years old when the war of 1866 broke out in her native Bohemia a war the horrors of which are so powerfully depicted in a book that has had myriads of readers in Germany during the last two years. The book is entitled “ Die Waffen Nieder," and an English transla. tion of it, “Lay Down Your Arms,” by Ť. Holmes, is published by Messrs. Longmans & Co. Of this striking, though not in every respect artistically constructed work Bertha Von Suttner is the authoress. It is not her only book, and as she is still in the prime of her intellectual powers, the probability is that this is by no means the last message of its kind from the quiet retreat of Hermannsdorf, in Lower Austria. Some years ago she began to attract public attention as the authoress of “The Inventory of a Soul.” Another of her books, “The Romance of an Author," is a still more remarkable production. In this production she deals with the “Woman Question," upon which she holds views far in advance of those entertained by the majority of German-speaking women. But her most successful work, and her best in every way, is “ Die Waffen Nieder," a performance which substantiates her spiritual kinship to all tbe great spirits before herVoltaire, Kant, Mirabeau, Henri IV. of France-to say nothing of her contemporaries, Flaubert, Maupassant and the rest, who have expressed their horror at the savagery and the inhumanity of war.

Bertha Von Suttner is as a writer a woman of the age in the most direct, realistic, intimate sense. Though in the last century, in the Middle Ages, even in the ancient world, there were choice spirits who not only hated war, but also rejected the argument that it was, and ever would be, a necessary evil, it is nevertheless true that “ Lay down your Arms” could not have been produced in any age except this. It is full of the modern sentiment that is as far as possible removed from sentimentality. Its matter-of-fact character, its directness, catholicity, and pathos combined are the marks of the later nineteenth century. The Baroness Von Suttner is the first authoress who has systematically waged war against war. Her birth, her early associations, her natural prejudices, we may

MR. FREDERIC HARRISON ON PEACE

SUNDAY. On Sunday, 18th December last, Mr. Frederic Harrison lectured at the usual meeting of the London Ethical Society at Princes Hall, his subject being “ Economic Morality." Mr. Harrison based his argument on the contrast between the ethics of industry and the traditions of war, and insisted on the cardinal duty of international Peace. He also claimed that at least equal honour should be paid to the heroes of civic life as to those of the battlefield. The special remarks on Peace Sunday we are, owing to the kindness of Mr.

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