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remembered that Prince Bismarck closed the German market to Russian investments (Russia is a country which has always paid its creditors !) and forced the 4 per cent. consols into the hands of thousands of needy people, one cannot help resenting this conversion, the more so when it is considered that three-fifths of our revenue is spent on the army, which of course everybody knows is never to fight. The Grand Duke of Baden, who is as fond of speaking as the Emperor William, not long ago made a speech to the Kriegervereine or Old Soldiers' Association, exhorting them to work in the cause of peace in their own homes and for the State. The desire for peace is extant everywhere, but unfortunately it is but little understood which is the proper way of keeping the peace. The German Emperor has also written to the Tsar, saying how much he wished for friendly intercourse with Russia ; upon which the Emperor of Russia replied, through Prince Lobanoff, that it was also his ardent wish to be on good terms with Austria. Again, at the death of FieldMarshal Canrobert, the German Emperor telegraphed a message of condolence to Lieutenant Canrobert. It is true that any such movements are looked upon by a large number of Germans as a weakness towards France, but this is entirely untrue, and the oftener we see an exchange of such sentiments between the crowned heads of Europe, the better pleased we may be. · Our society has distributed fifty numbers of Count Tolstoi's book, " Christianity and Patriotism," as well as a large number of Richard Reuter's prize essay edited by Björklund, whilst Herr Pfarrer Resch, a member of the Wiesbaden Society, wrote a very good poem on peace, which was published in one of the local newspapers. The Monatliche Friedens Correspondenz, or Monthly Peace Correspondence, which is sent to all the German newspapers and also to a large number of private persons, has passed out of Monsieur Ducommun's hands into the management of the Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft, but will be edited by our hard-working friend Herr Franz Wirth at Frankfort-on-the-Main. It has been considerably enlarged. Herr Wirth has also compiled an exhaustive answer to the address sent by our American friends to the German Emperor on the question of Elsass-Lotbringen. It is written in French, and should be carefully studied by those who believe that the restitution of the Reichslande would in any way alter the existing state of things. In the Gentle woman has appeared a biography of the Baroness Bertba von Suttner, illustrated with views of the schloss and the park, to which I should also like to call the attention of our English friends.
I have been invited to speak at Limburg on March 5th at the Freie Evangelische Sociale Conferenz by Professor Zimmer of Herborn, who is a member of the Wiesbaden Society. I have accepted this offer with pleasure, and hope that good may come of it. The audience will consist to a large extent of clergymen, whose help we need very greatly, and of members of various learned professions, as well as ladies. Herr Kullmann, a member of our committee, was at Alzey a few days ago, where I hear he founded anotber society, making the twentieth in Germany. The Wiesbaden Society has some ninety members, and is, in proportion to the number of inhabitants, the largest in Germany. . Wiesbaden, February, 1895.
harvests, and from whence now arises a clamorous cry | for help from its starving population.
At this same time battalions of hearty young men with costly artillery equipments are starting from Napoli la bella to carry the so-called light of civilisation into Africa.
Does no one think of the enormous amount of good the money thus thrown away into the Red Sea might have done by the simple means of reduced taxation ? Does no one think of the possible complications which may arise from this African frenzy, which seems to have invaded all Europe? Meanwhile we are witnessing in Africa the curious spectacle of a Christian monk, a Roman Catholic apostolic monk, singing a Te Deum
in honour of our victory in Abyssinia, whilst other | Christians, also Roman Catholic apostolic monks, are
leaving the Italian colony, full of wrath and indigna
tion, having been expelled with only a few hours' | notice on suspicion of connivance with the enemies of Italy.
How will the Holy Father reconcile this to the satisfaction of both parties, as both are flesh of his flesh and blood of his blood ? The national dualism which at this moment divides into two parties the two religious orders—the Italian Capucins and the French Lazarists—in that portion of Africa, may have, through the intrigues of the Vatican, a very great influence on the politics of the two nations, and fan the flame of | discord already so fatal to them, and thus lead to complications of a most disastrous character.
There are many Italians who, having taken part in the holy struggle for their national independence, thought, and still think, that with wiser and less vain men at their head they might now been enjoying not only an enviable position at home, but also a strong and respected position in the face of Europe.
If Italy had known how to improve and fertilise her own uncultivated land, instead of trying to conquer far-off barren kingdoms, she would certainly have found much more useful occupation for her thousands of robust young workmen who are now fertilising the plains of South America, improving the marshes of Brazil, constructing railroads in Roumania, digging trenches in Greece, and planting vineyards in France, and rich in the arts which peace protects and encourages,
populated with citizens who would feel their dignity as m en, who would dare to attack a nation of thirty million inhabitants strong, and proud in their independence and affluence? But to-day, ruled by a false idea, our pride is centred in our alliances, which only shows our weakness, and prevents us from intervening as heralds of justice in any question which might by misadventure arise between the European Powers, and at the same time spare our country the pauperism of emigration and the horrors of starvation which seem to have become the evil spirits of the Peninsula.
I do not wish to assert that many in Italy think as I think, although I am not alone in my opinion, but I simply wished to give the Association this frank expression of the views of an Italian, which will enable you to assure our generous companions in all parts of the world that the idea of conquest by the force of arms is not the idea of all those who are born under the soft sky of Italy, and who are most ardently devoted to her.
Florence, February, 1895 DIEGO MARTELLI.
THE SOCIAL CONDITION AND FOREIGN
POLICY OF ITALY.
[To the Editor of CONCORD.] SIR,-"In Italy people are dying of hunger." This lamentable news is conveyed to us in a telegram from Sicily--that Sicily, which at one time was said to be "the granary of Rome," on account of the abundance of its
We heartily welcome the appointment of M. Trarieux, Senator, as Minister of Justice in the new French Ministry, and it augurs well for a pacific policy. He has been one of the most prominent members of the Inter-Parliamentary Conference, and presided at several of the sittings of that body at the Hague last year. He was on that occasion appointed a member
of the Commission charged with the task of preparing a 1 THE PENNSYLVANIA PEACE SOCIETY.-The twentyscheme for an International Tribunal for the settlement eighth anniversary of this Society was held at of disputes. He also moved an address to the newspaper Philadelphia on the 7th December last, when the Press of Europe, inviting its support for the cause of chair was taken by Sarah F. R. Eavenson, M.D. international unity and concord.
Alfred H. Love, President of the Universal Peace A very gratifying proof of his interest in our move. Union, the Hon. W. N, Ashman, LL.D., George Dana ment has been afforded by the fact of his having Boardman, D.D., Mrs. Belva Lockwood, and others selected, for his private secretary, our excellent friend delivered addresses. The meeting was specially marked and colleague, M. Jacques Dumag, well known to by a speech of great power by Mr. G. F. Stevens, us all as one of the founders of the “Society of the President of the Single Tax Society. We have seldom Young Friends of Peace” at Nimes, and as editor of read more powerful arguments for Free Trade as the that valuable review-La Paix par Le Droit.
most effectual means of securing permanent peace. We may add that M. Trarieux was a member of the | We wish we could reproduce this excellent plea in full. National Assembly, and has been chief of the Bar at We must content ourselves with two sentences :-“I Bordeaux. He has served on all committees appointed am here to urge upon you that, in the conditions and by the Senate to report on questions of special im. temper of our time, the great practical work for peace portance.
among nations is international commerce...... The
efforts of the peace societies, however laudable, can BILL TO PROMOTE PEACE AMONG
never be successful so long as the nations maintain
their present system of isolation." NATIONS BY INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION.
A LESSON FOR ANNEXATIONISTS.—One lesson, indeed, The following bill to promote peace among nations by
it [the history of the Cape Colony) contains, which can international arbitration was introduced in the Senate
not be repeated too often in these days to a ruling race of the United States, January 14, 1895, by Senator
-tbe lesson that in the long run injustice usually Sherman :
brings its own retribution, and that the excellence of "That to enable the President to carry into execution the proposed end of philanthropic schemes of legislation the resolution of Congress, adopted on the third day of
cannot atone for the employment of means that are April, 1890, requesting him to invite, from time to
inequitable and unfair.—The Times. time, as fit occasion may arise, negotiations with any Government with which the United States may have THE NEUTRALISATION OF STATES.-The Danish diplomatic relations, to the end that any differences or Branch of the Inter-Parliamentary Union has notified disputes arising between the Governments which can its intention of moving the following proposal at the not be adjusted by diplomatic agency may be referred next annual Conference, to be held at Brussels ; that to arbitration,' he is authorized to conduct such the members of the same be requested to bring forward negotiations by regular diplomatic agents of the United “ proposals," in their several Parliaments, that the States, or, at his discretion, he is hereby authorized to Governments of Europe be invited to send delegates to appoint & commission to visit such other Governments | a diplomatic conference, which shall report what States as he may determine, for the purpose of instituting may fairly claim to acquire the status of neutrality. negotiations with them for the creation of a Tribunal
Corresp. Autog. of International Arbitration or other appropriate means whereby difficulties and disputes between nations may THOU SHALT NOT KILL-From June 1791 to be peaceably and amicably settled and wars prevented.” | November 1813 the French Government enrolled The Peacemaker, Philadelphia, U.S.A.
4,556,000 men, nearly three-fourths of whom died in
battle, of wounds or of diseases contracted in the field. ITEMS.
RUSSIA. -The Novosti newspaper of St. Petersburg FRANCE AND MADAGASCAR.-M. Le Myre de Vilers allotted two whole columns to a report of the annual has told M. Hanotaux that the French will be welcomed as meeting of the Vienna Peace Society, and expressed the deliverers by the non-Hova tribes of Madagascar...
warmest sympathy.-Corresp. Autog. The Sakala vas and the rest hate the Hovas, no doubt, but they hate Europeans far more, and Frenchmen worse than all Europeans. It is useless for France to
DENMARK.-The numerous branches of the Danish try to disguise the wholly aggressive character of the
Peace Society scattered throughout the kingdom have war. It is not even based on any breach of the treaty
met at Copenhagen to concert measures for the purpose of 1885 ; but merely on the fact that the treaty was so
of securing public manifestations in favour of the peace clumsily drafted that France could make nothing out
movement on occasion of the general parliamentary of it. It is to be observed, too, that in the treaty France
elections to be held in April next. It is proposed that expressedly and pointedly recognised Queen Ranava
candidates should be asked whether they will join the lona's claim to the dominion of all the Malagasy tribes.
Danish branch of the Inter-Parliamentary Conference, So that the deliverance of her down-trodden subjects,
and will vote for a subsidy to the International Peace coupled with her breach of the very treaty that made
Bureau. Well done, “gallant little " Denmark ! them subject, hardly comes to a logical pretext for war.-Pall Mall Gazette. We quote this statement FRIEDENS-KATECHISMUS (“PEACE CATECHISM”).without endorsing it, and merely as material for study M. Potonié Pierre, in the Epoque of Paris, alludes to of the question.]
this little book from the pen of Alfred Hermann Fried,
and noticed by our German correspondent in CONCORD THE SCIENCE OF DESTRUCTION.-The pneumatic for December last. His main point of view is the indynamite guns that have been mounted at Sandy Hook, creasing mutual dependance of nations, and the soli. during a recent test, threw eight shells, loaded with darity of their interest. He says, "Every great acquisi. 200lb. of nitro-gelatine, about two miles, and dropped tion and every progressive step is for the benefit of all of them into a space of 30ft. by 120ft. They threw all countries alike. The existence of the arts and up columns of water 100ft. high, and each exploded two sciences of commerce and industry depends on their seconds after striking the water as they had been timed international character, and cannot grow so long as to do.-Echo.
they are confined within frontiers."
---- = THE STATISTICS OF DEATH AND DESTRUCTION. — | THE HOSTILITIES IN WAZIRISTAN. Alfred Hermann Fried gives the following figures :The war of 1870-71 killed 60,000 Germans and 155,000 Frenchmen, while it cost 500 millions sterling. The The following correspondence has passed between our wars which occurred between 1853 and 1866 (fourteen Committee and the India Office with reference to the years) cost no less than 48,000 millions sterling."
resolution on this subject, which appears in the usual
column :PROPOSED ANGLO-AMERICAN ARBITRATION TREATY. -Mr. W. Randal Cremer, M.P., was, on the 19th
“ 40 & 41 Outer Temple, Strand, W.C., January last, presented to the President of the United
“January 17th, 1895. States by Mr. Gresham, Secretary of State, in order
“SIR,—The attention of our Committee has been that he might deliver the memorial signed by 354
drawn to the telegrams and other reports from India, members of the House of Commons.
indicating that British troops were engaged in
another invasion of Afghanistan. From those sources GERMANY.-Almost every week we receive newspaper
of public information we hear of villages being shelled reports of meetings of Peace Societies among our
| and burned, of cattle taken away by thousands, and Teutonic brethren. The latest, Breslau, Konigsberg ;
the resources of the tribes being devastated. while at Frankfort-on-Main, at a great gathering of
“It being one of the objects of the Association to the Progressist party, Dr. Eberhard denounced mili.
trace the causes and occasions in which hostilities tarism in vigorous terms, and was enthusiastically
originate, in the hope of being enabled, in some degree, applauded.
to obviate and anticipate disputes by means of media
tion and arbitration, I am directed to ask if our AUSTRIA.- A general meeting of the “Society of the
Committee can be supplied with copies of the official Friends of Peace” at Baden (near Vienna) has been
despatches, and with references thereto that may held, under the presidency of a well-known author,
serve to show what authorities are responsible for the Leopold Katscher; and among the telegrams of con
present hostilities against the tribes in Waziristan, and gratulation was one from the President of the Chamber
whether some other method than those of fire and of Deputies, Baron von Chlumcky. A new Society has
sword may be accessible for preventing further hosbeen constituted at Trieste ; many well-known persons
tilities beyond the borders of India, and expediting attending the meeting held for that purpose.
the withdrawal of Her Majesty's Government from
Afghan territory. ITALY.—The Lombard Union has issued an eloquent
“Though financial matters do not come directly address to all friends of progress to unite in efforts to
within the cognizance of our Association, the notoriously suppress all causes of hatred and distrust between
| adverse state of Indian finance, which such costly nations, inasmuch as the maintenance of peace is expeditions as that now proceeding must now aggrå constantly imperilled by outbursts of passion and
vate, affords a special reason for our asking to be prejudice. All men müxt unite in practical steps to supplied with copies of official documents that may bring about a higher public and private morality by a
serve to explain the grounds on which these destructive
serve to explain the ground more active share in the politics and administration of operations have been undertaken. their several countries.
“I am, &c.,
“J. FREDK. GREEN, Secretary. THE PEACE ARMIES OF EUROPE AND AMERICA.
"To the Secretary of State for India We have just received from the International Bureau
in Council.” of Peace a new edition of the List of Peace Societies, carefully prepared by the Hon. Secretary, M. Elie
“India Office, - Ducommun. "For Great Britain we find the names of
“ January 23rd, 1895. 9 societies ; for Austria, 3; for Germany, 15; for “Sir, I am desired by Mr. Fowler to acknowledge Belgium, l; for Denmark, 1; for Sweden, 1; for the receipt of your letter of 17th January, asking for France, 14 ; for Holland, 3 ; for Italy, 7; for Norway,
copies of official despatches and of all documents 1 ; for Switzerland, 23 branches of “ The International
connected with the recent operations in Waziristan, League of Peace and Liberty," There is also a Uni
and in reply to say that the papers relating to these versity Society at Zurich. In the list of societies in the
operations will in due course be laid before Parliament. United States of America we find the names of no less
I am, however, desired to observe that Her Majesty's than 54. Of course this enumeration gives no idea of
| forces are not engaged in the territory of the Amir of the comparative strength of the movement in the several Afghanistan. countries named. There is a tendency, we think, to
“I am, Sir, unnecessary multiplication of small groups, when greater
“'Your obedient servant, union would bring greater results. We hope that the
" A. GODLEY Bureau will endeavour to ascertain the total number of “The Secretary, International Arbitration working and paying members in the several countries.
and Peace Association." ARBITRATION; S. AFRICA.-A dispute between
NOTE, -As to this geographical statement Sir Arthur Portugal and Great Britain respecting the boundary of
Godley has been desired to make, we trust some member Manicaland has been referred to the arbitration of
| of Parliament will take an early opportunity of putting Italy.
it to the test. Meantime the ordinary maps serve to justify that portion of our letter of inquiry. If the
"territory” within which three brigades of Har ARBITRATION ; GREAT BRITAIN AND HOLLAND.-The
Majesty's Indian forces are now operating is not part British Government claimed from that of the Nether
of the dominions of the Ameer it certainly is no lands damages for the illegal seizure of the ship Costa
portion of British India. And if the Ameer, by the Rica on the high seas, made under the supposition that
Kabul-Durand Treaty, on grounds yet undisclosed, the ship and her freight had been stolen. The Dutch
chose to waive his suzerainty over the Waziris, that Government disclaimed liability to payment of
seems but a very poor excuse for the Indian Govern indemnity but offered a sum of money as an act of
ment invading their territory.-Ed. CONCORD.] grace. The British Government took up the case, and after two years litigation Holland proposed arbitration, which has been accepted
PEACE MEETINGS IN LONDON.
ings and discontent amorgst the Italian
population, caused mainly by the heavy It has been arranged by the various Peace
taxation and financial difficulties resulting Societies to hold a series of joint meetings at St.
from the excessive military and naval Martin's Town Hall, Charing Cross, on the 18th,
expenditure which the Government of the 20th, and 22nd March. It is proposed that at one
country persists in maintaining, this Com
mittee observes the renewed warfare between meeting the questions for consideration shall be the
the Italian commanders and the Abyssinians, present condition of European armaments, arbitra
and regrets to learn that the invasion of tion, a permanent international tribunal, &c.; at the
the Soudan by those commanders is being second meeting the question of armaments as
further extended. effecting the interests of labour and the working.
Further, it is desirable to draw the classes; and at the third meeting the religious and
attention of Her Majesty's Government ethical aspect of the peace question, including the
to the statement recently made by Admiral education of the young, &c. It is hoped that these
Brin in the Italian Parliament, and also meetings will be of a representative character, and
circulated in the press, to the effect that, that they will attract the attention of many who
as a result of the African understanding are not at present identified with any of the
between Italy and England, the British
garrison at Suakin will assist the Italians at existing peace organisations. Full particulars as
Kassala ; also to the statement from Cairo to speakers, &c., will be duly announced. We trust
that the Egyptian Government contemplates that our members will make these meetings known
the reoccupation of the outlying province of to their friends.
In view of assurances given at various THE ITALIAN INVASION OF THE
times that further inroads by Egypt into
the Soudan are contrary to the policy of the SOUDAN.
British Government, it is desirable that Her
Majesty's Secretary of State for Foreign The following letter has been received in reply to a
Affairs should be asked to state what letter enclosing the resolution of the Committee on
grounds, if any, exist for these several this subject, which will be found in the usual column:
alleged instances of countenance given by “Foreign Office,
British authorities to renewed hostilities in " 26th January, 1895.
the Soudan. “SIR,—I am directed by the Earl of Kimberley to January 15.-BRITISH INVASION OF AFGHANISTAN.acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 22nd
Referring to the new invasion of Afghanisinstant, and in reply I am to state that the only agreement existing between the Governments of Great
tan by a large force of British Indian troops, Britain and Italy in regard to Kassala is contained in
resulting in the devastation of the Waziri the Protocol of the 15th of April, 1891, which has
country, the driving off of the cattle and been laid before Parliament (Parliamentary Paper,
other destruction of the tribes' means of Italy, No. 1, 1891), and that the report of an intended
subsistence, it is desirable that the Secretary
of State for India should be asked to make re-occupation of Dongola is entirely unauthorised. “I am, Sir,
known by the publication of authorised “Your most obedient, humble Servant,
documents the circumstances in which these "T. H. SANDERSON.
deplorable occurrences have arisen, which, “ The Secretary, International Arbitration
while embittering the Afghans against the
British name and influence, must seriously and Peace Association."
add to the present embarrassment of Indian
finances. HUMANITARIAN CONFERENCE.
. 29.-CONFERENCE OF THE HUMANITARIAN THE Humanitarian League is organising a National
LEAGUE.-In view of a letter from the Conference, to be held at St. Martin's Town Hall on
Secretary of the League, it was decided to February 28th and March 1st, under the presidency of
send delegates to the Conference on FebMr. J. Passmore Edwards. The subjects to be dis
ruary 28th and March 1st. Mr. L. P. Ford cussed are the Criminal Code, Public Control of Hos
and the Secretary were appointed as dele. pitals, Slaughter-house Reform, and Cruel Sports.
gates. Delegates will attend from the Fabian Society, Chris. tian Social Union, Women's Emancipation Union, British Women's Temperance Association, Witnesses'
SUBSCRIPTIONS AND DONATIONS. Protection Society, the International Arbitration Association, &c. Particulars may be obtained from
Received from Dec. 10th, 1894, to Feb. 11th, 1895. Miss E. Martyn, Pioneer Club, Bruton Street, W.
£ 8. d. Amery, Mrs. ... ...
... 0 10 6 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETINGS. Barter, Miss ... ...
... 0 15 0 Brown, Rev. Dr.
... 0 7 6 Chairman--HODGSON PRATT.
Carpenter, Rev. J. E.
... 1 1 0 SW. MARTIN WOOD. Collier, E. P. ...
0 10 0 Coop, J. P. ...
... 0 10 6 Hon. Treasurer-JOHN M. GRANT.
Coupe, T. ...
... 0 5 0 Secretary--J, FREDK. GREEN.
... 0 7 6 The Executive Committee invite criticisms and suggestions
Dalby, G. B. ... from Members on the subjects of the resolutions passed De Laroy, E. (Paris)
... 0 11 10 at their meetings.]
Depoyant, Malle. (Cannes)
08 0 1895.
1 0 0 January 15.-INVASION OF THE SOUDAN BY ITALIAN Everitt, A. W. B.
0 5 0 TROOPS.-Whilst taking note of the suffer- | Few, H. G.
0 5 0
The Editor acknowledges, with thanks, the receipt of the following :-Herald of Peace, Arbitrator, Les Etats-Unis d'Europe, Le Devoir, Bulletin des Sommaires, Revue de l'Orient, Die Nation, Die Waffen Nieder, Peacemaker, American Advocate of Peace, il Secolo, La Libertà e la Pace (Palermo), Financial Reformer, Corrispondenza Verde, Freidenker (Milwaukee), Frankfürter Zeitung, Revue Tibérale, L'Europe Nouvelle, La Paix par le Droit, Der Friede.
WAR AND THE UNEMPLOYED.
Ford, L. P. ...
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