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- -- - to the other Great Powers of Europe exhibits the prehensive reference to former correspondence, both annexed results :-Germany-peace footing, 557,000 comprised in paragraph 3 of our letter. Hence we still men; war footing, 4,300,000 men, with 2,964 pieces of hope to be favoured with fuller and more definite artillery. Great Britain-peace footing, 211,000 men ; | information that may serve to elucidate this now urgent war footing, 624,000 men, with 600 pieces of artillery. matter of international controversy. Austria-peace footing, 309,000 men ; war footing, " 2. The immediate occasion of our renewed appeal 1,427,000 men, with 1,912 pieces of artillery. Spain in December was the then recent prominent mention of peace footing, 100,000 men ; war footing, 700,000 men, the dispute with Venezuela in the Message to Congress with 800 pieces of artillery. France-peace footing, by the President of the United States. That reference 572,000 men ; war footing, 4000,000 men, with 2,880 has since met with response from members of the House pieces of artillery. Italy--peace footing, 220,000 men ; of Representatives ; but, owing, no doubt, to the urgent war footing, 2,980,000 men, with 1,620 pieces of artillery. financial business claiming the attention of the PresiTurkey-peacefnoting, 170,000 men ; war footing, dent and his ministers, no further step appears to have 1,100,000 men, with 2,500 pieces of artillery.Daily been as yet taken by the United States Executive News.

regarding this question, whicb, while it concerns American interests, more directly claims the attention

of Her Majesty's Government. This aspect of the ENGLAND AND THE "TRUCE OF GOD." | matter was spoken of in paragraph 4 of our last letter ;

and we are willing to believe that it may have since Now loud and clear through Europe's weary camp,

obtained serious consideration in your lordship's office, England ! thou home of Freedom, raise thy voice,

"3. It can scarcely be needful to urge on Her That all the world may hearken and rejoice.

Majesty's Government, that in so far as just and equit"A Trace of God !” The word shall be a lamp,

able considerations form an essential portion of the A coin from God's own mint, marked with His stamp,

subject of dispute, the claims of Venezuela cannot be Bearing His image, aye, a trumpet blast,

disregarded as being those of a state politically and Keen as the call men listen to, aghast,

financially weak as compared with the position of the When the Earth trembles 'neath the soldiers' tramp.

all powerful country. In view of these considerations,

my Committee again respectfully crave that due A blast less clear than this will not avail.

reference may be made to our previous correspondence Say, did the trumpets give a doubtful call,

on this important international question, and that some Or moan in fitful notes upon the gale,

adequate answer may be granted to our representations When at the sound the Canaanitish wall

of those aspects of it that are before the public-repre. Tottered, and all men saw the bastions fall ?

sentations made with all due reserve and deference. If England's voice sound thus it shall not fail.

“I am, &c.,

“). FREDK. GREEN. “To H.M. Principal Secretary of State

for Foreign Affairs." ISOLATION.

“Foreign Office, “God bless the narrow seas"! you say. Not so.

"February 12th, 1895. The narrow seas will prove but England's bane, “SIR, -The Earl of Kimberley has received your

If once her honour takes this deadly stain. letter of the 5th instant, renewing, on behalf of the Not that in careless ease the land might grow

International Arbitration and Peace Association, your Callous and heedless of a brother's woe

request for information respecting the differences Did God environ us, that we should feign

between Her Majesty's Government and the GovernThis selfish ignorance. The curse of Cain

ment of Venezuela in connection with the boundary of Yet lives, though Retribution may be slow.

British Guiana.

"I am directed by his lordship to state that the Our brother's blood up-crieth from the ground; subject is one to be dealt with by Her Majesty's And she who once alone had borne the weight

responsible advisers in such manner as they may deem Of Europe's sorrow, she the world-renowned,

most expedient, and that he cannot enter into a correWould fain escape the grandeur of her fate.

spondence with the Association on the points raised in Take heed! Ere yet be heard that dreadful sound

your letter. Amid the clash of arms, the cry: Too late !

"I am, Sir, B. R. WARD,

“ Your most obedient, humble servant,

“FRANCIS BERTIE.

"The Secretary, International Arbitration and GREAT BRITAIN AND VENEZUELA. Peace Association, 40, Outer Temple."

The following correspondence has passed between the
Committee of the International Arbitration and Peace

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETINGS. Association and the Foreign Office :* 40, Outer Temple,

Chairman--HODGSON PRATT. February 5th, 1895.

W. MARTIN WOOD.

Vice-Chairmen “MY LORD, I am desired to express the thanks of

ATTIET T. HOLMES, F.R.C.S. our Committee for the acknowledgment — in Mr.

Hon. Treasurer-John M, GRANT, Bertie's note dated December 31st-of receipt of our

Secretary-J. FREDK. GREEN, letter of the 19th of that month on the subject of the

I The Executive Committee invite criticisms and suggestions prolonged boundary and other disputes, between your

from Members on the subjects of the resolutions passed lordship's Department and the Republic of Venezuela. at their meetings.] Bat our Committee regret that no response was made to 1895. the request in the closing sentence of their letter for February 12.—PEACE-TEACHING IN SCHOOLS.-Resuch full and specific information as may serve to

... ported correspondence with the Right Hon. place the issues at stake in their true light. Neither

A. H. D. Acland, in which that gentleman was any answer granted in your lordship's reply either . i ... promised to consider whether he could do to the coucise statement of the question, or to the com

... anything further in the matter,

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WAR AND THE UNEMPLOYED.

Feb. 12-APPOINTMENT OF MONSIEUR L. TRARIEUX Salemi, Signora (Palermo) ...

AS MINISTER OF JUSTICE IN THE FRENCH Schaub, Mrs ...
GOVERNMENT.-Resolved, that a letter be Stapley, R.
forwarded to Monsieur Trarieux congratu Teschemacher, Miss :
lating him on his appointment as Minister | Whelpton, Rev. H. R.
of Justice in the French Government, and

JOURNALS.
expressing the hope that his well-known

Adams, Mr. ... sympathy with peace, as evidenced by the

Ashford, Mrs. ... prominent part he has taken in the Inter

...

Brown, A. K. ... parliamentary Conference and in other

Colgate, Miss ... ways, may ensure a peaceful policy on the

Colgate, Miss E. part of the Government of which he is a

Deinetresco, M. (Paris) member, and also serve to maintain those

Gill, Miss good relations between the Governments of

... ...

Goodwin, Miss ...
Great Britain and France which are so

Journals, &c., sold ...

... 0 3 11 essential to the welfare of both nations, and to the peace of the world.

The Editor acknowledges, with thanks, the ,, -DEATH OF SILAS MAINVILLE BURROUGHS.

-Resolved, that this Committee has heard receipt of the following: Herald of Peace,
with much regret of the premature decease Arbitrator, Les Etats-Unis d'Europe, Le Devoir,
of Mr. S. M. Burroughs, who was a warm Bulletin des Sommaires, Revue de l'Orient,
supporter of the peace movement, and a
member of the Council and liberal con-

Die Nation, Die Waffen Nieder, Peacemaker, tributor to the funds of this Association, American Advocate of Peace, Il Secolo, La which he represented on various occasions Libertà e la Pace (Palermo), Financial Reat Peace Congresses.

former, Corrispondenza Verde, Freidenker (MilMr. Burroughs was also well known as a model employer of labour and generous

waukee), Frankfürter Zeitung, Revue Libérale, friend of many progressive movements, by

L'Europe Nouvelle, La Paix par le Droit, Der which his loss will be severely felt.

Friede.
This Committee desires to offer its respect-
ful sympathy to Mrs. Burroughs and her
family in the irreparable loss they have
sustained by the death of this true-hearted
man and upright citizen.

BY A TRADE UNIONIST. , 26–FRANCE AND MADAGASCAR.—The Secretary

reported that he had written to the Bureau
at Berne urging their communicating with

| Tais new Tract, brought out by the Lancashire and the King of the Belgians with the view to his Cheshire Friends Peace Committee, has been written tendering his good offices to the two Govern

to meet the argument that to diminish Armament ments with the object of bringing about a peaceful settlement of the dispute.

would injuriously affect the labour market, and il - PEACE-TEACHING IN SCHOOLS.-Resolved, is hoped that it may be largely circulated amongst that the London School Board be asked to the working classes. receive a deputation on this subject, and

The price is fixed to cover cost of printing and that the Rev. A. W. Jephson be asked to introduce it.

carriage only,
... -NEW MEMBER.-Herr Wilhelm F. Brand. 2s. 6d. per 100. 208. per 1,000.
London correspondent of the Frankfürter

| Orders and remittances to be sent direct to
Zeitung, was elected a member of the
Committee.

THE ORPHANS' PRINTING PRESS

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THE JOURNAL OF THE

International Arbitration

and

Peace Association.

OFFICES: 40 & 41, OUTER TEMPLE STRAND, LONDON, W.C. "A vast International Association ought to be formed having for its sole object to make the system of

International Arbitration to prevail."-LAVELEYE. GOLD MEDAL awarded by the Section of Social Economy, Universal Exhibition, Paris, 1889.

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CONTENTS.

exorcised; and when nations are intoxicated by An Appeal to English and French Peace-makers....

passion, all sense of right, of reason, and of their The Economies of Peace ...............

real interests, is lost. We cannot therefore afford Notes....... Our Foreign Correspondence

to trust to the “chapter of accidents," or indulge Items.

too implicitly in an optimistic confidence that all The late Tito Pagliardini Executive Committee Meetings ...

36 will be well, and that no effort on our part is

necessary. We must not be sure that the forces of TAE Executive Committee of the Association evil can be kept at bay, without a vigorous appeal does not hold itself responsible for the opinions to the divine forces which also lie latent in man. of the writers of articles and letters in this

Let no undue confidence in the wisdom of states. JOURNAL. When they deal with controversial

men, which has so often failed us-lull us into

indolence and inaction. questions they should bear some signature,

Remember that, within the last forty years, there personal or impersonal.

have been at least two European wars of the first magnitude-in which five great nations were engaged

which could have been avoided, and for which AN APPEAL TO ENGLISH AND FRENCH

there was no adequate cause; and which have PEACE-MAKERS.

inflicted shameful burdens on the toiling masses,

until this very hour. These nations “ drifted" into FRIENDS,-Does it not appear to you that a

sanguinary conflict-hardly knowing how or whyvery grave and pressing duty devolves upon you

because they had not statesmanship, or moral at the present time? The writer of these lines

courage enough, to settle their disputes by reason, ventures to think that the state of feeling in

argument, and mutual concession. France and England, on the part of the citizens

Take care that you—the advocates of Peace, in of one country towards those of the other, is such

England and France-do not let our brethren drift as to give cause for anxiety, and, therefore, for

into a fatal quarrel, through inaction and a false some effort on your part to remove it. This is

sense of security! Too many of our fellow-citizens an occasion, perhaps, when the peace-makers may,

on both sides of the Channel may be led away, at by a timely and practical effort, render an immense

such a moment as this, by the mad or wicked service, and show the world that they can act

language of irresponsible journalists, or by imprueffectually as well as preach eloquently. Can we

dent controversies between ambitious politicians. not do something at what is, perhaps, a critical emergency, to bring about a better understanding There is not one of you but will acknowledge between the two Peoples in question? Can we not that any question about more or less “influence" awaken our fellow-citizens in either country to a | in the Dark Continent should not weigh a hair's sense of the supreme duty of observing a spirit of weight, in comparison with the supreme need of mutual forbearance, of mutual respect, and true 6 unity, peace, and concord” between two such fraternity ? This may be one of those critical nations as France and England. Every man and occasions when it is essential to counteract the woman in Europe, who cares one jot for the progress evil influences of a false conception of patriotism, and happiness of the human race—for the supreof blind traditions, of unreasoning hatreds, and of macy of the moral law—and the reign of God a belief in brute force as a right mode of settling upon the earth, would cry out against the very conflicting interests. Surely, then, it is the duty thought of an internecine conflict between those of the peace-makers to do everything in their two peoples. power, by wise co-operation, to arrest those dangerous tendencies of opinion. Otherwise, It seems to the present writer that there is no some hasty step or thoughtless word may cause reason whatever why a friendly understanding an outburst of passion which neither Government should not be arrived at respecting any supposed nor People can control, and which may lead to and shadowy claims of European States to the torrid calamities of infinite magnitude.

plains which stretch from the Equator northwards. Alas! greed and ferocity in man are not yet | How miserable and hateful are these absurd invectives, ignorant, and often false statements, Surely, on some such general principles as these, which are published by the Press in a mere frenzy it should be possible for France and England to of international antagonism and supposed rivalry of come to an agreement, and in concert with the interests! All that is necessary to render an agree- | other European States. ment practicable is an honest desire on both sides for justice, and a due recognition of the rights of indigenous races, the owners and occupants of these The secondary question, which has recently arisen, lands, and a profound conviction that any thought and has caused serious controversy as to the Power of settling the questions in dispute by a resort to which is entitled to protect the Watershed and armed conflict' would be infamous. Let the peace. Basin of the Nile,—that question ceases to exist makers, then, regard it as their imperative duty, at so soon as the administration of Egypt and the any personal sacrifice whatever, to bring about an Soudan reverts to their legitimate rulers. The understanding based upon some general principles, present writer will not attempt to speak authoriwhich a few of us should at once try to formulate. tatively on questions of great complexity, but it Only by such a course will it be easy to arrive at seems clear that when the British occupation of an agreement of practical value and to reach Egypt ceases, her responsibility for safeguarding sound conclusions.

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the interests of Egypt in the Valley of the Upper

Nile ceases also. Perhaps, through some such declaration as that I will now try to indicate, we may find a common ground, and so lead the way to a defioite course of 1 If the present controversy be viewed in a spirit action.

of impartiality, and of a single desire for justice to In point of fact, neither England nor France the people of Egypt, there is surely no adequate can probably show that they have any “rights" to cause for quarrel between England and France. occupy territory in Egypt, in the Valley of the It would be a crime towards the masses of their Nile, or on the Watershed of the latter. Surely, fellow-citizens in both countries to indulge in Egypt and the Soudan constitute territory which dangerous recriminations or invective. Any such belongs to its inhabitants and their rulers. As to dissensions, carried to extreme lengths, would be a the usual pretext of introducing “civilisation," fatal blow to the moral and material well-being of possibly such a people as the Egyptians and both nations. It would endanger the prosperity of Soudanese are far happier under their own forms Europe at large, and retard the cause of interof government, and ruled by men of their own national justice and fraternity among the most race, than under the systems of administration civilised nations of the world. invented by Western peoples. It would, therefore, Is it not then the sacred and very urgent appear to lovers of justice, above all things, to be duty of those Frenchmen and Englishmen, who are absolutely contrary to right for Europeans to force identified with this movement for international their administration upon an unwilling people. peace, to be up and doing? Will they not take steps

On the other hand, the free use of the Red Sea to arrange for an early meeting-say at Berne-in and the Suez Canal is necessary to the prosperity order to deliberate upon the question above subof many nations of the West and East; and mitted to them? That question is, whether it Europe may well claim to preserve that great would be practicable to draw up a united declarahighway from all obstruction or interruption. tion that, there is common ground for a solid and Partly on that ground, as well as for other reasons, just settlement of the controversy which has recently England and France exercised for a time a joint taken place in the Parliaments of France and control over the affairs of Egypt; and England England ; and that a great effort should be made on has, on the same ground, continued to exercise both sides for the preservation of amity and mutual control, subsequently to the rising of Arabi Pasha, respect, and for concession on the part of both and the retirement of France from that task. nations ? Although England has administered Egypt with Such a declaration by the friends of Peace in both considerable advantage to the people, she has not countries would in itself exercise a beneficial indone so under any mandate from Europe, or from fluence upon the public mind, and tend to bring the the Khedive, or his Suzerain, but in opposition to two Peoples together. Such a declaration would, the wishes of the latter. England has, therefore, moreover, be an act of practical pacification worthy placed herself in a false position by her occupa of and incumbent upon the pacificators; one calcution of Egypt, and has virtually acknowledged the lated to raise public confidence in the wisdom and fact by her repeated declarations that the occupa efficacy of their efforts to establish the reign of tion was temporary and would cease so soon as Peace in the world. Beati pacificatores! H. P. order and good government had been fully secured.

The question whether any control over Egypt in the future should be provided by foreign Powers, GERMANY.—There is nothing in the contemporary is one for Europe at large to consider, in concert history of the Peace Movement more remarkable and with the Sultan and the Khedive. It is not a | hopeful than its rapid development in Germany. We question which belongs exclusively to France or

now record a few, out of many, illustrations of this

fact. The German Peace Society, whose headquarters England. The country of Egypt and its dependent

are at Berlin, has requested Herr Cyprian Eberle, the territory belong to its people or their rulers. All

founder of the Ulm branch, to visit a number of towns that European States have any right to demand is, where no such societies as yet exist, and to deliver the security for the free and uninterrupted passage public addresses, in order that public interest may be of the Canal and the Red Sea.

aroused and societies created.

THE ECONOMIES OF PEACE. within thirty years. Of course, this adds to

the annual charge, and every expansion promises “We wanted the economies of peace. We had

an increase for maintenance. It may be safely peace, but had we the economies of peace ? Let

asserted that our fighting services now cost us them look at the monstrous, the insane armaments a cool £40,000,000 a year; nor does this sum of Europe. In his view it was time to speak out cover all that is involved. India is also left out of on the subject. The insane armaments . . . the reckoning. “ Peace in our time” is prayed ... were eating into the very vitals of industry

for constantly, but we seek it in a very warlike and prosperity and of the peace and order of

fashion. Let our readers ponder Mr. Stansfeld's Europe. . . . . . . Why, therefore, in the matter of the diminution of armaments and war.

warning question in the light of these facts. Will like expenditure should not England take the

they not seek to get the right answer to his proinitiative ?(Mr. Stansfeld, M.P. at Eighty Club,

posal, then, with a renewed ardour? We trust April 8th, 1895.)

they will.

W. M. J. WILLIAMS. This was a pronouncement of a most notable kind. Regretfully do we say that it is reported that it

NOTES. was not warmly received. Coming from a man of great experience, knowing the predilections of his The reply given by Sir Edward Grey in the House audience, he was bold with a noble determination of Commons to the question addressed to him by to “speak out” to those gathered to do him Mr. Byles, on the subject of the boundary dispute honour. We take it as the ripe conviction of a between this country and Venezuela, will hardly be competent man; and would that it were heeded by considered satisfactory by those who have carefully all parties in our land. It is perfectly clear that followed the history of this long-pending subject it was spoken with commendable absence of party of controversy between the two Governments. The bias, and as such deserves from all parties a Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs stated that respectful and earnest attention. Mr. Stansfeld as Her Majesty's Government had no information he lays down his parliamentary trust may well ask tending to confirm the suggestion that since gold where are the economies of peace. He may well bad been discovered in the debateable territory, feel sad after a long day of labour in the public the dispute had grown more acute. In that case cause to find us in the van of those who are the Government must be singularly deficient in spending hard-earned treasure in " armaments and information which is open to ererybody. In the warlike expenditure.” He had looked for Times of January 5th and March 9th appeared improvement, what exists is "progress backwards.” letters from a correspondent at Georgetown, Contrast the state of things disclosed by the Demerara, which conclusively prove tbat the following facts, with that declaration and aspiration Government must be wilfully ignorant of the which we quote from Mr. Stansfeld's speech. circumstances of the case. Then, again, the Having done this, we shall feel that “charity Government now speak as though the Schomburg begins at home.”

line were a recognised boundary, or, at any rate, Every year we have to devote £25,000,000 to had always been claimed as such by the British the service of the National Debt, which must be Government; whereas, in a despatch dated April regarded as a millstone hung around our necks by 8th, 1842, the Governor of Demerara officially fighters. But we as a nation will not learn even notified the Agent of the Venezuelan Government by experience the most dire and costly. This is that the marks set up by Sir Robert Schomburg abundantly clear from recent fiscal events, which had been removed; and Lord Aberdeen, who was too eloquently echo the cry for the economies of Foreign Secretary at the time, stated that the line peace. This is the peace record; what, then, laid down by Schomburg had no official character, should a great war bring? In 1875-6 our but should be regarded as merely a record of Naval and Military expenditure was £24,804,000; exploration, the question of frontier remaining in 1885-6 (swollen by a vote of Credit of open to be settled by mutual agreement. Again, £9,701,000) it was £39,534,000; this year, 1895-6, in November, 1850, England, through the Foreign it is computed to be no less than £36,684,000 | Office, voluntarily bound herself not to encroach ordinary expenditure, no vote of Credit, or extras upon the disputed territory. Now a British known or unknown, being included. This shows police-station has been built at Uruan, a point at an increase of annual warlike expenditure in time least 100 miles to the western or Venezuelan side of peace, within twenty years, of £12,000,000 a of the Schomburg line, so that it is clear that we year. This sum represents a large addition to the have de facto annexed the " debateable land” which burdens of each family, say, about an average of £2 in 1850 we promised not to enter on; and now the each family. Nor is this all, for in addition to the British Government offers to arbitrate on another extra £3,000,000 annually devoted to the Navy by tract that it desires to acquire outside the said last year's Budget, and the further annual addition debateable land. That the Venezuelans have comdisclosed in the Estimates now before Parliament mitted some foolish acts is very likely : but we of £1,250,000 we have the Naval Works Bill. submit that some excuse must be made for a weak Permanent works for Naval purposes at home and Power which finds itself unfairly treated by a strong abroad are projected to cost no less than over | Power like Great Britain, which refuses to refer £8,500,000. It is proposed to spend one million the crucial points of the dispute to arbitration. on this work within the present financial year, We confess that we know the Venezuelan case and the money for the purpose of the whole better than the English, for the simple reason that scheme is to be borrowed and made payable lit has been published openly to all the world,

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