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(c.) The permanent spaces, if any, on or above the uppermost

deck of the ship (whether she has one or more than one deck) which are closed in so as to be available for stores,

crew, passengers, or cargo, other than deck cargo : (d.) All uncovered spaces on deck occupied on any voyage by

cargo. The tonnage of the spaces included in a, b, and c above are the gross register tonnage as stated in the certificate of registry; whilst d, the tonnage of the space occupied by deck cargo, is not stated in the certificate of registry, but is ascertained every voyage.

The spaces altogether disregarded in measurement of British ships, and therefore not even included in the gross tonnage, are (1.) Spaces on the upper side of the uppermost deck, which,

though they may be covered over, are not inclosed so as

to be available for stores, crew, cargo, or passengers.* (2.) Spaces on deck or above the tonnage deck, cased in for air,

light, ventilation, or mere access to engine and boiler

space, or to cabins. (3.) Spaces on deck, inclosed to cover boilers and engines,

merely used for weighing anchor, hauling and furling sails, pumping holds, distilling fresh water, &c., totally un

connected with the propelling power and not used for stores. (4.) Privy accommodation for the use of the crew. (5.) Hatchways above deck when they do not exceed one-half

per cent. of the gross tonnage. The spaces included in the gross tonnage and afterwards deducted therefrom are (a.) Certified berthing accommodation for sole use of the crew

when it is properly constructed, lighted, ventilated, drained, and shut off from odours frombilge water or cargo, and is not used for cargo stores or anything else. This provision, which is a piece of special legislation, is entirely with a view to the health and comfort of the crews of ships.

* If they merely shelter deck passengers, the Board of Trade bave power to exempt them specially.

(6.) Mess-room, or mess-rooms, solely for the crew. (c.) Bath-rooms solely for the crew.

The deduction for engine-room is governed by the following Rules :

"(a.) To be rateable in ordinary Steamers.—As regards ships propelled by paddle-wheels, in which the tonnage of the space solely occupied by and necessary for the proper working of the boilers and machinery is above twenty per cent. and under thirty per cent. of the gross tonnage of the ship, such deduction shall be thirty-seven one-hundredths of such gross tonnage ; and in ships propelled by screws in which the tonnage of such spaee is above thirteen per cent. and under twenty per cent. of such gross tonnage, such deduction shall be thirty-two one-hundredths of such gross tonnage.

"(6.) May be measured where the space is unusually large or small.—As regards all other ships, the deduction shall, if the Commissioners of Customs and the owner both agree thereto, be estimated in the same manner; but either they or he may in their or his discretion require the space to be measured and the deduction estimated accordingly; and whenever such measurement is so required the deduction shall consist of the tonnage of the space actually occupied by or required to be inclosed for the proper working of the boilers and machinery, with the addition in the case of ships propelled by paddle-wheels of one half, and in the case of ships propelled by screws of three-fourths of the tonnage of such space.”

The gross tonnage of decked Danish ships includes the measurement of the following spaces :

Rules respecting the space on the upper deck which is to be included in the gross tonnage, as well as the space on or under the upper deck which is to be deducted, to ascertain the net tonnage of the ship.

A.

(a.) The gross tonnage (total number of tons) of a sailing vessel is to be ascertained by adding together1. The number of tons of the space under the tonnage deck.

2. The number of tons of the spaces between the tonnage and upper deck.

3. The number of tons of the closed-in spaces above the upper deck.

(b.) A sailing ship’s net tonnage (register number of tons) is ascertained by deducting from the gross tonnage the number of tons of the space or spaces which are used for the lodging or requirements of the crew, or to navigate the ship, so far as they carry out the rules laid down for such deduction. In cases where no deduction can be allowed, the net tonnage of a ship is the same as her gross tonnage.

The net tonnage of a steamer is ascertained by deducting from the gross tonnage not only the number of tons of the space or spaces which are used for the lodging or the requirements of the crew, or for navigating the ship, as far as they carry out the rules laid down for such deduction, but also the number of tons of the space or spaces which are taken up by or are necessary for the propelling power.

(c.) The statement of measuring, added to the nationality and register certificate, shall contain information of the number of tons, and a description of each separately measured space, which has been included in the gross tonnage, as well as the number of tons, and the description of each separately measured space, which is deducted from this tonnage in the statement of net tonnage.

The measurement of the ship shall always be given in cabic metres, which are ascertained by multiplying the number of tons by the factor 2.83; whilst, on the other hand, the reduction of cubic metres to tons is done by multiplying the former by the factor 0.353.

(a.) If any space, the number of tons of which has been deducted in the gross tonnage, is found to be used for the lodging or requirements of passengers, or for the captain of the ship, or to carry freight, provisions, or necessaries for the ship, the captain of the said ship, or the proprietor, will be called upon to answer for it in accordance with the law of ship's measurement of the 13th of March, 1867. Sec. 23 (Comp. Sec. 16).

B.

The rules given in the instructions for the measuring of ships, of the 7th of September, 1867, Section V., respecting the measurement of spaces on the upper deck, which are to be measured and included, or deducted from the same, together with the regulations for the measuring of raised hatches, &c., as also the rules given in part b. of the circular, No. 5 of ship's measurement, of 18th of May, 1872, respecting the treatment of the so-called over or protection decks, are abolished, and in their place the following rules must be followed in every new measurement or re-measurement on and after 1st October, 1878.

C.

Spaces that are to be included in the gross tonnage :

All closed and fixed spaces (such as half-decks, cabins, poops, forecastles, hatches, or holds), on or over the upper deck, whether this is an ordinary deck or an over deck, as well as the space between the last-named deck and the main deck, shall be measured and included in the gross tonnage, if they cannot be brought under the category of spaces mentioned below in Section D.

Additions for buildings on the upper deck in the form of hatches, which are in connection with the holds, are only made when the total tonnage of such spaces or buildings exceedsp.c. of the rest of the ship's tonnage in a ship of over 100 tons.

from 100 to 50 11

, 50 to 30 ,

, 30 to 10 ,

of and under 10 » In each case of this kind the addition is to be given according to the excess number of tons.

(Note.—The cubic contents of hatches is ascertained by multiplying their interior length, measured at half height and half the breadth; by their interior breadth, measured at balf the height and half the length, and the product with the average of the greatest and least heights of the hatches, measured from the upper

part of the frame of the hatch, or from the upper surface of the hatch itself, if this does not lie on a level with the frame, to the upper surface of the deck. Other buildings are measured in the way described in Section V. of the instructions for the measuring of ships; upper decks, on the other hand, according to the mode of measurement detailed in Section II. of the method of measuring spaces in the middle deck.)

D.

Spaces which are not to be included in the gross tonnage:

The following spaces on or over the upper deck are exempted from measurement, and so are not taken into consideration in the question of the gross tonnage of a ship, namely :

1. Spaces which are open on one or more sides, and which cannot be closed in so as to be employed for the carriage of any other goods than what can be taken on an ordinary open deck.

2. Detached descending hatches (cabin hatches), as well as skylights for cabins, or spaces, including crew, or machinery, which can neither be used for packing away provisions or goods, or can serve a fixed lodging for passengers or crew.

3. Machine spaces on the open deck, or in buildings which are not included in the gross tonnage, but are used for the passage of light and air, or as a protection for the engine-room.

4. Erections which are temporarily, and on short voyages put up to protect deck passengers, who otherwise would be exposed to the sea or the weather.

5. Passenger saloors (sleeping cabins not included) on the upper deck of coasting and river steamers, fitted up and exclusively intended for a shelter to passengers.

For necessary explanation, however, the number of tons of such a saloon should be separately entered on the certificate or statement of measurement with the express mention that it is not included in the gross tonnage. If any such saloon is built partly above and partly under the upper deck, only the part which is above the level of the deck can be exempted from the measurement or gross tonnage.

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