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Laws and Rules regarding General Average, which have of late been furnished both by jurists and practical men, is the one now before us of Herr R. Ulrich. In a very compendious form he has given the leading characteristics of the three systems now in force, namely, the law or system of Spain, which to a certain extent prevails in South America, and resembles the French system; the common safety system, and lastly the common benefit system. Attached to these systems are rules which vary to an all but incredible extent in different countries.

Thus the vague customs of Lloyd's prevail in England, whilst in Denmark in the absence of any defined law, shipowners and merchants had between themselves agreed to fifty-two articles, which received the royal sanction in the year 1850. Herr Ulrich then gives in brief outline, the state of the law in Belgium, Spain, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, France, etc., and points to the fact that in all these countries a desire had been manifested to settle the law in regard to General Average losses. In support of his argument that a uniform rale ought to be adopted, he has given several striking instances which are quite worthy of closer study. Finally, the writer recommends the York and Antwerp rules settled at Antwerp at the Conference of the Association for the Reform and Codification of the Law of Nations, for universal adoption; at all events as a sound basis upon which to found common international rules. In recommending the adoption of these rules, he urges that they concur in many respects with the law of Germany and Holland, and that they constitute a reasonable compromise of conflicting systems. The appendices, including a petition to the Reichstag of Germany, will be read with interest. As this question is sure to be before the public for some time to come, we can safely recommend this paper to the perusal of all interested in the settlement of an International Law for General Average.

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Useful Arts: a Journal of American Industries, No. 1, February,

1879. Jas. A. Whitney, Editor, 212, Broadway, New York. PROBABLY no nation excels so much in the practical and ingenious application of useful arts as the Americans, and it is not, therefore, surprising that a journal should spring into existence professing

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to represent this national trait. Among a variety of short and generally interesting papers in this maiden number of Useful Arts, is one headed “ Needed Inventions,” pointing out numerous ways in which inventive minds may exercise themselves, and, if successful, may achieve fame and fortune. This is, undoubtedly, a good notion. We should say that if the work continues to be well conducted, and does not degenerate into a mere advertising medium, it will live to occupy a high position in a country so remarkable for native ingenuity as the United States.

The Newcastle (N.S.W.) Nautical Almanac, Directory and Guide to the Port of Newcastle for the year 1879. Newcastle (N.S.W.)

R. C. Knaggs & Co. 1879. As a comprehensive guide to a seaport it would be difficult to excel this annual which comes to us from New South Wales. The growing importance of the mercantile shipping of our great Australian Colony is well indicated by the fact of a publication of this character finding support year after year, but no doubt the inherent merit and completeness of the book itself contributes in no small degree to its success.

Report of the Meteorological Council to the Royal Society for the

period of Ten Months ending 31st March, 1878. London :

Queen's Printers. 1878. From this Annual Report we learn all about the constitution of the Meteorological Council and its staff as a scientific department of the Government, the nature of its investigations and general duties, and its progress in obtaining, recording, and disseminating meteorological knowledge for the benefit of navigators, agriculturists, and others. The appendices to the Report are really valuable, and by their aid the intelligent mariner may learn how to make his own pursuit of meteorological science serviceable for the benefit of his brother seamen, and an agreeable pastime to relieve the tedium of long voyages. The publication is issued officially, and may be purchased as a Parliamentary Blue Book for the small sum of one shilling.

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350

TIDAL CONSTANTS FOR VARIOUS BRITISH, IRISH, AND EUROPEAN PORTS. By applying the Tidal Constant of the place, according to its sign (+ add, - sub.), to the time of high water on the given day at the port of reference, you have the time of high water at the place sought.

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PORT OF PLACE. CONSTANT.

REFERENCE.

H, M. Aberdeen

-1 17 Leith Aberystwyth ..

-3 52 Liverpool Alderney....

+2 59 Brest Antwerp.....

+5 19 Dover Arbroath.

-0 42 Leith Arcachon ...

+0 50 Brest Arklow

-2 25 Kingstown Ayr .........

-O 18 Greenock Banff.

1 49 Leith Bantry harbour

......-1 14 Queenstown Barnstaple bridge

26 Weston-s.-Mare Bayonne.......

- 2 Brest Beachy head & Rye bay +0 3 Dover Beaumaris

-O 51 Liverpool Belfast .......

+2 42 Londonderry Berwick ..

1 5 N. Shields Blyth ......

-O 8 N. Shields Bordeaux

+3 3 Brest Boulogne ...

+0 19 Dover Bridport .....

+0 22 Devonport Bristol & King Road .. +0 19 Weston-s.-Mare Cadiz .....

-2 2 Brest Caernarvon

-1 56 Liverpool Calais .....

+0 87 Dover Campbellton ...

0 23 Greenock Cardiff ...

+0 2 Weston-8.-Mare Cardigan bar....... -4 22 Liverpool Carlingford bar ... -O 10 Kingstown Chatham............ -O 47 London Cherbourg ....... +4 2 Brest Coleraine .....

-1 37 Londonderry Coquet Road...

- 23 N. Shields Cordouan Tower

- 10 Brest Cowes (West).

-0 27 Dover Crinan

+4 41 Greenock Cromarty .....

-2 21 Leith Dartmouth........ +0 33 Devonport Deal & Downs ......

+0 3 Dover Dieppe

+7 19 Brest Donaghadee .......... +0 3 Kingstown Donegal harbour ...... +0 17 Queenstown Douglas & Ramsay .... -0 11 Liverpool Dublin bar

+0 2 Kingstown Dundalk ...

-O 16 Kingstown Dungeness

-O 27 Dover Dunkerque....

+0 56 Dover Exmouth

+0 38 Devonport Falmouth.

-O 46 Devonport Fecamp .....

+6 57 Brest Ferrol .........

-O 47 Brest Flamborough hea

1 59 Hull Fleetwood

-O 12 Liverpool Folkestone......

-O 5 Dover Fowey .......

- 29 Devonport Flushing......

+1 42 Dover Galway bay ......

-0 26 Queenstown Gibraltar ....

-1 27 Brest Glasgow (Port)

+0 10 Greenock Gloucester ....

+2 51 Weston-s.-Mare Granville ....

+2 26 Brest Gravesend .....

-0 48 London Grimsby (Great)..... -O 53 Hull Guernsey (St. Peter).. +2 50 Brest Hartlepool ............ +0 5 N. Shields Harwich

-1 52 London Havre

+6 4 Brest Helgoland.

+0 21 Dover Holyhead

-1 12 Liverpool Holy Island harbour ..-0 53 N. Shields Honfleur

.......... +5 42 Brest Inverness............ -1 59 Leith

POBT OP
PLACE.
CONSTANT.

REFERENCE

H. M. Jersey (St. Helier) .... +2 38 Brest Kinsale..

- 18 Queenstown Lerwick (Shetland) .. -3 47 Leith Limerick......

+1 15 Queenstown Lisbon bar.......

-1 17 Brest Littlehampton ..

+0 24 Dover Llanelly bar ........

-O 38 Weston-s.-Mare Lowestoft.

4 1 London Lynn & Boston Deep.. -0 29 Hall Margate ..............

-2 18 London Maryport ............ +0 3 Liverpool Milford Haven entr... -0 58 Weston-s.-Mare Montrose .....

- 52 Leith Morlaix

1 6 Brest Needles point

-1 26 Dover Newcastle

+0 23 X. Shields Newhaven.

+C 39 Dover Newport .......... +0 16 Weston-s.-Nare Nieuport.....

+1 6 Dover Nore ..........

-1 28 London Orfordness

-2 43 London Oporto

1 17 Brest Ostende

+1 13 Dover Padstow .....

-1 41 Weston-s.-Mare Peel, Isle of Man .. -O 15 Liverpool Pembroke Dock ...

42 Weston-s.-Mare Penzance ..........

-1 13 Devonport Peterhead ..........

-1 43 Leith
Piel harbour, Barrow.. - 18 Liverpool
Plymouth breakwater-O 6 Devonport
Poole ................ -2 2 Dover
Port Carlisle ......... +0 47 Liverpool
Portland breakwater .. +1 18 Devonport
Port Patrick

-O 58 Greenock Portsmouth

+0 29 Dover Ramsgate

-2 19 London Rotterdam .....

+4 33 Dover Santander .....

- 17 Brest Scarborough ...

+0 48 N. Shields Selsea bill ....

+0 33 Dover Sheerness ...

-1 21 London Shoreham ...

+0 22 Dover Sligo bay.

+0 17 Queenstown Southampton

- 42 Dover Spurn point

-1 3 Hull St. Ives

-2 10 Weston-s.-Mare St. Malo

+2 18 Brest St. Mary (Scilly) .. -1 16 Devonport St. Nazaire....

-0 7 Brest Stornoway ............ +6 38 Greenock Stromness (Orkneys) -5 17 Leith Sunderland

- 1 N. Shields Swansea bay.

-O 53 Weston-s.-Hare Tay bar

-O 11 Leith Tees bar....

+0 22 N. Shields Tenby .....

-1 12 Weston-s.-Mare Thurso.....

-5 49 Leith Torbay ..........

+0 17 Devonport Tralee bay ......

-0 58 Queenstown Ushant (Ouessant) -0 15 Brest Valentia harbour -1 19 Queenstown Waterford .....

+0 19 Queenstown Westport.....

-0 4 Queenstown Wexford ....

+2 20 Queenstown Whitby....

+0 22 N. Shields Whitehaven

9 Liverpool Wick..........

2 55 Leith Wicklow ......

-0 41 Kingstown Workington

-0 19 Liverpool Yarmouth road

-4 43 London Youghall......

+0 13 Queenstown

+ 11+

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