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WEATHER FORECAST FOR JANUARY, 1879.
THE CURRENTS OR TENDENCY OF THE AIR OVER THE BRITISH ISLANDS
FOR THE MONTH OF JANUARY, 1879.
W. 1 Oh.m. to 6h.m. 10 7 S.S.W. 6h.m. to 1 fol. m. 5 3 N.N.W. 2 8 m. 9 8 S.W.
N.E. 3 10 m. 8 8
2 5 E.N.E. 5 2 a. 3 12 W. by S.
1 6 E. by N. 6 0 14 W.
0 7 E. 4 fol. m. 1 6 E. by S. 3 m. to 4 a.
3 12 W. by N. 8
5 11 W. N.W. 9
9 7 Nw. 11
11 5 N.N.W. 12 10 a. 6 1
10 a. 13 3 13 11 a.
12 4 1411 a.
midnight 12 3 16 Om. to 7 m. 5 S.S.W.
1 next m.
11 4.N.N.E. 17 1m. 9 m.
6 8 E.N.E. 19 2 m. 2 a. 1 6 W. by S.
2 12 E. by N. 2 a. to 4 fol. m. 1 14
0 7 W. 21 4a. 3 5 10 E.S.E.
2 5 W.N.W. 22 6 a. 2 7 9 S.E.
3 4 N.W. 23 2
9 8 2 2 11 6 s.sw.
5 3 N.N.W. 25 8a. 2 11 7
10 a. 28 5 10 S.W.
N.W. 29lla. 6
4 30 | 11 a. 8
4 4 31
midnight. 3 5 W.N.W. NotE.-An E. by Southerly current due to the sun North of parallel of 50° N. Lat. A W. by Southerly current due to the sun South of parallel of 50° N. Lat.
11 a. 8 m.
REMARKS. 1. The Table indicates
Strong Southerly tendency from the 1st to the 3rd.
10th 18th. Easterly
18th 23rd. Southerly
2. As in November and December the strongest tendency being from the North produced the beaviest gales from the East, so in January the strongest tendency being from the south will probably cause the heaviest gales to come from the West, ard these will likely occur about the times for strong Westerly tendency—that is to say, the most serious and extensive storms are more likely to take place at these than at other times during the month.
3. When there are two currents, their direction may be readily found from the Table given last month: for example, if the wind oscillates between S.W.ard N.W. with a rising and falling barometer, these changes indicate a S. Westerly current modified by a N.Westerly one. Again, with a rising and falling barometer, and wind oscillating between N. and E., the currents are Northerly and Easterly. A calm, with a rising or falling barometer, shows two opposite currents, one of which will probably be that stated in Forecast, the other from the opposite point of the compass. The barometer rises highest when the two opposite currents are S.Westerly and N.Easterly. Heaviest rain or snow probable during S. Westerly tendency with wind in the N.E., and during N.Westerly with wind in the S.E.
4. The Forecast may be approximately sufficient for any place in the North Temperate Zone, reckoning time by the sun, and allowing from one to two hours for variation of latitude. In the extreme North E. should probably be substituted for W. in the columns headed “Force” and “General Direction."
A VIRTUOUS PROTEST.
B E have received a copy of a placard in very large type
bearing the names of no less than twenty-four seaAl men's boarding-house keepers. We are told on
authority that "there is joy in Heaven over one sinner that repenteth rather than over ninety and nine just persons that need no repentance." As regards Cardiff, with which we are better acquainted, we should think that at the present moment joy on the Bench must be unparalleled now that twenty-four seamen's boarding house keepers are moved to placard the walls with a protest against the love of lucre of the joint fraternity. But we will let these righteous men speak for themselves. They say, “Whereas it has been discovered that of late certain shipping masters in this port have been charging the enormous sum of one pound and one shilling for the shipping of seamen, whether the ship be bound for the Continent or a long voyage, whether around Cape Horn or the Cape of Good Hope. We, therefore, the principal boarding-house keepers, &c., of this port, with the assistance of the Superintendent of the Sailors' Home,* do pledge ourselves not to supply such persons with seamen for whatever capacity they may be required until they reduce their scale of charges from one pound one shilling to ten shillings and sixpence." Here follow the signatures.
This placard throws a very interesting light on the doings of those who deal in British mercantile seamen. It seems that at Cardiff the boarding masters, &c., are the wholesale dealers, proprietors at first hand, of the body and bones of Jack, which they sell to persons, or as they put it, “supply persons with,” whenever the price to be got suits the state of the market. They seem to regard their stock in the same light as do holders of human beings in Dahomey, disposing of them wholesale to the shipping masters (the retail dealers) at so much a head, or so much per batch, as assorted, a reduction on taking a quantity. The retail dealer or shipping master, having bought his seamen wholesale, sells them to the shipowner's agent at twenty-one shillings per head retail. We shall soon expect to see in Cardiff such an announcement as the following :-“Seamen, wholesale-kept in soak and carted to shipping masters with dummy kits ; price, natives, one hundred shillings the dozen." And in the retail market the following :-“ Seamen, retail-prime A.B.'s supplied on shortest notice, delivered free on board, including kit; twenty-one shillings each for natives. Ordinariescoloured sorts and landsmen, 35 per cent. reduction. Terms— advance notes for two months to be handed to dealer. N.B.-All warranted helpless for twenty-four hours.” If our readers do not actually see a plain statement of such terms it will be because they do not look in the right place, not because no such terms exist : for disgusting and grim as the terms quoted may appear
[* We believe the Sailors' Home is a charitable institution, and we trust that the clergymen and others taking an active interest will support this virtuous resolve of only obtaining from Jack ten and sixpence, especially as there is no law by which payment of a farthing can be enforced.-ED.]
to the uninitiated, they are, in plain English, and stated without circumlocution, exact versions of the unwritten terms of many contracts. It is a curious circumstance that the British seaman of 1879 should be the victim of a horrible combination of dealers; but so long as the advance-note system exists (the purchaser) the shipowner, or his agent, and (the retail dealer) the "shipping master" will continue to buy and sell Mercantile Jack : and for the reason that, while the buyer and seller transact their unholy and unlawful business, Jack himself (the party sold) pays for it. It is the only instance, of which we are aware, of a first party selling a chattel to a second party, and the chattel paying the purchase-money and commission to boot. The purchaser wants to get his ship to sea; and the salesman, as a free and independent elector, lives on the advance note. England is a wonderful country, and our institutions are admirable, but the writer of this article latterly found himself utterly unable to impress on the mind of an intelligent foreigner the beauties attendant on the purchase and sale of seamen under the advance note and crimping systems. Jack is protected by the law, and is distinctly informed that if anyone receives anything for obtaining employment for him on any ship, the person receiving it is liable to a heavy penalty or imprisonment ; and yet in spite of this, and in spite of the fact that Jack could and would get a ship just as easily without employing an agent at all, he prefers to do it, and to waste his money. How true is the memorable saying of the “unhappy nobleman now languishing in Dartmoor," that “them as as many and no braines is made for them as as branes and no munney.” So long as boardingmasters, grogmen, shipping-masters, brothel-keepers and the like have votes and Jack has none, so long will they obtain his hardearned wages, and he be overborne, saturated with drink and contagious disease, and bought and sold, wholesale and retail, in large and small numbers, as he is to-day. The crimps beat the combined forces of Sir Charles Adderley and the eldest son of Lord Shaftesbury over the last Merchant Shipping Bill. Will Lord Sandon fare better at their hands if he ever tries to accomplish the good work of aiding the seaman in this “ unequal match ? ” Time will show. “PRINCESS ALICE” AND “BYWELL CASTLE.”
DECISION IN THE ADMIRALTY DIVISION OF THE HIGH COURT
OF JUSTICE. T H E decision in this Court is as follows:-" These a contradictions in the evidence given by the master and
the pilot of the Bywell Castle have been duly weighed,
and the testimony given by the forty-five witnesses examined has been carefully reviewed by the Elder Brethren and myself, and we agree in the following conclusions :—First as to the Princess Alice. It was competent to the Princess Alice, after rounding Tripcock Point, to have run up on either side of Galleon's Reach, due regard being had to the ordinary rules and practice of navigating the river. When the tide is adverse, as it was in this instance, it was usual for vessels after rounding a projecting point to go across the river for the purpose of what is called cheating the tide, the tide being slack on the opposite shore as far as the next point on that side. We believe this course to have been pursued by the Princess Alice on the evening of the 3rd of September last, and that she did pass over from Tripcock point, or thereabouts, towards the north shore. If she had intended to proceed up on the south shore of Galleon's Reach, it was her duty to have straightened up the reach immediately after rounding Tripcock Point, so as to make her intention manifest by showing her green light to vessels bound down the river. According to the evidence of Long, the surviving mate, this is what the Princess Alice did ; but we think this evidence is overborne by both the testimony of other witnesses—such as that of the witnesses from the Anna Elizabeth and the Plymouth, vessels moored off the north shore, and from the Enterprise, which was ranning down—and also from the fact that the collision took place at a very short distance to the south of mid-channel. Therefore the Princess Alice must have been over to the north of mid-stream when she suddenly starboarded. It appears to us that when the Princess Alice was on a parallel course with the