페이지 이미지
PDF
ePub

been 33 to 35 fathoms, began to gradually decrease as they approached the coast, which was sighted at 8.45 p.m. It was the N.E. point of the eastern peninsula of Taimyr, situated in lat. 76° 30' N., long. 113° E. For 15 to 16 miles seaward there appeared to be no ice, and the depth at 6 miles from the land varied between 6 and 12 fathoms.

With a clear look-out around, and a breeze from the north-west, sail was made along the eastern side of the Taimyr peninsula in a smooth sea. Inland the mountains appeared to attain an altitude of from 2,000 to 3,000 feet, and generally free from snow, though here and there some showed, as well as a few small glaciers, which, however, did not reach the sea level within 800 to 1,000 feet. Dredging in 35 fathoms, the result was a rich harvest of the fauna of the region, evidently forms of life exclusive appertaining to the glacial ocean, and without any admixture from southern seas such as would certainly be found in the vicinity of Spitzbergen. These researches lead up to important questions in connection with the last epoch of the world's history.

At times no ice was visible in any direction, and as the vessels had previously met with land where the charts indicated sea, so here they were shaping their course over what the charts indicated as land. At 11 a.m. on the 24th of August, the look-out announced, “ land on the port bow." This was evidently Preobrashensk island, fronting the mouth of the Chatanga river, and which is fully four degrees westward of its position on the chart. On making the island, they anchored for a few hours to examine the locality.

But, impatient of delay, they started again at 10 p.m. Shaping a course between the parallels of 73° and 74°, with darker and longer nights, required great circumspection, especially with charts on which little reliance could be placed; moreover the depths rarely exceeded 5 to 8 fathoms as far as the mouth of the Lena. They had splendid weather after the 23rd, and were sailing in an ice-free sea. Nordenskiöld attributes this absence of ice along the northern shores of Siberia towards the end of summer to the quantity of warm water brought into the glacial sea by the great Siberian rivers. The waters of the Obi and Yenisei trend north-eastward with the lay of

the coast, and the waters of the Chatanga, Anabara, Olensk, Lena, Yana, Indigirka and Kolyma, which are situated eastward of Taimyr peninsula, take a more easterly trend, all, more or less warmed during the short but hot Siberian summer. Before starting, Nordenskiöld had anticipated this, and observations on the temperature and saltness of the water showed that he was correct in his estimate.

It had been the intention to anchor at the mouth of the Lena; but with a fair wind and ice-free sea, the l'ega parted company from the Lena on the night of the 27th. The latter went for her destination, the river Lena, and the former steered for Fadey of island, one of the New Siberia group, whence a departure was to be taken for Behring strait and Japan ; but as we now know she had to winter in the Arctic seas. She had, however, very nearly accomplished the N.E. passage in one season, for while we write intelligence has reached Europe that the l'ega, all well on board, is frozen in near Serdze-kamen, in lat. 67° 3' N., long. 171° 33' W., and less than 100 miles from Behring strait.

Mr. Siberiakoff, the Russian merchant, who is most largely interested, from a commercial standpoint, in opening up the resources of Siberia, has prepared a steamer, already launched at Malmö, to meet the l'ega ; but it appears to be by no means un. likely that Nordenskiöld will pass into the Pacific without any extraneous aid. It is however proposed that the new steamer, proceeding via the Suez Canal to Japan, shall coal at Yokohama, and thence, taking a departure for Behring strait, try to round the north point of Asia from the westward.

Note.-It will be seen that from the observations of the Swedish expedition the whole of the Taimyr peninsula had been bodily placed on charts and maps several degrees too far to eastward.

CORRESPONDENCE.

THE ACTION OF SCREW-PROPELLERS.

To the Editor of the Nautical Magazine." SJR, -As the action of screw-propellers is now attracting a good deal of attention among seamen, I venture to ask you to insert a remark on one point of your correspondent “W.C.'s” useful notes, viz., on the statement that " a right-handed propeller going continuously ahead will turn a vessel round faster under the starboard than under the port helm.”

This is, I think, not so supported by evidence as to be acceptable as a general rule, and as I have served in a right-handed screw-steamer, where we carried starboard helm, I think it incorrect, but the fact that a difference of opinion exists shows the necessity for further experiment.

When a vessel has not attained uniform motion under the action of her engines, so that the screw blades above and below the axis of the propeller are working with great slip, doubtless, unless the upper blades are deeply immersed, the lower ones experience most resistance, and deliver most water sternward, hence, if calm and smooth, the vessel would turn from a stationary position fastest to port; but when uniform motion has been attained, it appears highly probable, from the writings of Professor Osborne Reynolds, and others, that the wake motion and dead water cause the blades above the axis to be working with considerable slip, while those below are working with very much less; hence, there would be a resultant lateral thrust transmitted to the screw shaft, in a direction opposite to that in which the upper blade was moving or tending to turn the bow to starboard.

It seems worth noticing that if the screw be reversed while the vessel have headway and wake motion, the same causes would transfer the superiority of thrust to the lower blade, hence, as in s.s. Hankow, when the engines were reversed at a speed of ten knots and helm amidships the ship turned to starboard, and showed your correspondent's second proposition to be true.

Your obedient servant, May, 1879.

S. L.

TIDE TABLES FOR JUNE, 1879.
Also Ports of Reference for the Constants in the next Table.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

41 331

7 211 7 461

[ocr errors]

596

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

CONS

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

H. M. H. M.H. M.H. M. H. M. H. M. H. M. H. M.H. M. H. M.H. M. H. M.H. M. H. M. u. M.H. M. H. M.H. M. H. M. H. M.U. M. H. M. H. M.H. M H . M. H. M. 10 28 11 0 2 47 3 101 - 0 11 12 11 89 1 53

24 7 542 19 7 49 8 17 8 22 8 52 1 8 1 41 7 34 8 34 41 5 30 11 31 - 3 43 4 11 0 45 1 12 -10 6 2 58 3 288 24 8 54 3 54 29 8 45 9 13 9 22 9 52 2 13 2 44 8 33 9 5 5 27 5 53

0 1 0 271 4 891 5 6 1 39 2 5 0 33 1 0 3 56 4 23 9 52 5 3 5 33 9 39 10 5/10 2110 49 3 14 3 49 9 34 10 0 6 20 6 45 410 55 1 22 5 3 6 C 2 31 2 56 1 27 1 54 4 50 5 10 21 10 50 6 3 6 33 10 32 10 59|11 1711 45 4 11 4 39 10 25 10 50 7 16 7 43 2 57 3

49 2 1 6 27 6 54 3 21 3 46 2 19 2 415 11 19 11 477 1 7 11 26 11 58 - 0 13 5 6 5 33 11 15 11 40 8 8 8
62
4 12 4 371 3 9 3 33 7
- 0 14 7 52 8 -10 18 0 41 1

24 -10 5 8 53 9
73 31 3 56 8 10 8 34 5 2 5 27 3 57 4 22 7 21 7 43 0 41 1 7 8 38 9 0 0 42 1 6 1 31 1 ! 48 7 12 0 30 0 55 9 39 10 2 5 29 5
21 4 44 9 22
5 52 6 174

11 8 5 8 26 1 32 1 57 9 22 9 43 1 29 1 522 42 7 35 7 57 1 20 1 45 10 25 10 49 6 16 6 40
46 10 9 6 42 7 7 5 36 6 1 8 47 9 7 2 21 2 45 10 3 10 22 2 15 2 38 3 3 27 8 19 8 41 2 10 2 35 11 15 11 46 7 4 7 28
3411 il 7 34 7 59 6 27 6 54 9 28 9 5039 10 4111 0 3 1 3 24 3 50 4 13 9 3 9 25 3 0 3 25 -1 0 18 7 62 8 16
29 11 5 8 27 8 55 7 22 7 50 10 12 10 863 55 11 22 11 45 3 48 4 1414 371 5 1 9 47 10 93 50 4 18 0 50 1 24 8 401 9 4
- 0 27 9 24 9 5 8 18 8 47 11 0 11 27 4 39 5 8 lo il 4 41' 5 11 5 25 5 51/10 37 11 6 4 46 5 15 1 58 2 32 9 31 10 1
56 1 2410 26 10 54 9 17 9 47 11 59 - 5

8 5 43 6 15 6 20 6 49 11 34 - 5 44 6 11 3 3 3 30 10 82 11 3
18 11 22 11 5010 15 10 450 82 1 6 6

96 47 7 18 7 18 7 47 0 3 0 33 6 38 7 53 55 4 19 11 35 -
110 80 11 02
0 111 1111 88 1 38 2 10 7 21 7

3 14 7 48 8 10 8 17 8 471 5 1 37 7 33 8 11 4 43 5 5 0 7 0 36
11 29 11 5 3

0 44 1 1 -10 4 2 41 3 9 8 20 8 46 8 46 4 17 8 42 9 6 9 17 9 44 2 7 2 84 8 29 8 56 5 26 5 47| 4 1 81
-102i 4

1 34 1 55 0 27 0 483 35 3 59 9 9 9 32 4 44 5 10 9 28 9 49 10 710 29 2 59 8 28 9 20 9 43 6 8 6 29 1 53 2 14
0 44 1 7 5

2 151 2 841 9 1.80 4 22 4 451 9 54 10 16 5 35 5 58 10 9 10 29/10 51/11 18 3 45 4 7/10 4/10 22 6 501 7 11] 2 34 2 54
1 28 1 495

53 3 12 1 50 2 10 5 5 5 23 10 38 11 06 21 6 42 10 49 11 9 11 8511 564 28 4 48 10 40 10 587 32 7 52 3 14 3 34
2 8 2 26 6 87 6 57 3 81 3 50 2 29 2 48 5

6 44 6 11 22 11 43 7 3 7 23 11 29 11 49 - 0 17 5 8 6 28 11 17 11 36 8 11 8 28 3 54 4 14
45 8 8 7 17 7 86 4 9 4 271 3
6 22 6 41 0 417 42 8 0 -10 0 37 0

8 11 55 - 8 45 9 2 4 82 4 50
8 21 8 40 7 54 8 12 4 461 5 5 9
6 59 7 17 0 25 0 46 8 18 8 36 0 26 0 45/ 1 15 1

14 0 34 9 19 9 37 5 8 5 27
4 19 8 32 8 52 5 261 5 471 4 20 4 411 7 35 7 54 1 6 1 27 8 55 9 14 1 4 1 23 1 54 2

55 1 16 9 56 10 16 5 47 6 7
4 58 9 10 9 846 8 6 29 5 2 5 28 8 13 8 33 1 48 2 9 9 33 9 51 1 43 2 3 2 34 2

( 1 37 1 58 10 37 10 596 27 6 48
89 9 5510 17 6 50 7 13 5 46 6 10 8 53 9 18 2 81 2 54 10 10 10 29 2 24 2 46 3 14 3 36 8 26

11 21 11 55 7 11 7 35
27 10 4211 9 7 40 8 7 6 85 7 29 86 10 1 3 17 3 4010 49 11 10 3 10 8 31

9 10 9 39 3 8 3 31 -10271 8 0 8 25
7 11 88 -18 86 9 7 30 8 0 10 26 10 644 8 4 27|11 33 11 59 3 59 4

9 57 10 23 4 1 4 30 1 1 1 368 50 9 18
8140 50 40 9 88 10 12 8 82 9 su 2111 584 51' 5 17 -1 0 2 4 50 5

5 82 2 14 2 50 9 49 10 23 9 18 1 11 1 4210 46 11 20 9 41 10 13 O 8 5 45 6 14 1 0 1 33 6 6 6 42 6

6 34 8 23 3 5310 58 11 86 2 18) 2 45611 62 10 2 - 10 46 11 17 1 14 1 513 6 50 7 278 2 10 2 48 7 19 7 587 250 85 1 12 7 6 7 89 4 20 4 47 0 13

[ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors]

TIDAL CONSTANTS FOR VARIOUS BRITISH, IRISH, AND EUROPEAN PORTs. By applying the Tidal Constant of the place, according to its sign (+ add, - sub.), to the time of high water on the given day at the port of reference, you have the time of high water at the place sought.

[graphic]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
« 이전계속 »