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vessels, extending from the main-deck to the keel, and there being open to the water. On the main-deck a pair of standards are placed, one on each side of each of the bollow columns, with a cross-head working in grooves in the standards, which forms a clamp for gripping a wire-rope or chain passing down the hollow column, and secured to the sunken ship. Beneath the cross-head a pair of powerful hydraulic presses are placed, which raise the cross-head and the weight secured to it a short distance each time, the rope or chain being clamped between decks, and the cross-head re-adjusted for another lift. Two vessels of similar construction are preferably used, that the chain passing beneath the sunken ship may be raised at both ends simultaneously.
3714. Richard Rose, Leadenhall Street, London. “Improvements in apparatus for saving life in the water, and for extinguishing fire on board ship.” This refers to the construction of seats for passengers, and consists of a vessel constructed of metal in two parts, capable of being used as a seat, and which, when thrown overboard, from its buoyancy will support two or more persons. The seat resembles in shape a double egg cup, and is capabie of being unscrewed in the middle, so that in the event of a fire occurring on board, the two vessels may be employed in carrying water. Each half of the seat is provided with a lid, and forms a receptacle for food, water, papers, &c., in case of wreck. When required only as a life-buoy, the lids are fastened down, and furnished only with endrails and central lines.
3751. Edward Gardner Colton, of the office of Wm. P. Thompson and Co., Patent Agents, 6, Lord Street, Liverpool. “Improvements in or appertaining to marine engine governors.” (A communication in trust to him from abroad, by John A. Suedberg, of Washington, District of Columbia, U.S.A.) The object of this invention is to produce a simple and efficient mechanism for the purpose of automatically regulating the speed of a marine engine when the vessel is exposed to rough seas, in which the propeller is often raised partly or wholly out of the water. It consists of a pipe, fixed outside the vessel, open for the admission of water, and communicating on the inside with an air chamber. To a diaphragm, connected by a pipe to the air chamber, is
jointed a lever, pivotted to the stem of the balanced piston valve, in connection with a small intermediate steam cylinder. When the propeller is immersed, the air in the air chamber is considerably compressed by the water in the communication pipe, with a head nearly equal to the perpendicular distance from the pipe to the water-line at the stern-post, and as the air communicates with the diaphragm the latter will be expanded, thereby moving the lever jointed to it and valve to which the lever is pivotted, and admitting steam to the intermediate steam cylinder, which moving the cylinder with its connections, instead of the piston, in the same direction keeps the throttle valve open for the admission of steam to the main engine. As soon, however, as the propeller rises in the water, the head of water, and consequently the pressure, becomes gradually less; the diaphragm will be contracted, thereby moving the valve in the opposite direction, causing a similar movement in the cylinder and throttle valve, thus gradually shutting off steam to the main engine. A ball governor may be substituted for the diaphragm if it is desirable to take the motion of the governor from the engine itself.
3776. David Kennedy, Liverpool. “Improvements in and relating to steering apparatus, worked by steam or other fluid, parts of which are applicable to other purposes where steam-engines are used.” This consists first in placing on the hand-wheel shaft a cam, resembling a crown wheel, it beiog a disc with a series of small cams on the side near the circumference ; secondly, in connecting the cylinders by piston-rods with a second shaft, having a worm that gears into the chain barrel, excentrics being placed on the shaft with the worm wheel, with rods jointed to the valve-rods, with springs and valve connections so arranged as to prevent the valve from over-running the engine. The chain barrel may also be connected by a clutch with the wheel-shaft, so as to work by hand when required.
MONTHLY ABSTRACT OF NAUTICAL NOTICES.
ENGLAND-East Coast-Yarmouth District Alteration of buoy.
hama Bank Light
Alteration of mole head light.
Prussia-Rugen Island-Pal. Alteration carried out.
New light for fishing vessels.
New lights proposed, fog-signals, &c.
INDIA-Bay of Bengal-Andaman Islands Dangerous rocks near S. Brother
Alguada Reef and Sunken dangers near them.
Change in entrance channel.
146.— ENGLAND.— East Coast.— Yarmouth District. — Hewett Channel.—Alteration of Position of Buoy. In consequence of the sand at the South Scroby Elbow having shifted about half-a-mile to the northward, the South Scroby Elbow buoy has been moved 3 cables N. by E. * E., and now lies in 10 fathoms at low-water spring tides, with the following marks and bearings, viz. :-The highest mill at Southtown, its breadth westward of St. Peter's church at Yarmouth, N.W. Niy. ; Gorleston church in line with the north end of a wood, W.; Scroby Elbow (bell buoy) N. by E. * E., distant 27ths miles ; S.W. Scroby buoy, N.N.E. E., distant oths of a mile; S. Scroby spit buoy, S. E., distant 7ths of a mile ; N. Corton buoy, S. \ W. Sts., distant 1 mile; St. Nicholas light-vessel, S.W. } S., distant 4ths of a mile, nearly.
Note.—There is now only 19 feet at low-water spring tides across the swatch, in the line of the N. W. and S.E. Corton buoys.
147.-ENGLAND.—East Coast–Leman and Ower Light. The alteration mentioned on p. 356 will probably be carried out on the 1st of August next.
148.-ENGLAND.—Scilly Islands.-Alteration in the Character of the Light at the Seven Stones.—With regard to the intention to change the character of the Seven Stones light from two fixed lights to one white revolving light, showing three flashes in quick succession, followed by an interval of 36 seconds of darkness, the whole revolution to occupy one minute, the alteration will pro- , bably be made on or about the 1st July next.
149.-ENGLAND.— West Coast.—Bristol Channel.—New Lighthouse on Bull Point, and improvement of Bideford High Light.The alterations mentioned on p. 178, will probably be carried out on the 30th of June next.
150.—ENGLAND.—St. George's Channel.—- Alteration in the character of the Bahama Bank Light.--As regards the intention to discontinue the two fixed white lights at present shown from the
Bahama Bank light-vessel, and to exhibit in lieu thereof one white revolving light, showing two flashes in quick succession every half-minute, at an elevation of 38 feet above the sea, the alteration will probably be made on or about the 1st July next.
151.-NORTH SEA.-Eider River.-Outer Eider Light-Vessel Replaced.—With reference to previous notice (see p. 444, May), on 29th March, 1879, the light-vessel was replaced in position.
152.–BALTIC ENTRANCE.—The Sound—Elsinore (Helsingör.)Alteration in Mole Head Light.—On 1st April, 1879, changed to a fixed red light, instead of fixed green as previously.
153.— BALTIC ENTRANCE. The Sound. — Flint Channel. Leading Lights at Malmö.-Since 31st December, 1878, two leading lights have been exhibited.—The High Light, visible through an arc of 45°, shows a flash of one second duration every four seconds between the bearings S. 3° W. and S. 16° E.; a fired white light between S. 16° E. and S. 34° E.; and two flashes in quick succession every four seconds between S. 34° E. and S. 42° E.; elevated 68 feet above the sea, and visible 12 miles. The lighthouse, constructed of iron, is painted white with two red bands ; lantern, red.—The Low Light, visible through an arc of 139°, shows a fixed red light between the bearings S. 18" W. and S. 76° E.; a single flash between S. 76° E. and S. 88° E.; a fixed white light between S. 88° E. and N. 78° E.; and two flashes between N. 78° E. and N. 59° E.; elevated 32 feet above the sea, and visible 8 miles. The lighthouse, constructed of iron, and painted white with red lantern, is situated on the new West mole head, and bears N. 16° W. from the high lighthouse, distant 519 yards. The mole light and inner harbour light previously shown, are discontinued.
Note.—Entering Malmö harbour, the new leading lights should be kept in line S. by E. E. On the eastern side of the low lighthouse a reflector has been placed, which throws a light over the new East mole head (painted white). The green light on the head of the old East mole, and the white light on the old West mole will still be continued. Variation, 12° W.
154.- BALTIC ENTRANCE, — The Sound. - Flint Channel. Siollen Light-Vessel, Intended Alterations. In the spring of 1879,