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and N. 34° E., at the distance of 3 cables, there is a depth of 21 fathoms; and with the lighthouse bearing between S. 35o W. and S. 371° W. at the distance of 6} cables, there are 2 fathoms water.
13.–BALTIC.—Prussia.—Lubeck Bay.—Light at Buch Point.Exhibited from a lighthouse recently erected on a conical hill about 176 miles southward of Buch point. It is a flashing light, showing a flash of about six seconds' duration every fifteen seconds ; elevated 312 feet above the sea, and visible about 17 miles; a sector of red light (flashing) will be shown over the shoal ground of Wismar bay, between the bearings E. * N. and N.E. * E., which should be visible 14 miles. The lighthouse, 68 feet high and circular in shape, is painted red with white bands, lantern of a dark colour; with keeper's dwelling (one story) attached. Position, lat. 54° 7' 55" N., long. 11° 41' 40" E. Variation, 127° W.
14.–BALTIC.-PRUSSIA.— Rugen Island. - Fog-Signal at Cape Arkona.-A siren trumpet, worked by a caloric engine, which during thick and foggy weather will give one blast of from five to six seconds' duration every minute.
15.–BALTIC.-PRUSSIA.-Fog-Signal at Danzig.-A siren apparatus has been established at the Pilot Office, Neufahrwasser, port of Danzig.
16.–GULF OF BOTHNIA.—SWEDEN.—Discontinuance of Ago Island Fog-Signal.-The fog-signal at Ago island lighthouse, approach to Hudiksvall, is discontinued.
17.–FRANCE.— West Coast.— Light on Ile aux Moutons.—On January 1, 1879, a fixed light with white, red, and green sectors, showing over various rocks, will be shown from Ile aux Moutons, one of the Glenan isles. Further particulars in next number.
18.—MEDITERRANEAN.—SPAIN.-Harbour Light on Inner Mole, Tarragona.-Provisionally exhibited on the extremity of the Inner or Transverse mole, in course of construction. It is a fixed green light, elevated 16 feet above the sea, and visible 3 miles ; it is obscured between the bearings S. 341° E. and S. 504° E. This temporary light is shown from a stanchion on a platform (removed by day) and bears N. 29° E., distant 2} cables from the Eastern mole head light.
19.—MEDITERRANEAN.--SPAIN.—Grosa Island.—Bell-buoy on Laja Grosa.-The bell-buoy of Laja Grosa (a rock north-easterly from Grosa island) is anchored in 17} fathoms water, 130 feet south of the bank, and with 33 fathoms of chain.
20.—BLACK SEA.- Sevastopol Harbour.—Temporary Alteration in Cape Khersonese Light.—During repairs of the apparatus of the revolving light a fixed white light will be exhibited, elevated 108 feet above the sea, and visible 12 miles.
21.—BLACK SEA.—Kertch Strait.—'Temporary Alteration in Cape Yenikale Light.—Pending the completion of the lighthouse in course of construction on Cape Panagia, eastern side of entrance to Kertch Strait, the following alteration has been made in the light exhibited at Cape . Yenikale :—The light (flashing) is now visible between the bearings N.N.E. (through west) and S.S.E. Variation, 17° W.
22.-NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN.—Floating Wreck Westward of Canary Islands.-On 26th July, 1878, the wreck of a vessel (lying bottom up and showing very little above water) was seen in lat 28° 30' N., long 20° 40 W. This would be in the track of shipping bound from Europe across the Equator. In this locality the drift current sets to the south-west and west at an average rate of about 8 or 10 miles in a day.
23.-INDIA. — Bay of Bengal.—Burmah.—Reported Sunken Danger North West of Cheduba Island. The following information, relative to the existence of a reported sunken danger lying about 8 miles north-westward of Beacon islet, Cheduba island, is on the anthority of the Commander of the British India Steam Navigation Company's steam-vessel Avagyee, who observed heavy rollers and breakers indicative of a shoal patch, with probably only 2 or 3 fathoms at low water; lying with West point, Ramree island, bearing N. by E. & E.; North-west point of Cheduba island, bearing S.E. by S. Position as given, lat. 19° 2' N., long. 93° 21' 30" E. Variation, 24° E.
Caution.-The neighbourhood of Cheduba and Ramree islands being imperfectly known, mariners should navigate in the locality with care.
24.-INDIA.-Martaban Gulf.-Blue Lights and Maroons at
Krishna Shoal Light-Vessel.—To be exhibited, between sunset and sunrise, a blue light every half hour, and a maroon at the intermediate quarter hours.
25.-CHINA SEA.-Cochin-China.—Almazon, Duchaffaut, and Althea Banks.—On examination it has been found that Almazon and Duchaffaut banks are a portion of a series of shoals separated by channels, with depths of 61 to 9} fathoms. The base of these shoals is red rock, and the higher heads, one of which is covered by 4 fathoms water at low tide, are mushrooms of coral. Large vessels should keep clear of these shoals, especially if there is any swell. Althea bank could not be found, although the Bourayne passed over the position given it in the Sailing Directions several times.
26.—CHINA.—East Coast.—Yangtse-Kiang.–Wusung River Entrance.- Alterations of Lights and Buoys.-The foundation of Lismore wreck lighthouse having been removed, Wusung outer bar light-vessel has been shifted to the site of that lighthouse ; one cable southward of her former station. Also the following alterations have been made in the light exhibited on the west side of Wusung river entrance:-The light (fixed) now shows white from the river bank north-west of the lighthouse to the bearing of S. 2° W.; green between the bearings S. 2° W. and S. 59° W.; white over the navigable channel of the entrance between S. 591°W. and S. 727° W.; and red between S. 727° W. and the opposite bank of Wusung river. Variation, 21° W.
Also the following alteration has been made in the position of Wusung outer bar buoy : --This buoy (red and black in vertical stripes) on the western side of Wusung river entrance, has been moved one cable eastward of its former position.
Note.—Wusung outer bar is subject to frequent changes, but at present (August, 1878) the deepest water will be found from half a cable to one cable northward of the bar light-vessel.
27.-JAPAN.—Meac-Sima-Group.—Commander G. H. Perkins, U.S.N., reports that this group appears clear of hidden dangers and safe to approach from all directions except from the northeastward, in which direction a reef extends about 3 miles from a rock lying east-north-easterly, about 1 mile from the N.E. point of
Taka-Sima. This reef appears to run N.E. about 1} miles (carving slightly to the southward), and thence N. W. about 14 miles to a point distant about 2 miles from the N.E. point of Taka-Sima, and bearing from the latter about N.E. by N. A boat from the Ashuelot was sent to examine this reef, and two uncovered rocks were found lying, one about 3 cables off the N.E. point of Taka-Sima, and the other about 1} cables outside the first, bearing E.N.E. from the N.E. bluff of Taka-Sima. Between these rocks, and between the first and the island of Taka-Sima, soundings were taken by the boat, but no bottom found at 20 fathoms. The reef is marked by strong tide-rips extending from the outer of the two rocks above mentioned, to which the southern extremity of the reef appears to be joined, along its entire length to its north point. Native fishermen stated that between the reef and the north end of Taka-Sima the soundings vary from 10 to 70 fathoms (very irregular), and that between the N.E. point of Taka-Sima and the first rock lying E.N.E. from it there is a passage with a depth of 70 fathoms. An islet, represented on the charts to lie 1 mile N.W. by N. from Taka-Sima, was found to lie only 2 cables from that island, and about 1 cable S.W. from the islet is a rock. In the passage between Taka-Sima and the island next to S.W. of it, an uncovered rock was found to lie a little south of mid-channel, and in the passage between this rock and Taka-Sima no bottom was found at 20 fathoms. About of a mile south of the rocks immediately off the S.W. end of Kusa-Kaki is a double-headed rock, well above high water, which would be dangerous to a vessel navigating near these islands in thick weather. The passage between this rock and the rocks near the S.W. end of the island appeared to be clear. The Asheulot passed through several times, but saw no indications of hidden dangers, and found no bottom at 80 fathoms. Close to shore, on the west side of Kusa-Kaki, are two rocks which uncover at low water. South of Taka-Sima there is an anchorage in from 30 to 40 fathoms, bottom of rock, gray sand, broken shells, coral, and pebbles, which furnishes a lee during northerly winds ; in a gale, however, there would be a heavy swell, and the holdingground is not good. The South peak of Taka-Sima was found by
barometric measurements to be 613 feet high, and the north peak is a little higher. Variation, 37° W.
28.-JAPAN.–Vincennes or Pallas Rocks.—The boats of the Ashuelot passed between and around the rocks forming this group, but saw no signs of hidden dangers. Soundings were taken with the following results :-1} cables S.E. of the North rock 75 fathoms; and 1, cables S.E. of the South rock 80 fathoms; bottom of gray sand and broken shells. Position of South rock, by good observations, lat. 32° 13' 12" N., long. 128° 4' 39" E.
29.—UNITED STATES.–Virginia.-Change of Light at Naral Hospital Wharf, Elizabeth River.—This light is now exhibited from a mast 45 feet in height, erected 60 feet to the north of the former light station, and the light is changed from fixed white to fixed red. The bearings and distances will remain substantially the same as those of the former light. The old structure will stand as a day-mark.
30.—UNITED States.—Long Island Sound. - Light on Race Rock.–The new structure stands on Race rock, off the western point of Fisher's island, north side of the entrance to Long island sound. The light shows alternate red and white flashes at intervals of thirty seconds, with short periods of total eclipses; elevated 68 feet above low water, and visible 14 miles. The lighthouse consists of a dwelling and tower resting on a circular granite pier, with a rectangular landing-wharf. The tower is square at the base, octagonal above, and is surmounted by a lantern painted black. A fog-bell, struck by machinery, will be sounded during foggy weather, giving two blows in quick succession every twenty seconds. Approximate position, lat. 41° 14' 35" N., long. 72° 02' 51" W.
31.—United States.- New York.–Stratford Shoals LightStation, Middle Ground, Long Island Sound. This light is now flashing white, at intervals of fifteen seconds, instead of flashing red and white at intervals of thirty seconds.
32.—CANADA.—Bay of Fundy.-- Machias Seal Island, Alterations in Eastern Light. This light, exhibited from a tower recently erected, to replace the Eastern lighthouse on Machias Seal island, is a fixed white light, elevated 66 feet, and visible 14 miles. The