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there is madness, as the phrase is, “in the nothing but unhealthiness or unsoundness. family;" and so whenever they feel ill, or Derangement explains itself, and may surely meet with a misfortune, the thought will mean very harmless things. Melancholy is prey upon their minds; and this may lead to compounded of two words which signify black catastrophes, with which they have really no bile. Hypochondria is the name of one of the more to do than any other sick or unfortunate regions of the stomach, a very instructive people. How many persons have committed etymology. And lunacy refers to effects, real an extravagance in a brain fever, or undergone or imaginary, of particular states of the moon; hallucinations of mind in consequence of getting which if anything after all, are nothing more an ague, or taking opium, or fifty other causes ; than what every delicate constitution feels in and yet the moment the least wandering of its degree from particular states of the weather; mind is observed in them, others become for weather, like the tides, is apt to be in such frightened ; their fright is manifested beyond and such a condition, when the moon presents all necessity; and the patients and their such and such a face. family must suffer for it. They seem to think, It has been said, that no disorder can properly be held a true

Great wits to madness nearly are allied. Christian sickness, and fit for charitable interpretation, but where the patient has gone It is curious that he who wrote the saying regularly to bed, and had curtains, and caudle. (Dryden) was a very sound wit to the end of cups, and nurses about him, like a well-behaved his life ; while his wife, who was of a weak respectable sick gentleman. But this state of understanding, became insane. An excellent things implies muscular weakness, or weak- writer (Wordsworth) has written an idle ness of that sort which renders the bodily couplet about the insanity of poets : action feeble. Now, in nervous disorders, the

We poets enter on our path with gladness, muscular action may be as strong as ever ;

But thereof comes in the end despondency and madness. and people may reasonably be allowed a world of illness, sitting in their chairs, or even walk. If he did not mean madness in the ordinary ing or running

sense, he should not have written this line ; if These mistaken pronouncers upon disease he did, he ought not to have fallen, in the teeth ought to be told, that when they are thus of his better knowledge, into so vulgar an unwarrantably frightened, they are partaking error. There are very few instances of insane of the very essence of what they misappre- poets, or of insane great understandings of any hend ; for it is fear, in ail its various degrees sort. Bacon, Milton, Newton, Shakspeare, and modifications, which is at the bottom of Cervantes, &c. were all of minds as sound as nervousness and melancholy; not fear in its they were great. So it has been with the infiordinary sense, as opposed to cowardice (for a nite majority of literary men of all countries. man who would shudder at a bat or a vague If Tasso and a few others were exceptions, idea, may be bold as a lion against an enemy), they were but exceptions; and the derangebut imaginative fear ;- -fear either of something ment in these eminent men has very doubtful known or of the patient knows not what ;-a characters about it, and is sometimes made a vague sense of terror,-an impulse,-an appre question. It may be pretty safely affirmed, at hension of ill,-dwelling upon some painful and least, upon an examination of it, that had they worrying thought. Now this suffering is in- not been the clever men they were, it would variably connected with a weak state of the have been much worse and less equivocal. body in some respects, particularly of the Collins, whose case was after all one of inanistomach. Hundreds will be found to have tion rather than insanity, had been a free felt it, if patients inquire ; but the mind is liver ; and seems to have been hurt by having sometimes afraid of acknowledging its appre- a fortune left him. Cowper was weal-bodied, hensions, even to itself; and thus fear broods and beset by Methodists. Swift's body was over and hatches fear.

full of bad humours. He himself attributed These disorders, generally speaking, are his disordered system to the effects of a surfeit greater or less in their effects according to the of fruit on his stomach ; and in his last illness exercise of reason. But do not let the word he used to break out in enormous boils and be misunderstood : we should rather say, blisters. This was a violent effort of nature according to the extent of the knowledge. A to help and purify the current of his blood, very imaginative man will indeed be likely to the main object in all such cases. Dr. Johnsuffer more than others; but if his knowledge son, who was subject to mists of melancholy, is at all in proportion, he will also get through used to fancy he should go iad ; but he never his evil better than an uninformed man suffer

did. ing great terrors. And the reason is, that he Exercise, conversation, cheerful society, knows how much bodily unhealthiness has to amusements of all sorts, or a kind, patient, do with it. The very words that frighten the and gradual helping of the bodily health, till unknowing might teach them better, if under the mind be capable of amusement (for it stood. Thus insanity itself properly means should never foolishly be told “not to think" of melancholy things, without having some- best sides and aspects of them. The solid and thing done for it to mend the bodily health), - fiery ball of the sun, stuck as it were, in the these are the cures, the only cures, and in our thick foggy atmosphere; the moon just winopinion the almost infallible cures of nervous ning her way through it, into beams; nay, the disorders, however excessive. Above all, the very candles and gas-lights in the shop windows patient should be told, that there has often of a misty evening,-all have, in our eyes, their been an end to that torment of one haunting agreeable varieties of contrast to the surroundidea, which is indeed a great and venerable | ing haze. We have even halted, of a dreary suffering. Many persons have got over it in a autumnal evening, at that open part of the week, a few weeks, or a month, some in a few Strand by St. Clement's, and seen the church, months, some not for years, but they have got which is a poor structure of itself, take an over it at last. There is a remarkable instance aspect of ghastly grandeur from the dark of this in the life of our great king Alfred. atmosphere ; looking like a tall white mass, He was seized, says his contemporary biogra- mounting up interminably into the night over'pher, with such a strange illness while sitting head. at table, in the twenty-fifth year (we think) of The poets, who are the common friends that his age, that he shrieked aloud ; and for twenty keep up the intercourse between nature and years afterwards this illness so preyed upon humanity, have in numberless passages done him, that the relief of one hour was embittered justice to these our melancholy visitors, and by what he dreaded would come the next. shown us what grand personages they are. To His disorder is conjectured by some to have mention only a few of the most striking. been an internal cancer ; by others, with more When Thetis, in the Ilind (lib. i., v. 359) rises probability, the black bile, or melancholy. out of the sea to console Achilles, she issues The physicians of those times knew nothing forth in a mist ; like the Genins in the Arabian about it ; and the people showed at once their Nights. The reader is to suppose that the iguorance, and their admiration of the king, mist, aiter ascending, comes gliding over the by saying that the devil had caused it out of water; and condensing itself into a human jealousy. It was probably produced by anxiety shape, lands the white-footed goddess on the for the state of his country; but the same

shore. thing which wounded him may have helped to When Achilles, after his long and vindictive keep him up; for he had plenty of business to absence from the Greek armies, re-appears in attend to, and fought with his own hand in consequence of the death of his friend Patrofifty-six pitched battles. Now exactly twenty clus, and stands before the appalled Trojan years after, in the forty-fifth year of his age (if armies, who are thrown into confusion at the our former recollection is right) this disorder very sight, Minerva, to render his aspect the totally left him ; and his great heart was where more astonishing and awful, puts about his it ought to be, in a heaven of health and calm- head a halo of golden mist, streaming upwards

with fire. (Lib. xviii., v. 205.) He shouts aloud under this preternatural diadem ; Minerva throws into his shout her own immortal

voice with a strange unnatural cry; at which XV.-MISTS AND FOGS.

the horses of the Trojan warriors run round Fogs and mists, being nothing but vapours

with their chariots, and twelve of their noblest which the cold air will not suffer to evaporate, captains perish in the crush. must sometimes present a gorgeous aspect

A mist was the usual clothing of the gods, next the sun. To the eye of an eagle, or when they descended to earth ; especially of whatever other eyes there may be to look Apollo, whose brightness nad double need of down upon them, they may appear like masses mitigation. Homer, to heighten the dignity of cloudy gold. In fact, they are but clouds of Ulysses, has finely given him the same unrisen. The city of London, at the time we covering, when he passes through the court of are writing this article, is literally a city in Antinous, and suddenly appears before the the clouds. Its inhabitants walk through the throne. This has been turned to happy account same airy heaps which at other times float by Virgil, and to a new and noble one by Milton. over their heads in the sky, or minister with Virgil makes Æneas issue suddenly from a glorious faces to the setting sun.

mist, at the moment when his friends think We do not say, that any one can “hold a him lost, and the beautiful queen of Carthage fire in his hand,” by thinking on a fine sunset; is wishing his presence. Milton,—but we will or that sheer imagination of any sort can make give one or two of his minor uses of mists, by it a very agreeable thing to feel as if one's way of making a climax of the one alluded to. body were wrapped round with cold wet If Satan, for instance, goes lurking about paper ; much less to flounder through gutters, Paradise, it is “like a black mist low creepor run against posts. But the mind can often ing." If the angels on guard glide about it, help itself with agreeable images against dis- upon their gentler errand, it is like fairer agreeable ones ; or pitch itself round to the vapours :


On the ground

All these, and all that else does horror breed, Gliding meteorous, as evening mist

About them flew, and fild their sayles with fear; Risen from a river o'er the marish glides,

Yet stayd they not, but forward did proceed, And gathers ground fast at the labourer's heel

Whiles th' one did row, and th’other stifly steare. I Homeward returning.-(Par. Lost, B. XII. v. 628.)

Ovid has turned a mist to his usual account. Now behold one of his greatest imagina

It is where Jupiter, to conceal his amour tions. The fallen demi-gods are assembled

with Io, throws a cloud over the vale of in Pandæmonium, waiting the return of their Tempe.' There is a picture of Jupiter and lo, “ great adventurer” from his “search of by Correggio, in which that great artist has worlds :"

finely availed himself of the circumstance ; He through the midst unmarked,

the head of the father of gods and men comIn show plebeian angel militant

ing placidly out of the cloud, upon the young Of lowest order, passed ; and from the door

lips of lo, like the very benignity of creaOf that Plutonian hall, invisible,

tion. Ascended his high throne; which, under state Of richest texture spread, at the upper end

The poet who is the most conversant with Was placed in regal lustre. Down awhile

mists is Ossian, who was a native of the north He sat, and round about him saw unseen.

of Scotland or Ireland. The following are as Al last-as from a cloud, his fulgent head

many specimens of his uses of mist, as we have And shape star-bright appeared, or brighter; clad With what permissive glory since his fall

room for. The first is very grand ; the second Was left him, or false glitter. All amazed

as happy in its analogy ; the third is ghastly, At that so sudden blaze, the Stygian throng

hut of more doubtful merit : Bent their aspéct; and whom they wished, beheld, Their mighty chief returned.

Two Chiefs parted by their King.–They sunk from the

king on either side, like two columns of morning mist, There is a piece of imagination in Apollo- when the sun rises between them on his glittering rocks nius Rhodius worthy of Milton or Homer.

Dark is their rolling on either side, each towards its reedy

pool. The Argonauts, in broad daylight, are suddenly benighted at sea with a black fog. They A great Enemy.- I love a foe like Cathmor: his soul is pray to Apollo ; and he descends from heaven, great; his arm is strong; his battles are full of fame.

But the little soul is like a vapour, that hovers round the and lighting on a rock, holds up his illustrious

marshy lake. It never rises on the green hill, lest the bow, which shoots a guiding light for them to winds meet it there. an island.

A terrible Omen. A mist rose slowly from the lake. It Spenser in a most romantic chapter of the

came, in the figure of an aged man, along the silent plain. Faery Queene (Book 11.), seems to have taken

Its large limbs did not move in steps; for a ghost sup. the idea of a benighting from Apollonius, as ported it in mid air. It came towards Selma's hall, and well as to have had an eye to some passages

dissolved in a shower of blood. of the Odyssey ; but like all great poets, what

We must mention another instance of the he borrows only brings worthy companionship

poetical use of a mist, if it is only to indulge to some fine invention of his own.

It is a
ourselves in one of those masterly passages

of scene thickly beset with horror. Sir Guyon,

Dante, in which he contrives to unite minutein the course of his voyage through the peril

ness of detail with the most grand and soveous sea, wishes to stop and hear the Syrens :

reign effect. It is in a lofty comparison of the but the palmer, his companion, dissuades

planet Mars looking through morning vapours; him :

the reader will see with what (Purgatorio, c. II. When suddeinly a grosse fog overspred

v. 10). Dante and his guide Virgil have just With his dull vapour all that desert has,

left the infernal regions, and are lingering And heaven's chearefull face enveloped, That all things one, and one as nothing was,

on a solitary sea-shore in purgatory; which And this great universe seemned one confused mass.

reminds us of that still and far-thoughted

verseThereat they greatly were dismayd, ne wist How to direct theyr way in darkness wide,

Lone sitting by the shores of old romance.
But feared to wander in that wastefull mist
For tombling into mischiefe unespyde :

But to our English-like Italian.
Worse is the daunger hidden then descride.
Suddeinly an innumerable flight

Noi eravam lunghi esso I mare ancora, &c.
Of harmfull fowles about them fluttering cride,
And with theyr wicked wings them oft did smight,

That solitary shore we still kept on, And sore annoyed, groping in that griesly night.

Like men, who musing on their journey, stay

At rest in body, yet in heart are gone; Even all the nation of unfortunate

When lo! as at the early dawn of day. And fatall birds about them flocked were,

Red Mars looks deepening through the foggy heat, Such as by nature men abhorre and hate ;

Down in the west, far o'er the watery way; The ill-faced owle, deaths dreadful messengere:

So did mine eyes bebold (so may they yet) The hoarse night-raven, trump of dolefull drere :

A light, which came so swiftly o'er the sea. The lether-winged batt, dayes enimy:

That never wing with such a fervour beat. The ruefull stritch, still waiting on the bere :

I did but turn to ask what it might be Tho whistler shrill, that whoso heares doth dy :

Of my sage leader, when its orb had got The hellish harpies, prophets of sad destiny:

More large meanwhile, and came more gloriously:


And by degrees, I saw I knew not what

afterwards lay in a bed, nor ate at a table, nor Of white about it; and beneath the white

changed his linen, nor cut his hair, nails, or Another. My great master uttered not One word, till those first issuing candours bright

beard ; which latter grew to such a length, Fanned into wings; but soon as he had found reaching below his knees, that the people used Who was the mighty voyager now in sight,

to call him Barbadon, or Old Beardy. He cried aloud, * Doun, down, upon the ground,

In the meantime, his grandson, called Don It is God's Angel."

Alphonso, not only grew to be a man, but was created Duke of Braganza, his father Don

John having been elected to the crown of XVI.—THE SHOEMAKER OF VEYROS,

Portugal ; which he wore after such noble fashion, to the great good of his country, as to

be surnamed the Memorable. Now the town In the time of the old kings of Portugal, of Veyros stood in the middle of seven or Don John, a natural son of the reigning prince, eight others, all belonging to the young Duke, was governor of the town of Veyros, in the from whose palace at Villa Viciosa it was but province of Alentejo. The town was situate four leagues distant. He therefore had good (perhaps is there still) upon a mountain, at intelligence of the shoemaker his grandfather; the foot of which runs a river ; and at a little and being of a humane and truly generous distance there was a ford over it, under another spirit, the accounts he received of the old eminence. The bed of the river thereabouts man's way of life made him extremely desirous was so high as to form a shallow sandy place; of paying him a visit. He accordingly went and in that clear spot of water, the maidens of with a retinue to Veyros ; and meeting BarVeyros, both of high rank and humble, used to badon in the streets, he alighted from his horse, wash their clothes.

bareheaded, and in the presence of that stately It happened one day, that Don Jolin, riding company and the people, asked the old man out with a company, came to the spot at the his blessing. The shoemaker, astonished at this time the young women were so employed : sudden spectacle, and at the strange contrast and being, says our author, “ a young and lusty which it furnished to his humble rank, stared gallant,” he fell to jesting with his followers in a bewildered manner upon the unknown upon the bare legs of the busy girls, who had personage, who thus knelt to him in the public tucked up their clothes, as usual, to their work. way; and said, “Sir, do you mock me ?”He passed along the river ; and all his com- “No," answered the Duke ;“may God so help pany had not yet gone by, when a lass in a me, as I do not : but in earnest I crave I red petticoat, while tucking it up, showed her may kiss your hand and receive your blessing, legs somewhat high ; and clapping her hand for I am your grandson, and son to Ines your on her right calf, said loud enough to be heard | daughter, conceived by the king, my lord and by the riders, “ Here's a white leg, girls, for father.” No sooner had the shoemaker heard the Master of Avis *."

these words, than he clapped his hands before These words, spoken probably out of a little his eyes, and said, “ God bless me from ever lively bravado, upon the strength of the go. beholding the son of so wicked a daughter as vernor's having gone by, were repeated to him mine was! And yet, forasmuch as you are not when he got home, together with the action guilty of her offence, hold ; take my hand and that accompanied them : upon which the young my blessing, in the name of the Father, and of lord felt the eloquence of the speech so deeply, the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.” So saying, that he contrived to have the fair speaker he laid one of his old hands upon the young brought to him in private; and the conse- man's head, blessing him ; but neither the quence was, that our lively natural son, and his Duke nor his followers could persuade him to sprightly challenger, had another natural son. take the other away from his eyes ; neither

Ines (for that was the girl's name) was the would he talk with him a word more. In this daughter of a shoemaker in Veyros ; a man of spirit, shortly after, he died ; and just before very good account, and wealthy. Hearing his death he directed a tomb to be made for how his daughter had been sent for to the him, on which were sculptured the tools beyoung governor's house, and that it was her longing to his trade, with this epitaph :own light behaviour that subjected her to what

“ This sepulchre Barbadon caused to be made, he was assured she willingly consented to, he (Being of Veyros, a shoemaker by his trade) took it so to heart, that at her return home, For himself and the rest of his race, she was driven by him from the house, with

Excepting his daughter Ines in any case. every species of contumely and spurning. The author says, that he has “heard it After this, he never saw her more. And to

reported by the ancientest persons, that the prove to the world and to himself, that his fourth Duke of Braganza, Don James, son to severity was a matter of principle, and not a Donna Isabel, sister to the King Don Emanuel, mere indulgence of his own passions, he never caused that tomb to be defaced, being the • An order of knighthood, of which Don John was

sepulchre of his fourth grandfather *.” Master.

* It appears by this, that the Don John of the tradition


As for the daughter, the conclusion of whose brutal man would not have accompanied it story comes lagging in like a penitent," she with such voluntary suffering of his own. continued,” says the writer, “after she was Neither did Barbadon leave his daughter to delivered of that son, a very chaste and vir- take her chance in the wide world, thinking tuous woman; and the king made her com- of the evils she might be enduring, only to mandress of Santos, a most honourable place, give a greater zest of fancied pity to the and very plentiful ; to the which wone but contentedness of his cruelty. lle knew she princesses were admitted, living, as it were, was well taken care of; and if she was not abbesses and princesses of a monastery built to have the enjoyment of his society, he was without the walls of Lisbon, called Santos, that determined that it should be a very uncomis Saints, founded by reason of some martyrs fortable one to himself. He knew that she that were martyred there. And the religious lay on a princely bed, while he would have women of that place have liberty to marry none at all. He knew that she was served upon with the knights of their order, before they gold and silver, while he renounced his old enter into that holy profession.”

chestnut table;—the table at which she used The rest of our author's remarks are in too to sit. He knew while he sat looking at his curious a spirit to be omitted. “In this mo- old beard, and the wilful sordidness of his nastery,” he says, “ the same Donna Ines died, hands, that her locks and her fair limbs were leaving behind her a glorious reputation for objects of worship to the gallant and the great. her virtue and holiness. Observe, gentle And so he set off his destitutions against her reader, the constancy that this Portuguese, a over-possession ; and took out the punishment shoemaker, continued in, loathing to behold he gave her, in revenge upon himself. This the honourable estate of his grandchild, nor was the instinct of a man who loved a prinwould any more acknowledge his daughter, ciple, but hated nobody :-of a man who, in a having been a lewd woman, for purchasing wiser time, would have felt the wisdom of advancement with dishonour. This consider kindness. Thus his blessing upon his granded, you will not wonder at the Count Julian, child becomes consistent with his cruelty to that plagued Spain, and executed the king his child : and his living stock was a fine one Roderigo for forcing his daughter La Cava. in spite of him. His daughter showed a sense The example of this shoemaker is especially of the wound she had given such a father, by worthy the noting, and deeply to be consi- relinquishing the sympathies she loved, because dered : for, besides, that it makes good our they had hurt him : and her son, worthy of assertion, it teaches the higher not to disdain such a grandfather and such a daughter, and the lower, as long as they be virtuous and refined into a gracefulness of knowledge by lovers of honour. It may be that this old education, thought it no mean thing or vulgar man, for his integrity, rising from a virtuous to kneel to the grey-headed artisan in the zeal, merited that a daughter coming by des- street, and beg the blessing of his honest cent from his grandchild, should be made hand. Queen of Castile, and the mother of great Isabel, grandmother to the Emperor Charles the Fifth, and Ferdinando."

XVII.-MORE NEWS OF ULYSSES. Alas! a pretty posterity our shoemaker had, in Philip the 2nd and his successors,—a race Talking the other day with a friend * about more suitable to his severity against his child, Dante, he observed, that whenever so great a than his blessing upon his grandchild. Old poet told us anything in addition or continua. Barbadon was a fine fellow too, after his tion of an ancient story, he had a right to be fashion. We do not know how he reconciled regarded as classical authority. For instance, his unforgiving conduct with his Christianity; said he, when he tells us of that characteristic but he had enough precedents on that point. death of Ulysses in one of the books of his What we admire in him is, his showing that Inferno, we ought to receive the information as he acted out of principle, and did not mistake authentic, and be glad that we have more news passion for it. Ilis crepidarian sculptures of Ulysses than we looked for. indeed are not so well ; but a little vanity may We thought this a happy remark, and inbe allowed to mingle with and soften such stantly turned with hiin to the passage in edge-tools of self-denial, as he chose to handle. question. The last account of Ulysses in the His treatment of his daughter was ignorant, ancient poets, is his sudden re-appearance and in wiser times would have been brutal ; / before the suitors at Ithaca. There is someespecially when it is considered how much thing more told of him, it is true, before the the conduct of children is modified by educa- Odyssey concludes ; but with the exception tion and other circumstances : but then a of his visit to his aged father, our memory is John the First, who was elected king of Portugal, and scarcely wishes to retain it ; nor does it conbecame famous for his great qualities; and that his son

trovert the general impression left upon us, by the alleged shoemaker's daughter was his successor,

that the wandering hero is victorious over his Alphonso the Fifth.

* The late Mr. Keats.

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