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soundly, and thinks t much less trouble to prevent people from going into the water, than to drag them out when they have got in.
Charles. No wonder that your uncle values him ; he is certainly a very valuable dog.
Henry. O, I could tell you a hundred stories about him, which would surprise you. The other day, George brought home a bundle from Miss Farrar's, for my sister Caroline, which he threw down on a chair in the entry, and then ran off to play. Caroline was in her chamber, and, hearing George come in, spoke to him from her room, not knowing that he had gone out, and requested him to bring it up
stairs. Guido was lying on the rug by the fire in the parlor, and, hearing Caroline call for the bundle, immediately jumped up, and, taking the bundle in his mouth, carried it up stairs and dropped it at Caroline's feet.
Charles. I should be very happy to have such a dog, but mother is so afraid of a dog's running mad and biting us children, that she will not allow us to keep one.
Henry. Father says, that there is no fear of a dog's running mad, if he has plenty of water. He says, that the reason that we so seldom hear of a dog's running mad here in Boston is, because water is plenty here, and dogs can always get at it, if they have once found their way to the Frog Pond on the Common.
Charles. What is the name of that disease which people have who are bitten by mad dogs ?
Henry. It is called hydrophobia, which is a Greek word, and means “fear of water." Dogs, when they are mad, car.not bear the sight of water; they will not drink; and therefore, whenever a dog will drink, you may be sure that he is not mad. When a person is bitten by a mad, or rabid ani. mal, he expresses the same dread of water, and hence the disease is called, as I said, hydrophobia.
Charles. I thank you, Henry, for giving me all this infor. mation. I shall tell it all to mother, and as I have often heard her say, that your father is a very sensible man, per haps she may overcome her fear of hydryphobia, and allow brother James and me to keep a dog.
In the saine manner the learner may write a simple dialogue about the following sabjects : A cat. 4 walk.
A Sunday School ex A fox. A pair of skates.
cursion. A horse.
A holiday visit.
An evening party.
The celebration of an A sled.
A new year's present. anniversary. An evening party. A walk about the city. A visit to a printing A sleigh-ride. An excursion into the woods. office
Sentences consist of words, and words are used to express thoughts or ideas. The ideas which they express depend on their connexion with other words. Sometimes the same word will signify an action, an object, a quality, or an attribute. Thus, in the sentence “I shall present the book to Charles," the word “present” signifies an action. If I say “the book will then be a present," the word "present” will signify an object, and is a noun or name. But, if the sentence be, “ Charles must be present when the book is given,” the word "present” will signify an attribute, and is an adjective.
The proper use of words, and the correct understanding of them, constitutes one of the greatest difficulties in written language. It is therefore highly important that every writer be careful to use the proper word to express the idea which he wishes to communicate; and when he is required to use a word, that he endeavor thereby to express no other idea than that, which the word is intended to convey.
The Dictionary is however a very unsafe guide to the proper signification of words, because their meaning is so ma terially affected by the connexion in which they stand.
There are many words, the soand of which is exactly simi. lar to the sound of other words that are spelt very differently. In using such words there is little danger of their being mistaken the one for the other, because, as has just been said, we are guided by the connexion in which they stand. But in writing them, many mistakes are frequently made, on aecount of the
want of early attention to the subject of orthography, The object of this lesson is to afford an exercise in the use of such words as are both sounded and spelt alike, and of those which have the same sound and are spelt differently.
The remark may here be made that the change of a single letter, or the removal of the accent, frequently alters the entire character of a word. Thus the words advise and practise, which are verbs, expressing an action, by the change of the letter s to c, become practice, and advice, which are nouns. Again, the words comment', increase', are verbs; while com'ment, in'crease, &c. are nouns. In the use of such words, the student should be accustomed to note the word, in his early exercises, by the proper accent.
“ I saw with some surprise that the Muses, whose business was to cheer and encourage those who were toiling up the ascent, would often sing in the bowers of pleasure, and accompany those who were enticed away at the call of the pase sions. They accompanied them, however, but a little way, and always forsook them when they lost sight of the hill. The tyrants then doubled their chains upon the unhappy captives, and led them away without resistance, and almost with their own assent, to the cells of Ignorance or the mansions of misery."
· Johnson, slightly altered.
“ The bold design
Milton, Paradise Lost, B. 22.
“ He hath deserved worthily of his country; and his asceni (namely, to the highest honors, &c.) is not by such easy degrees as those who have been supple and courteous to the people.”
Shakspeare, Coriolanus, Act 2d, Scene 2d.
Air, ere, heir; devise, device; altar, alter; trans'fer, transfer'; palate, pallet, palette; fane, fain, feign; bear, bare; bore, boar; council, counsel; coarse, course; ceiling, sealing; drawer, drawer; eminent, imminent; canon, cannon; freeze, frieze, frize; gnaw, nor; hoard, horde; horse, hoarse; heal, heel; haul, hall; key, quay; lead, led; lyre, liar; manor, manner; mien, mean; meat, meet, mete; pare, pear; peas, piece; practice, practise; assent, ascent; rite, right, write, wright; rose, rows; vein, vain; rain, rein, reign; raise, rays, raze; size, sighs; slay, sleigh, slaie; their, there; vale, veil, vail; white, wight; way, weigh, whey; you, yew; fare, fair; deer, dear; hue, hew; high, hie; hole, whole; seen, scene, seine; stile, style; straight, strait; waist, waste; bell, belle; sell, cell; herd, heard; wring, ring; aught, ought; lessen, lesson; profit, prophet; choler, collar; well, (a noun,) well, (an adverb); per'fume, perfume'; subject'; sub'ject; object
, object'; im'port, import'; pres'ent, present'; absent', ab'sent; sur'vey, survey' ; fer'ment, ferment”; tor'ment, torment'. insult', in'sult; com'pact, compact!; concert, concert'; dis'count, dis count'; rec'ord, record'; ex/tract, extract' ;* bow, beau; berry, bury; bough, bow; capitol, capital; cask, casque; censer, censor; claws, clause; site, cite, sight; clime, climb; complement, compliment; creek, creak; Aue, flew; blew, blue; fort, forte; frays, phrase; herd, heard; slight. sleight; wave, waive.
OF PHRASES, CLAUSES, AND SENTENCES.
When names, whether proper, common, or abstract, are joined to their subjects by means of connecting words, but without a verb, the collection is called a phrase. As, The extent of the city ; The path up the mountain ; The house by the side of the river.
If the connecting word be a verb, the assemblage of words
* There are about sixty words in the English language that are tbus dis tinguished by the accent alone. See Rice's Composition, page 21st
is then styled a clause, a simple sentence, or a simple proposition, words of nearly equivalent import. As, The city is large. The path up the mountain was exceedingly steep. They are taught by a good master. See Rice's Composition pages 7th and 65th.
The words phrase and clause may therefore be thus de fined:
A phrase is a connected assemblage of words, without a finite verb.
A clause is a connected assemblage of words, with a finite verb.*
A sentence is an assemblage of words making complete
The difference between a phrase, a clause, and a sentence, may be stated as follows: A sentence always, a clause some times, but a phrase never makes complete sense.
There arn various kinds of phrases, such as substantive phrases, participial phrases, infinitive phrases, adverbial phrases, prepositional phrases, and interjectional phrases ; so named from the office which they perform, or the parts of speech which they contain.
Clauses are frequently designated neuter, active-transitive, active-intransitive, and passive; in allusion to the verbs which form them. A clause which contains a relative pronoun is called a relative clause, and one containing a verb in the subjunctive mood is called the subjunctive clause. Specimens of most of these will be found in the following sentence: Neuter clause,
Darius was Substantive phrase in apposition, . a King of Persia. Active clause,
Alexander conquered Darius, Relative clause,
who fled from the field of battle. Passive clause,
(but) he was assassinated Substantive phrase,
by one of his own generals, [der, Participial phrase,
(who) coveting the favor of Alexan. Minor Octive and relative clause, slew his unfortunate master Infinitive phrase,
to secure his own interest Substantive phrases
with that monarch. A sentence usually consists of three
principal parts, the subject, the verb, and the object. As, The man struck the
*A finite verb is a verb that has a subject or nominative. Verbs in tho infinitive mood, or the participle, as they have no nominative, are not con8.dered finite verbs.