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JERUSALEM (Tieb., habitation of peace; 14 convents in Syria subject to him, of which Sept. 'Iepovoaanu; Vulg. Hierosolyma ; Arab. the principal is the convent of St. Salvador at El Kuds, the Holy), a city of Palestine, of Jerusalem. The Protestant population of the which it was anciently the capital, and now city numbers about 100. An Anglican bishop the seat of a Turkish pasha. It is the holy city resides there, with a diocese including Palestine, of the Hebrews and Christians, and one of the Syria, Mesopotamia, Chaldea, Egypt, and Abysthree holy cities of the Mohammedans, ranking sinia. This bishopric was established in 1841 nest in sanctity to Mecca and Medina. It is in by the joint action of the Prussian and British lat. 31° 46' N., long. 35° 13' E., 128 m. S. S. W. governments. Several Protestant missions are from Damascus, 27 m. E. from the Mediter- also maintained in the city by churches in Euranean, and 14 m. W. from the Dead sea. Its rope and America.–Jerusalem is almost on the elevation above the Mediterranean is 2,200 feet, summit of a broad, irregular mountain ridge, and above the Dead sea 3,708. Population whose watershed is a little to the westward of probably about 18,000, of whom 7,000 are Mo- the city, so that streams whose sources are but hammedaos, 6,000 Jews, and 5,000 Christians, a few miles from its walls flow on the one mostly of the Greek and Latin churches, with hand to the Mediterranean, and on the other to a few hundred Armenians, Syrians, Copts, and the Dead sea. The summit of the mountain Protestants. The Mohammedans are mostly ridge is broken into many rugged limestono of Arab descent, with a few Turks in the em- crowns divided by deep ravines. In the midst ploy of the government. The Jews are chiefly of these crowns are two valleys, which at first of Spanish origin, their ancestors having come are only gentle depressions, having between from Spain about the beginning of the 16th them a stony savell m. wide, and both of them century. They still speak a corrupt Spanish run E. for a short distance. That on the N. dialect. There are also some German and Polish continues E. about 1} m., then sweeps to the Jews. The Jewish community inhabit a par- S., and soon becomes deep and narrow with ticular quarter of the city, and are governed to precipitous sides. This is the valley of Jea great extent by their own rabbinical laws. hoshaphat, or of the brook Kedron. The other Their chief rabbi is called in Hebrew" the head valley, the valley of Hinnom, runs at first about in Zion," and his chief interpreter has a seat in fm. E. by S., turns suddenly S. form. and the municipal council. The Jews' quarter is then E., and descending unites with the valley badly built and filthy, and the people suffer of Jehoshaphat. On the broad high platform much from crowded dwellings, scarcity of water, between these two valleys stands Jerusalem. and general poverty. The Greek Christians The platform itself is divided by another valley, are Arabs, and speak only the Arabic language, anciently called the Tyropæon, which runs with except the superior clergy and the monks, who a slight curve from the N. W. to the S. E., are Greeks from the Greek islands. The pa- having a ligh ridge on each side terminating triarch of Jerusalem is their head. They have on the S. in abrupt declivities. The city occu$ convents and 5 nunneries in the city. The pies the S. part of these ridges with a portion Latin Christians or Roman Catholics are prin- of the intervening valley; anciently it covered cipally natives of Syria, seceders from the the whole of them. Irregular rounded hills Greek church, and speak only Arabic. They encompass it, rising above the buildings about have & patriarch, who has spiritual oversight of 200 feet where highest, with openings through all the Roman Catholic churches in Palestine. which views of the distant country are obtainThe convents, however, are not under his juris- ed. On the E. is the Mount of Olives, rising diction, but are under the superintendence of steeply from the valley of Jehoshaphat. On the an abbot or “warder," who is styled "guard- S. the Hill of Evil Counsel overhangs the valian of Mount Zion and keeper of the Holy ley of Hinnom. On the W. the ground rises Land." He is always an Italian, and is ap. gently to the great wady or valley of Beit Hapointed by the pope every 3 years. There are nina, whose waters run to the Mediterranean.

VOL. X.-1

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On the N. a bend of the ridge, connected with lower towns stood were externally protected by the Mount of Olives, bounds the prospect at the precipices and deep valleys. The ancient city distance of more than a mile. The breadth of was defended at the time of the Roman siege the whole site of Jerusalem, from the brow of by three walls, the most ancient of which apthe valley of Hinnom, near the Jaffa gate, to pears to have enclosed Mt. Zion, part of which the brink of the valley of Jehoshaphat, is about is outside of the modern city. The second wall 1,020 yards, or of a mile, of which distance enclosed the whole of Akra excepting that part 318 yards are occupied by the area of the great of its E. side which fronted the temple area on inosque El-Harem esh-Sherif

, commonly called Mt. Moriah, and the S. side toward the valley the mosque of Omar. The country around Je- which separated the lower from the upper city. rusalem is all of limestone formation, and not in the first century of the Christian era, trio particularly fertile. The rocks everywhere city having extended northward beyond the come out above the surface, which in many second wall, a third wall was built to protect parts is also thickly strewed with large stones; this suburb, which was called Bezeth a. The and the whole region has a barren and dreary total circumference of the ancient city, accordaspect. Yet the olive thrives, and fields of ing to Josephus, was about 3} m. With regrain are seen in the valleys and level places. gard to the details of the ancient topography Neither vineyards nor fig trees flourish near the there is much uncertainty, and great controcity. Jerusalem is surrounded by high walls, versy. One of the most recent investigators, built by the Turkish sultan Solyman the Magni- the Rev. Dr. Thomson, after nearly 25 years' ficent in 1542. They are 15 feet thick, and vary residence in Palestine, says: “It is my own in height with the inequalities of the ground decided impression that no ingenuity can reconfrom 25 to 70 feet. Their total circuit is 4,326 struct the city as our Saviour saw it, or as Joseyards, or about 23 m. The city is irregular in its phus describes it. No man on earth knows the outline, but approaches a square whose 4 sides line of the E. and S. E. portions of the first nearly face the cardipal points. It has 5 gates, wall, nor where the second began, nor how it two on the S. and one near the centre of each ran after it began, nor where the third wall of the other sides. On the W.is the Hebron or commenced, nor one foot of its circuit 'afterJaffa gate, the chief entrance to the city. On the ward; and of necessity the locations of castles, N. is the Damascus gate, on the E. St. Stephen's, towers, corners, gates, pools, sepulchres, &c., and on the S. the Zion gate and an obscure and &c., depending upon supposed starting points little used portal called the Dung gate. The and directions, are merely hypothetical." One streets are narrow, winding, and dirty, and bad- hypothesis may have more probability than anly paved where paved at all. The houses are other, but all must share the uncertainty which well built of limestone, cream-colored and hangs over the data assumed by the theorizers." streaked with blood-red, and are for the most -The most striking view of Jerusalem is from part 2 or 3 stories high, with a plain front with- the summit of the Mount of Olives, about half out windows in the lower stories, pnd with doors a mile E. from the city, which it completely so low that a person must stoop to gain entrance. overlooks, every considerable edifice and alThe roofs are terraced or rise in domes, and most every house being distinctly visible. The the apartments receive their light from interior city, seen from this point, appears to be a reg. courts, which in the larger houses form cool ular inclined plane, sloping gently and uniand agreeable promenades secluded from public formly from W. to E. or toward the observer, view. The principal apartments are upon the and indented by a slight depression or shalsecond story, the lower story being occupied by low vale running nearly through the centre in lumber rooms, kitchens, stables, cisterns, and the same direction. The S. E. corner, that offices.-Ancient Jerusalem, as it existed in the which is nearest to the observer, is occupied time of Christ, or somewhat later at the time by the great mosque and its extensive and of its conquest by the Roman army under Tic beautiful grounds, covering Mt. Moriah, the site tus, A. D. 70, is described by Josephus as built of the ancient temple, and comprising about one upon two hills, between which lay the valley eighth of the whole of the modern city. It is Tyropæon or the valley of the Cheesemakers, covered with greensward, and planted sparto which the buildings on both hills camé ingly with olive, cypress, and other trees, and is down. The upper hill was much higher than the most beautiful feature of the town. The the other, and was called by King David the S. W. quarter, embracing that part of Mt. Zion Fortress, but Josephus calls it the Upper Mar- which is within the modern town, is to a great ket. The other hill

, on which was the lower extent occupied by the Armenian convent, an town, was called Akra, and was in the shape enormous edifice, which is the only conspicuous of a crescent. Opposite Akra to the S. E. was object in this neighborhood. The N. W. is Moriah, on which stood the temple. Moriah largely occupied by the Latin convent, another was naturally lower than Akra, from which it rery extensive establishment. About midway was separated by a broad valley; but in the between these two convents is the castle or time of Simon Maccabæus Akra was cut down citadel. The N. E. quarter of Jerusalem is but 20 that the temple rose above it, and at the same partially built up, and it has more the aspect of time the valley between it and Moriah was fill. a rambling agricultural village than of a crowded up. Both the hills on which the upper and ed city. The vacant spots here are green with

ganleos and olive trees. There is another large eastern semi-circle is smaller than the western. rocaat tract along the S. wall, and W. of the The main entrance is in the S. side of the church. Hien esh-Sherif, also covered with verdure. On entering, the pilgrim finds immediately at Far the centre of the city also appear two or his right hand a chamber, the roof of which is siree green spots which are small gardens. The the floor of a chapel. This chamber has on the earch of the Holy Sepulchre is the only conspic- right and left the tombs of Godfrey and Bald2013 edifice in this vicinity, and its domes are win, between which the pilgrim passes to the kriking objects. There are no other buildings chapel of Adam, a small room ending against which either from their size or beauty are likely the native rock. In this rock is visible a huge to engage the attention. Eight or ten minarets fissure, said to have been made by the earthmark the position of as many mosques in differ- quake at the time of the crucifixion. This rock, eat parts of the town, but they are only noticed ascending through the roof of the chamber, is because of their elevation above the surround- the supposed site of Calvary. Outside the room, ing edifices. For the same reason the eye rests two staircases lead up to the floor of the chapel for a moment upon a great number of low above it, which is the chapel of Calvary or of cona, wbich form the roofs of the principal the Elevation of the Cross; within this the pildwellings, and relieve the heavy uniformity of grim is permitted to approach, on his knees, & tise flais plastered roofs which cover the greater hole in the rock usually covered with a silver make of more humble habitations. The Harem plate, in which he is told the cross of Christ esh-Sherif, the “ Noble Sanctuary,” forms the was set. In front of the great doorway, and most conspicuous feature of the city, and is within the church, is a large smooth slab of the one of the most sacred temples of the Moham- native stone of the floor of the church, which medal world. It is a quadrangle 1,489 feet is called the stone of unction, and is pointed out bong by 954 broad. It contains two mosques, as the spot where the body of Christ was laid by the oldest of which, El Aksa, was originally á Joseph to be anointed for burial. This lies beChristian church built by the emperor Justinian tween Calvary and the tomb; passing it, the about the uniddle of the 6th century, and is 272 pilgrim enters the great semi-rotunda in the W. feet long by 184 wide. The other mosque, Kub- end of the church, in the centre of which, under bet es-Sukhrah, or the “Dome of the Rock," an open unglazed dome, is the holy sepulchre. sands on the very summit of Mt. Moriah, and This is enclosed in a beautiful chapel of variousis built over a singular projecting rock, which colored marbles. The first room is the chapel is supposed to be the "threshing floor of Arau- of the Angel; from this the pilgrim enters, by rah the Jebusite," where David sacrificed, and a low passage, a sepulchral chamber 6 feet 2 afterward the site of the great altar of burnt inches long by 6 feet wide, having an arched offering in Solomon's teinple. By the Moham- roof about 7 feet high ; one half of this is occumedans it is regarded with the highest venera- pied by a stone couch, covered with a marble tion, their traditions saying that Mohammed slab. This entire tomb is said to be carved in called it one of the rocks of paradise, and they solid rock, and it is claimed for it that this is beliere that from he made the ascent into the identical tomb in which the body of Christ bearen narrated in the Koran. The building is lay, on the couch now hidden from view by the an octagon, each side of which measures 67 feet. slab; others deny that the tomb is solid rock, It is sarinounted by a peculiarly light and grace- and affirm that it is all a constructed building. fal dome terminated by a tall gilt crescent. In the chapel of the Angel is shown a fragThe entire building forms one of the finest and ment of stone said to be part of the stone most celebrated specimens of the Saracenic style rolled away by the angels. Another and larger of architecture. Its erection is commonly ascrib- fragment is claimed and exhibited by the Ared to the caliph Omar about 650, but some of menians in a chapel on Mt. Zion. In gallerthe Arab historians state that it was built by ies around the church, and in small buildings the caliph Abd el Malek in 686. An eminent attached to it on the outside, are apartments English writer on architecture, Mr. Fergusson, occupied by a number of monks of various namaintains that it was built by the Roman emotions, who are devoted to the service of the peror Constantine in the earlier part of the 4th sepulchre, and in Passion week perform there a century over the sepulchre of Christ. This variety of ceremonies which annually attract a opinion, however, finds few supporters. The large crowd of pilgrims. Concerning the aupeople of Jerusalem itself, and the majority of thenticity of these sacred places a great deal of truse sho have written on the topography of controversy has existed and is still kept up. Dr. Jerusalem, believe that the sepulchre is in the Robinson, in his “ Biblical Researches," arrives mulle of the N. W. quarter of the city. The at the conclusion “that the genuineness of the ciurch of the Holy Sepulchre, built by Con- present site of the holy sepulchre is supported staatine or his mother Helena, is 300 feet long neither by well authenticated historical facts, and nearly 200 feet broad, and is supposed to in- nor by prior tradition, nor by archæological cinde within these limits the scene of the cruci- features." His main argument to this effect atfixion, entombment, and resurrection of Christ. tempts to show by the topography of Jerusalem The general plan of the church is a rotunda di- that the present locality of the sepulchre was Tidad and elongated; that is, the sides of the within the walls of the city at the time of the church are parallel, and the ends semi-circles; the crucifixion, and consequently could not be near

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the place where Christ was crucified, which is the fortress on Mt. Zion, which they held for stated in the Gospel to have been without the several generations, until it was at length capgates. Most Protestant and a few Catholic in- tured by David, who made it his residence and vestigators agree substantially with Dr. Robin- the capital of the Hebrew kingdom. His sucson; while on the other hand the great major- cessor Solomon built the famous temple, and ity of Catholics and some Protestant travellers otherwise embellished the city. After his death believe in the genuineness of these remains the importance and splendor of Jerusalem were Among others, Mr. William C. Prime, a recent considerably lessened by the revolt of the 10 American traveller, maintains the authenticity tribes, which left it the capital of only the very of the sepulchre on the following grounds: "It small state of Judah. Under King Rehoboam, is not credible that this locality was forgotten 971 B. C., it was taken by Shishak, king of by Christians within 300 years after the great Egypt, who plundered the temple of its treasures. events of the crucifixion, burial, and resurrec- It was subsequently conquered and pillaged by tion. Critical scholars and learned men, em- Jehoashı, king of Israel, and was afterward enployed in investigating the topography of the larged and beautified by Uzziah, Jotham, HezeHoly Land, had no doubt of its authenticity in kiah, and Manasseh. In 598 B. O., and again the beginning of the 4th century; no one, so in 588, the city was besieged and taken by the far as we know, thought in that age of disput- Babylonian conqueror Nebuchadnezzar. The ing the fact, but all men acknowledged its truth; second siege lasted 3 years, and on its terminait is not doubted by any one that this is the lo- tion the Babylonians burned the temple and the cality in which those learned men placed their palaces, razed the walls, and carried away capconfidence, it having been well preserved from tive Zedekiah, the last king of the house of that time to this.” Some of the convents of David, together with many of the people. In Jerusalem are large and well built edifices. The 536 Cyrus, king of Persia, baving conquered first in size is the Armenian convent, which is Babylon, permitted the Jews to return to Jeruthe residence of the patriarch of that sect, salem and rebuild the temple. The city, howwho lives in a considerable degree of state ever, remained without walls until 444 B. C., and luxury. The Latin convent, belonging to when Nehemiah was appointed governor by the the Franciscans, is also very extensive, and Persian monarch Artaxerxes, and began to reresembles & fortress. It accommodates great store the fortifications. From this tiine till the numbers of pilgrims, and is supported by dona- conquest of Syria by Alexander the Great (332) tions from the Catholic countries of Europe. the history of Jerusalem is obscure, though the The hills and valleys around Jerusalem are city seems to have been peaceful and prosperous thickly studded with ancient tombs, among under the dominion of its Persian masters. Acwhich may be mentioned the tomb of David, cording to Josephus, it adhered to the Persians now covered by a Mohammedan mosque, the during the Macedonian invasion; and when tomb of Absalom, and the tomb of Helena (com- Alexander advanced against it with hostile inmonly called the tombs of the kings), a queen tent, his wrath was averted by the high priest of Adiabene, who became a proselyte to Judaism Jaddua, whom he recognized as a personage he in the 1st century. Many of these tombs are had seen in a dream. The Greek historians of excavated to a considerable depth in the rocky Alexander, however, make no mention of this hill sides, and are curious and interesting monu- movement against Jerusalem. After Alexander's ments.—Jerusalem is the seat of little trade, death, Ptolemy, king of Egypt, attacked Jerusathough it is a central point for the caravans lem on the Sabbath when the Jews would not between Arabia, Egypt, and Syria. Its only fight, plundered the city, and transported many manufactures are of soap, oil of sesame, and of its inhabitants to Egypt. It soon regained its beads, crosses, shells, and models of the holy prosperity, however, and flourished under the sepulchre, which, after receiving a sort of bene- dominion of the Ptolemies as a province of diction, are exported in considerable quantities Egypt till 198, when it submitted to Antiochus to Greek and Catholic countries. The bazaars the Great, king of Syria, by whom it was treated are scantily supplied with provisions, tobacco, with indulgence and favor. Under one of his coarse cottons, and other articles of necessity.— successors, Antiochus Epiphanes, the Jews were Jerusalem is mentioned very early in Scripture, persecuted and rebelled; and in 169 Antiochus it being commonly supposed to be the Salem massacred the people of Jerusalem, destroyed of which Melchisedek was king in the time of the walls, defiled the temple, and, placing a Abraham. The mountain of the land of Moriah, strong garrison in a citadel which he built, proto which Abraham went to offer up Isaac as a hibited the Jewish worship altogether, and punsacrifice, is supposed to have been the Mt. Mo- ished severely those who refused to sacrifice to riah afterward occupied by the temple and now Greek idols. This persecution caused the revolt by the great Mohammedan sanctuary. The of the Jews led by the Maccabees, who after a name Jerusalem first occurs in Joshua x. 1, fierce struggle obtained possession of Jerusalem where Adoni-zedek, king of Jerusalem, is men- in 163 B. O., though the citadel remained in the tioned. It was at that time a strong city, inhab. hands of the Syrian garrison till 143. The next ited by the Jebusites. The Israelites after the remarkable event in the history of Jerusalem was death of Joshua attacked it and took the lower its capture by the Romans under Pompey in 63 city, but could not drive out the Jebusites from B.C., when 12,000 of the citizens were slain and

the walls demolished. They were rebuilt in 43 Mohammedans and the German emperor Fred. by Antipater, under whose son Herod the Great eric II. In 1239 it was again taken by the Mothe city was enlarged and adorned with mag- hammedans, who in 1243 again restored it to niticent structures, the temple being rebuilt on the Christians. In 1244, however, it was a much more splendid and extensive scale than stormed by the Khorasmians, and has ever since that of Solomon. Jerusalem at this time seems been held by Mohammedan masters. For sevto have reached the summit of its greatness, eral centuries it declined in importance under and, it is conjectured, may have contained the sway of the Mameluke sultans of Egypt, 200,000 inhabitants in its lofty and closely and in 1526 passed with Egypt and Syria into compacted dwellings. This period is marked the hands of the Ottoman Turks. From that by the most memorable events in its history, period till the present time it has remained a the birth, ministry, and crucifixion of Christ. part of the Turkish empire, and has been subAbout 40 years after this latter event the tyr- ject to few vicissitudes. In 1832 it submitted anny of the Romans drove the Jews to revolt, to the army of Mehemet Ali, the pasha of and in A. D. 66 Jerusalem was taken by the Egypt, but was restored to the sultan in 1841. insurgents, and a Roman army commanded by -Almost our only sources of knowledge of anCestius Gallus, governor of Syria, was routed in cient Jerusalem are tlie Bible and the works of a battle before its walls. Titus, the son of the Josephus. The Greek and Latin writers scarcely emperor Vespasian, regained it in 70, after one do more than mention the city. Modern Jeruof the most terrible sieges recorded in history. salem has been described by Maundrell

, Clarke. The temple was burned and the city razed to Châteaubriand, Richardson, Niebuhr, Wilde, the ground, the Romans leaving only 3 towers Lamartine, Buckingham, Poujoulat Olim, and a part of the wall to show how strong a place Prime, &c. See also Bartlett's “Walks about their arms had overthrown. In 131 the em- the City and Environs of Jerusalem” (8vo., Lonperor Hadrian ordered the city to be rebuilt. don, 1844), Williams's “Holy City" (8vo., LonThe Jews, apprehending that pågan idols would don, 1845), and Robinson's "Biblical Researchbe set up in their holy places, broke into rebel- es" (3 vols. 8vo., Boston, 1856). lion and took Jerusalem, which the Romans JERUSALEM, JOHANN FRIEDRICH WILHELY, regained only after a protracted and sanguinary a German theologian, born in Osnabrück, Nov. contest. They then finished the rebuilding of 22, 1709, died Sept. 2, 1789. He was appointthe city, and, calling it Ælia Capitolina, made it ed'in 1740 preacher to Duke Charles of Brunsa Roman colony, and forbade the Jews to ap- wick, and in 1742 became tutor of the heredproach it on pain of death. It continued to be itary prince. In 1752 he was placed in charge known by its new name till the time of Con- of a theological seminary established by the Protstantine, whose mother Helena made a pilgrim- estants in the former convent of Ridagshausen. age to it in 326. The emperor Julian repealed He declined the appointment of chancellor of the edicts which forbade the Jews to enter Jeru- the university of Göttingen, and became in 1771 salem, and permitted them in 362 to begin to vice-president of the consistory at Wolfenbüttel. rebuild the temple; but his death soon after put He still bears the reputation of having been one an end to the project, and the edicts against the of the best preachers of Germany. He was the Jews were renewed, except that once a year father of the unfortunate Karl Wilhelm Jeruthey were allowed to enter the city to wail over salem, whose suicide suggested to Goethe the the desolation of their temple and their holy catastrophe of the “Sorrows of Werther." city. In 451 Jerusalem was made the seat of a JERVIS, Sir Jonn, earl of St. Vincent, a Britpatriarch. Justinian, who became emperor in ish admiral, born in Neaford, Staffordshire, Jan. 527, repaired and enriched its churches, founded 9, 1734, died March 15,1823. He entered the navy many convents, and built a church dedicated to at the age of 10 years, and became post-captain the Virgin on Mt. Moriah. The city had now of the Gosport of 40 guns in 1760, and in 1774 become a place of great resort for pilgrims from of the Foudroyant. He distinguished himself in all parts of Christendom. In 610 it was stormed several naval engagements, was made O. B. in and greatly damaged by the Persians, and in 637 1782, and during the same year sailed with Lord it was taken by the Mohammedans under Caliph Howe to the relief of Gibraltar. He was proOmar. It remained in possession of the Arabs moted to the rank of rear admiral in 1787, and till 1073, when it was taken by the Seljookian was in parliament from 1782 until the beginning Turks, whose cruel treatment of the Christian of the French revolution, when he sailed to the pilgrims created great excitement in Europe, West Indies and captured Martinique and Guaand led to the first crusade for the recovery of deloupe. He was appointed admiral of the blue, the holy sepulchre from the infidels. Shortly June 1, 1795, and on Feb. 14, 1797, off Cape St. before the crusaders under Godfrey reached the Vir.cent, defeated a Spanish fleet which was city, the Seljooks had been driven out by the nearly twice as strong as liis own. For this be Arab sultans of Egypt. The crusaders took was raised to the peerage by the title of earl of the city by storm, July 15, 1099, and made it St. Vincent and Baron Jervis of Meaford, receivthe seat of a Christian kingdom, which lasted ing a pension of £3,000. He became first lord till 1187, when it was conquered by the Egyp- of the admiralty in Feb. 1801, but was removed tian sultan Saladin. In 1229 it was restored to from office by Pitt in May, 1804. He took comthe Christians by a treaty made between the mand of the channel fleet in 1806, holding it

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