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TO ATCHIEVE. v. a. is derived from the Fr. ATERGATIS, in mythology, a goddess of the arieirr, i. e. to finish or make an end of; but Syrians and Parthians, supposed to be the niother hignifies, in its ordinary acceptation, to performs of Semiran is, and called DERCETO by the Grecks. grat actions or exploiis.

She was represented with the face and breasts of a ATCHIEVEMENT, in heraldry, denotes the woman, but the rest of her body resembled a fish. arms of a person or fanily, together with all the Voflius makes the name Phænician, from Addirexterior ornaments of the shield; as helmet, mai Day, the great fish; and says it signifies without tle, crett, scrolls, and motto, together with such filh; whence he conjectures that the votaries of quarterings as may have been acquired by allian. this deity abstained from filh. ces, ali marihailed in order.

ATERNUM, 1. a town of Lucania in Italy, ATCHISON. See ACHESON.

now called ATERNI: 2. a town in the territory of ATCHison's HAVEN. See Acheson's Haven. the Piceni, now called PESCARA, a port town of and Morison's ILAVEN.

Naples, situated on the Adriatic. Lon. 15. 25. E. (1.) ATE, [from uries, to hurt,] the goddess of Lat. 52. 30. N. mischief, in the mythology. She was daughter of ATESTE, a town in the territory of Venice in Jupiter, and cast down from heaven at the birth Italy, now called Este. Lon. 12. 6. E. Lat. 45. of Hercules. For Juno having deceived Jupiter, 25, N. in cauting Euristheus to be born before Hercules, (1.) ATH, or ETH, a strong town of the ciJupiter expreted his resentment on Ate, as the devant Austrian Netherlands, in one of the new author of that mischief: and threw her headlong departments, lately annexed to the territory of from heaven to earth, sweari: the thould never the republic of France. It is stated on the Denreturn thither again. (Homeri ll. xix. 125.) Her der, 12 miles NW. of Mons. See Æth. being the daughter of Jupiter, means, according (2.) ATH, or ATHE, among our Anglo-Saxon to mytbologists, that no evil bappens to us but by

ATILI, J ancestors, significs an oath, especithe permission of Providence; and her banishment ally that taken by way or purgation. In this sente to earth denotes the terrible effects of divine juf- we meet with breaking of aib, privilege of ath, tice among men.

arba or ordkla. 12.)* Åte. The preterite of eat See To EAT. ATHALARIC, the grandson of Theodoric, -Even our firit parents ate themselves out of pa- and the ad king of the Ostrogoths in Italy, fucradife: and Job's children junkeited and feafied ceeded A. D. 526, and reigned along with his motogether oiten. Soutb.

ther Amalasuntha, about 8 years.

They both ATEGAR, 'from the Saxon aeton, to throw, died A. D. 534. and gar, a weapon,) a weapon among the Saxons, ATHALIAH, Chory, Heb. i. e. the time of the wbich feems to have been a hand-dart.

Lord) the daughter of Ahab, king of Israel, by ATEGUA, or ATIEGUA, an ancient town of Jezt bei, and wife of Jehoram king of Judah. She Spain, placed by some in the road from Antiquara, was worse, if pollible, than her worthk fs parents, now Antequera, to Hispalis, or Seville; by others for the not only followed their idolatrous examhear Alcaia Real; which lat is the more probable ple, but added murder and parricide to her other situation, because the fiumen fallam, now the Sa- crimes. Hearing that Jelu had llain her son Abado, was in its neighbourhood. It is now called haziah, along with the rest of Ahab's pofterity in TIBALA VIEJA, or TEIVELA,

· Ifrael, the ulurped the royal power, and to leATELIA, an exemption from taxes, or other cure herself in it, contributed to complete the bardens, ariasize asseggime el tuo is particularly used vengeance denounced against her father's house in fome ancient laws, for an exemption from of. for the murder of Naboth, by extirpating all the bees granted the Egyptian clergy by Constantius. blood-royal of Judah, not sparing even her own

ATELIA, an ancient town of 'Campania in grand-children ;-all of whom she murdered, exItaly, between Capua and Neapolis. The ruins cept the iniant prince Joain, who was rescued of this town are itill to be seen about 11 miles from his grandmother's ambitious fury, by his from the modern AvèRSA, which was built out ot aunt Jehosheba, and hid by her and her husband ha materials.

Jehoida, for 6 years in the temple, during the uATELLANE FABULÆ, / a species of farce, surpation of this moniter. In the 7th year, JehoiATELLANI LUDI,

} tella, called also Osci, from their inventor, in the kingdom in his interest, produced the young whose territory Atella lay. They were generally prince in a public allembiy, in the court of the interlarded with much ribaldry and buffoonery ; temple: caused the people take an oath of fidelity and sometimes were exordia or interludes, present to him; and engaged both them and their king to ed between the acts of other plays. The actors serve the Lord. Arming the Levites and other in these farces were not reckoned among the com- friends with weapons deposited in the temple, he mon players, nor deemed infamous; but retained appoinied one part of them to guard the royal the rights of their tribe, and might be listed for person; the rett to secure the gates of the facred foldiers , the privilege only of frie men.

courts; he next brought forth the young prince, ATEMPER. adj. moderate. Coauc.

crowned him, and proclaimed him king. AlarmATEMPO GIUSTO, in mufic, signifies to sing ed with the thouts of the people, Athaliah ran to or play in an equal, true, and just time.

the temple, wien shocked with the light of the ATENA, a town of Italy, in Naples, near the king on his throne, the rert her clothes and cried, Negro, 12 miles NW. of Marsico, and 22 N. of Triujon, treason. By Jehoiada’s orders, the guard Policastro, Lon. 15. 58. E. Lat. 40:36. N. carried her out and flew her.



ATHAMADULET, or ATHEMADAULET, the (3.) ATHANASIA, in botany, is used by forne prime minister of the Perfian empire. He is authors for tanzy. great chancellor of the kingdom, president of the ATHANASIAN CREED; a formulary, or con council, superintendant of the finances; and has fession of faith, long supposed to have been drava the charge of all foreign affairs. He is in effect up by Athanasus bishop of Alexandria, in the ath viceroy of the kingdom; and illues the king's century, to justify himtelf again the calumnies mandates, in this style. “I, who am the support of his Arian enemies. But it is now generally al of the power, the creator of this purt, the highest lowed among the learned not to have been bis. of all ports," &c.

Dr Waterland ascribes it to Hilary bishop of Arles, ATHAMANTA, SPIGNEL: A genus of the for the following among other reasons: 1. Be digynia order, belonging to the pen dria class cause Honoratus of Marteilles, the writer of his of plants; and in the natural method ranking un- life, tells us, that he composed an Exposition of der the 4th order, Umbellate. The fruit is cb- the Creed; a more proper title for the Athanahan, long and friated; and the petals are inflected and than that of Creed limply wbich it now bears. emarginated. Of this genus Linnæus enumerates 2. Hilary was a great admirer and follower of St 9 species; but none of them merit particular no- Auitin; and the whole composition of this creed tice, except the

is in a manner upon St Auttin's plan, both with ATHAMANTA CRETENSIS, or Daucus Creo respect to the Trinity and incarnation. 3. It is to Ticus, which grows wild in the Levant and the greeable to the ftyle of Hilary, as far as we can warmer parts of Europe. The leaves are irregu- judge from the little that is left of his works. Jarly disposed, and formed like those of fennel. Upon the whole, he concludes, that Hilary bifhop The Aower-stalk rites about two feet high, send- of Arles, about A. D. 530, composed Tbe Expoß in ing out many branches, terruinated at the top by of Faith, which now bears the name of the Atibacompound umbels, composed of near 20 Imall Kasan Creed, for the use of the Gallican clergy,

These have white flowers with five petals, and particularly those of the diocese of Arles: which are succeeded by oblong, hairy, channelled That, about A. D. 570, it became fo famous as fruit, divided into two parts, containing one ob- to be commented upon; but that all this while, long hairy feed. The seeds have a warm biting and for several years after, it had not acquired taste, with an agreeable aromatic smell. They are the name of Athanafia, but was fimply ftyled kept in the shops as a medicine, are carminative, The Catholic Faith: That before 670, Athanafiand said to be diuretic; but are little used in prac. us's name was introduced to recommend it, be tice. The plant may be propagated from feeds, ing indeed, a complete fyftem of the Athanafian which should be fown on an open bed of light principles, as to the Trinity and incarnation, in dry ground; the following autumn the plants opposition chiefly to the Arians, Macedonians, should be taken up, and planted at about a foot and Apollinarians. This creed obtained in France distance in a bed of light fandy earth, where the about A. D. 850, and was received in Spain and roots will continue feveral years.

Germany about 100 years latter. As to our own ATHANAGILD, the 14th king of the Goths country, we have clear proofs of its being fung in Spain, fucceeded Aguila, A. D. 554, and died alternately in our churches in the soth century. A. D. 367, in the 13th

year of his reign. It was in common use in fome parts of Italy, parATHANARIC, king of the Tervuigi, the ift ticularly in the diocese of Verona, about A. D. king of the Visigoths, who dettled in Spain and 960, and was received at Rome about 1014. As part of Gaul, about A. D. 569. The Goths un- to the Greek and oriental churches, it has been der him were much divided between the Arian questioned whether any of them ever received this and orthodox opinions; insomuch that after a creed at all; though some very confiderable wrivictory obtained over Athanaric, by the Huns and ters are of a contrary persuasion. As to the matAlans, those of his subjects who adopted the for. ter of this creed, it is given as a summary of the iner opinion, emigrated under the command of true orthodox faith, and a condemnation of all Fritigern, and settled on the banks of the liter in herefies ancient and modern. Unhappily, howeThrace. Athanaric died A. D. 381, and was luc- ver, it has proved a fruitful fource of unprofitable ceeded by the famous ALARIC.

controversy and unchristian animofity even down (1.) ATHANASIA, GOLDILOCKS: A genus of to the present time. And indeed no better con. the polygamia æqualis order, belonging to the sequences could be expected from a human comfyngenelia class of plants; and in the natural me position, expressed in such strong, uncharitable, thod ranking under the 45th order, Compofita dif- and unfcriptural terms, upon a doctrine at beft coides. The receptacle is chaffy, the pappus is disputable, and acknowledged on all hands to be chaffy, and very short ; and the calyx is imbrica- incomprehensible. ted. There are 20 species, all tender plants ex ATHANASIUS, St, bishop of Alexandria, and cept one; and none of them poffefled of beauty, one of the most violent opponents of the Arians, or any remarkable property wbich has yet been was born in Egypt. He folowed St Alexander discovered.

to the council of Nice, in 325, where he difpu. (2.) ATHANASIA, in ancient medicine, an epic ted against Arius, and the following year was thet given to a kind of antidotes, supposed to made bishop of Alexandria; but, in 335, was dehave the power of prolonging life, even to immor- pofed by the council of Tyre: when, having retality! In the Augustan dispensatory we still find course to the emperor Conitantine, the Arian dea medicine under the appellation of athanafin puties accused him of having hindered the expormagna, recommended against dysenteries and hæ- tation of corn froin Alexandria to Conftantinoplex morrhages.

on which the emperor, without suffering him to

tation of corn from Alexandria to Conftantinople; and was formerly found in all laboratories. As on which the emperor, without suffering him to present, this furnace is much less employed, and make bis defence, banished him to Treves. The even neglected. The reason is, that all the au. emperor, two years after, ordered him to be re- cient chemists were in fearch of the art of ma. tored to his bishopric: but, on his return to A. king gold; and being excited by this powerful lexandria, his enemies brought fresh accufations motive, and confident of fuccess, they spared no againit bim, and chose Cregory of Cappadocia trouble nor expence to accomplifh this delign. to his fee; which obliged Atbanasius to go to They undertook, without hesitation, operations Rome, to reclaim it of pope Julius. He was which required great length of time, and unrethere declared innocent in a council held in 342, mitted heat. Whereas now, these alluring hopes and in that of Sardica, in 347, and two years af- having vanished, the cultivators of chemistry have ter was restored to his fee by order of the empe- no other view than to extend and perfect the theFOT Conftans; but, after the death of that prince, ory of this eisential part of natural philosophy. he was again banished by Conftantius, on which This motive, although undoubtedly much nobler he retired into the defarts. The Arians then elecé than the former, feems, however, to be less powled one George in his room ; who being killed, erful over moft men. For now, all long and la. in a popular fedition under Julian, in 360, St A. borious operations, whence chemistry might rethanafius returned to Alexandria, but was banished ceive great advantages, are neglected, as being. ander Julian, and restored to his fee under Jovian. tiresome and disguftful. There is, in fact, a con. He addrefied to that emperor a letter, in which fiderable difference betwixto the hope of explain. ke proposed, that the Nicene creed should be the ing a philofophical phenomenon, and that of obstandard of the orthodox faith, and condemned taining an ingot of gold capable of producing those who denied the divinity of the Holy Ghoft. many others. Hence the instruments employed He was also banished by Valens in 367, and after. in long operations, and particularly the athanor, wards recalled. He died on the ad of May 373. are now much neglected; and alsó, because the His works principally contain a defence of the fuel in the tower is apt to stick there, or full down myftery of the Trinity, and of the incarnation at once in too great quantity. The lamp furand divinity of the Word and Holy Spirit.— nace, which is a true athanor, may be successfully There are three editions of bis works which are employed in operations which do not require eiteemned; that of Commelin, printed in 1600; much heat. that of Peter Nannius, in 162; ; and that of fa ATHARER, in astrology, a term used when ur Montfaucon.

the moon is in the same degree and minute with ATHANASY, immortality. Bailey.

the sun. ATHANATI, [i.e. immortals, from a priva. ATHAROTH, or ATROTH, the name of lo tive

, and afavaras, death,) a body of cavalry, a- veral towns. Two appear to have been in Samamong the ancient Perfians, consisting of 10,000 ria in the tribe of Ephraim; the one 4 miles N. mes, always complete, because, when any one of Sebafte, or Samaria; the other on the confines of them died, another was immediately put into of Benjamin and Ephraim, but mostly the resort

of Ephraim. This is also called ATROTH-ADDAR (1) * ATHANOR. n. f. [a chymical term, in Jothua xvi. 5. from which, to Upper Bethorong borrowed from afavalo; or as some think, 730) extended the greatest breadth of the tribe of EA digesting furnace to keep heat for some time; phraim. ty that it may be augmented or diminished at ATHBOY, a town of Meath, in Leinster, 3 pleasure, by opening or shutting some apertures miles Sw. of Trim, and 28. NW. of Dublin... nade on purpose with Niders over them, called Lon. 9. 2. W. Lat. 53. 20. N. registers. Quince.

ATHE. See ATH, N° 2. (2.) ATHANOR, DESCRIPTION OF AN. Che. (1.) * ATHEISM. n. f. [from atheist

. It is on mits have given this name to a furnace fo con- ly of two syllables in poetry ] The disbelief of a , krađed, that it can always maintain an equal Ġod.- God never wrought miracles to convince bezt

, and lasts a long time, without addition of atheism, because his ordinary works convince it. Teth fuel. The body of the athanor has nothing Bacon. la it particular, and is constructed like ordinary (2.) ATHEISM, absurd and unreasonable as it furnaces. But, at one of its fides, or its middle, is, has had its votaries and martyrs. In the 17th there is an upright hollow tower, which commu- century, Spinola, a foreigner, was its noted defenaicites with the fire place, by one or more floping der. Lucilio Vanini, an Italian, a native of Naples, openings. This tower ought to have a lid, which publicly taught atheism in Trance, about the befratly closes its upper opening. When the atba. ginning of the 17th century; and being convicted Por is to be used, as much lighted coal is put in of it at Toulouse, was condemned and executed. the fire-place as is judged necellary, and the tow. See ATHEIST. e is filled to the top with unlighted fuel. The (1.) * ATHEIST. adj. Atheistical; denying te wer is then to be exactly closed with its lid. As God.fat as the coal in the fire-place is consumed, that Nor stood unmindful Abdiel to annoy in the tower falls down and fupplies įts place. As The athrist crew. Milton's Purudise Lost. the coal contained in the tower has no free com (2.) * ATHEIST. n. f. (19.0, without God.) muaication with the external air, it cannot burn, One that denies the existence of God. - No at heijt, tril it falls into the fire-place. The athanor being as such, can be a true friend, an attectionate relamuch celebrated and used by ancient chemists, it tion, or a loyal subject. Bentky. bas been particularly dcicribed by many authors, (3.) ATHLIST may alto be defined, a person

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who does not believe in any thing superior to the yea, or so much as make a good discourse in material world. Many people both ancient and prose? And may not a little book be as easily modern, have pretended to be, or have been rec made as the great volume of the world? How koned atheists by the world; but it is justly ques. long might a man be in fprinkling colours upon tioned, whether any man ever serioully adopted canvas with a careless haod, before they would such a principle. These pretensions, are often, happen to make the exact picture of a man? And indeed, founded on pride and affectation. Such is a man easier made by chance than his picture? motives, together with an honest indignation de How long might twenty thousand blind men, who gainst the impositions and intolerance of fupersti. hould be tent out from several remote parts of tion and priestoraft, (which had so often deluged England, wander up and down before they would France with blood,) seem to have co-operated to all meet upon Salisbury plain, and fall into rank produce that extraordinary moral phenomenon, ex and file in the exact order of an army? Yet this hibited in the French Convention, of several of is much more eaty to be imagined than how the the leading members openly avowing themselves innumerable blind parts of matter ihould rendezatheisis: in consequence of which the whole na- tous themselves into a world. A man that fees tion has been most absurdly branded with atheism, Henry the Seventh's chapel at Westminster, from this philofophical vanity, or rather sceptical might with as good reaton maintain, (yea, with folly of a few individuals. Cicero, however, re much better, confidering the vast difference bepresents it as a probable opinion, that they, who twixt that little structure and the huge fabric of apply themselves to philofophy, believe there are the world,) that it was never fo contrived or built no gods. This must doubtless be meant of the by any means, but that the stones did by chance academic philofophy, to which Cicero himlelf grow into those curious figures, into which they was' attached, and which taught to doubt of teen to have been cut and graven; and that upon every thing. On the contrary, the Newtonian a time (as tales usually begin) the materials of that philosophers, continually recur to a Deity, whom building, the stone, mortar, timber, iron, lead, they always find at the head of their chain of na- and glais, happily met together; and very fortutural causes. Among the modern philosophers, nately ranged themselves into that delicate order who have been the principal advocates for the in which we see them now, to close compacted, existence of a Deity, are Sir Isaac Newton, Boyle, that it must be a very great chance that parts Cheyne, Nieuwentyt, &c. To which may be them again. What would the world think of a added many others, who, though of the clergy, man that should advance luch as opinion as this, yet have distinguished themielves by their philo- and write a book for it? If they would do him sophical pieces in behalf of the existence of a right, they ought to look upon him as mad, but God; e. g Derham, Bentley, Whiston, Ray, yet with a little more reason than any man can Samuel and John Clarke, Fenelon, &c. So true have to fiy that the world was made by chance, is that saying of Lord Bacon, that though a fmat- or that the first men grew out of the earth as tering of philosophy may lead a man into athe- plants do now. For, can any thing be more ridi. ifm, a deep draught will certainly bring him culous, and against all reason, than to ascribe the back again to the belief of a God and Providence: production of men to the first fruitfulneis of the agreeably to what the poet obferves of learning in earth, without fo much as one instance and expegeneral:

riment, in any age or hittory, to countenance to “ A little learning is a dangerous thing : monitrous a supposition? The thing is, at first

Drink deep, or talte not the Pierian spring.” fight, fo grofs and palpable, that no discourse It would seem that Archbishop Tillotson doubted about it can be more apparent. And yet, there whether any man ever was an atheist at heart; thameful beggars of principles give this precaand he jusly oblerves that speculative atheism is rious account of the original of things ; ail urine to unreafonable on five accounts: 1. Because it themselves to be the men of reason, the great wits gives no tol-rable account of the existence of the of the world, the only cautious and wary persons world : 2. It does not give any reasonable account that hate to be imposed upon, that must have of the univerial consent of mankind in this com- convincing evidence for every thing, and can ate prehention, that there is a God: 3. It requires mit of nothing without a clear demonstration for more evidence for things than they are capable of it.” giving : 4. The athiest pretends to know what no ATHEISTICAL. adj. (from atheil.] Given man can no: 5. Atheisiri coiltradicts itself.- Under to atheisin; impioux-Men are albiflicul, boy the firit of these he advances the following argu- cause they are first vicious; and question the truth menis: “ I appeal to any man of reason whether of christianity, becaule they hate the practice any thing can be more unreasonable than obstic South. nately to impute an effect to chance, which car. * ATHEISTICALLY. adv. (from a:b-iflical] ries in the very face of it all the arguments and in an atheistical manner.-Is it not enormous characters of a wise design and contrivance. Was that a divin?, hearing a great finner laik at hesiti ever any considerable work, in which there was cally, and.scoff profanely at religion, should, in required a greit variety of parts, and a regular stead of vindicating the truth, tacitiy aj prove tine and orderly disposition of those parts, done by scotter? South. chance? Will chance fit means to ends, and that ATHEISTICALNESS. n. 1. (from ntbrifico! in ten thoufand inftances, and not fail in any one? The quality of being atheistical.-Lord, purg How often miųht a man, after he had junbied a out on all hearts profaneness and atbeillicata fut of letters in a bag, fing them out upon the Hammond's Fundamentais. ground before they would tail into an extrem; ATHLISTICK, adi. (from athrill.] Give

to atheism.--This argument demonstrated the ex- ítance,” adds Mr Goldie, “is not attended tvith istence of a Deity, and convinced all utbeislick any of thote bad consequences, which landlords zainlayers. Ray on the Creation.

of felfith views foolithiy suspect, and wish to ATHEL. ATHELING, ADEL, and ÆTHEL. make the world believe. It neither encourages infrom adel, noble, Germ. So Ætbelred is noble dolence, nor produces a spirit of infolence. The for counjel; belard, a noble ginius; Ethelbert, reverte is the fact. It preserves and cherishes that eminently noble; Ethelward, a not le protector. bond of affection, which ought always to sublift Gib'on's Cambien.

between landiords and their tenants. The far. ATHELARTON, a village in Staffordshire, mers look up to their superiors, with the most near Penbridge.

grateful respect, and carry on their improvements, ATHELHAMSTON, a village in Dorsetihire, with spirit and succes. They can afford to live E. of Pudult-tion, near the Frome.

suitably to their station, to educate their families ATHELING, ADELING, EDLING, ETHLING, properiy, and make decent provision for them in ar ETHELING, (from thel, poble, Sax.) a title a- life.”. mong the Anglo-Saxons, properly belonging to (2.) ATHLLSTANEFORD, a village in the above the heir apparent to the crown. This appellation mentioned parih, (N° 1.) so named from Awas first conferred by king Edward the Confefior, THELSTANE, king or viceroy of Northumberon Edgar, to whom he was great uncle, when, be- land, being killed near it. (See N° 1.) In 1792, ing without any illue of his own, he intended to it contained 357 inbabitants, which was an inmake him his heir. See EDGAR.

crease of 92, within 14 years, owing to the libeATHIELNEY, an island in Sonnerietihire, form- ral encouragement given by the late Sir David ed by the junction of the rivers Thone and Par. Kinloch, to fettiers on bis eftate. “ The houses,” ret, a few iniles below Taunton.

fays Mr Goldie,“ are built upon a feu tack of (1.) ATHELSTANE, a Saxon king of Eng. 38 yćars, at the expence of the people, who pay land, natural fou of Edward the elder, and grand to the proprietor a triste annually, for the ground ion of the great Alfred. He fucceeded in 925, on which the houfe Itands. They have large garand reigned 16 years. There was a remarkable dens, of an excellent ioil, at the same proportion law patted by this prince, which thews his just of rent which a farmer would chearfully pay for sentiments of the advantages of commerce, as well it. Besides this, the feucrs of thefe houfes hold, as the early attention paid to it in this country: in a conjunct lease, about 100 acres of good land viz. tliat any merchant who made three voyages, at a moderate rent. This land is divided among un his own account, beyond the British Channel, them into finall lots. Two of their number have hould be intitled to the privilege of a thane, or each a pair of liorses. With thefe they labour gentlemin.

the land for the community, at a reasonable hire, (2.) ATHELSTANE, king of Northumberland, and drive coals and other carriages that are neces. t, according to Buchanan, a Danith chief, who fary for the village. With the produce of titis got a grant of that country from king Alfred, lard, the inhabitants supply themielves with meal flourished about the beginning of the oth century; and potatoes, and many of them have it in their and, carrying on a prædatory war in Scotland, power to keep a ców. In this manner, they are was killed in battle by Hungus king of the Picts, enabled to live comfortablý, to clothe and eduat the village fince named from him ATHELSTANE- cate their children decentiy, and to aflift in fetting FORD, (See N° 2.) near the rivulet, called Lug- them out in the world. There is no village in daun Burn ; which is faid to be a corruption of this country, where the inhabitants have improvRug dazun, and to have taken its name from the ed more or late years in comfort and convenicircumstance of Athelftane being rugged down, or ence, than the village of Athelitaneford. Former. palled from his horse, in the battle.

ly their dwellings were no better than fm-ll, dirty, 17.) ATHELSTANE, the ancient name of Ed. dark hovels; now they are all neat, commodious deilone. See EDDLESTONE.

houses, generally with two apartments, and well (..) ATHELSTANEFORD, a parish of Scot. lighted. The expence of building one of these and, in the county of Haddington, separated houses is from L. 15 to L. 20; and fome, that are Tom that of Haddington, on the S. and sw. larger and better finished, colt confiderably more. by the Lugdown, and from that of Dirieton on In point of lituation, the village is truly beautiful. the N. by the Peffer. It is an oblong square, 4 It ita:ds open and elevated, and commands the miles long, and between 2 and 3 broad, and con- most delightful and extensive profpects,” of the Lains aboat 3750 acres.

The lands are fat, and Frith of Forth, coaft of Fife, &c. na high state of cultivation ; the soil excellent, ATHENA, in the ancient phyfic, a plaster or and the climate healthy. Yams have been culti- liniment, commended against wounds of the head rated with advantage. There are no beggars in and nerves, of which we find descriptions given by 14, and there never was any allcilment for the Oribafius, £lius, and Ægineta. poor, there being but few, and their funds fuf. ATHENEA, a feast of the ancient Greeks, Scient for their support. By Mr Goldie, the mie held in honour of Minerva, whom they called hiker's report to Sir J. Sinclair, it appears, that Apnon. They were afterwards called Panathenea. the population, in 1792, was 927, of whom there ATHENÆUM, in antiquity, a public place kete 79 more temales than males. It rears about wherein the profeflors of the liberal arts held 200 theep, 160 milk cows, and about as many their assemblics, the rhetoricians declaimed, and hories. The rents of the farms, compared with the poets rehearsed their performances. These lofe of other parts of the country, are generally places, of which there were a great number at Aallowed to be good bargains. " This circum- thens, were built in the manner of amphitheatres, Vol. III. PART I,



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