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throw off the burdensome bonds of certain rules which had been always considered as the fundamental maxims of the art; though they served no other purpose than to check the progress of men of talents.
of men of talents. His example has banished the prejudice of mannering from the Roman school. All now draw from the
pure sources of
nature, all are emulous to excel in the way pointed out to them by Raphael and the ancient Greeks for attaining to perfection. No servile imitation is now recommended. That every practitioner must choose for himself what he finds most striking and beautiful in the vast unlimited scenes of nature, is become a prime maxim in the art of paintiny, and it is highly probable that the return of the flourishing days of the Caracci is not far off.
This high character of Batoni, which we have considerably abridged from the last edition of this dictionary, was taken from Boni's Eloge in a German Journal, and although we have endeavoured to keep down the enthusiasm of our predecessor, yet perhaps even now the article is disproportioned to the merit of the object, and to our scale of lives.
It is therefore necessary to subjoin Mr. Fuseli's opinion, which seems moderated by taste and judgment. Mr. Fuseli
that Batoni was not a very learned artist, nor did he supply his want of knowledge by deep reflection. His works do not bear the appearance of an attentive study of the antique, or of the works of Raphael and the other great masters of Italy: but nature seemed to have destined him for a painter, and he followed her impulse. He was not wanting either in his delineation of character, in accuracy, or in pleasing representation ; and if he had not a grand conception, he at least knew how to describe well what he had conceived. He would have been, in any age, reckoned a very estimable painter; at the time in which he lived, he certainly shone conspicuously. His name is known throughout Europe, and his works are every where in estimation. Mengs, who was a more learned man, was his rival; but, less favoured by nature, if he enjoyed a higher reputation, he owed it less perhaps to any real superiority, than to the commendations of Winkelman.
BATSCH (AUGUSTUS JOHN GEORGE CHARLES), a learned contributor to the science of Botany, was born at Jena,
| Eloge by Boni.Pilkington's Dict,
Oct. 28, 1761, and acquired considerable reputation by his first work, “ Elenchus Fungorum,” Halle, 1783, reprinted 1786, 8vo. In 1792 he was appointed professor of philosophy at Jena, where he founded the society for the advancement of natural history, of which he was president from 1793, and contributed very largely to the objects of the society, particularly its botanical researches, in the course of which he introduced many important discoveries and improvements. Among his other published works, which are all in German, are: 1.“ An introduction to the knowledge and history of Vegetables,” two parts, with plates, Halle, 1787, 8vo. 2. “Essays on Botany and vegetable Physiology,” two parts, Jena, 1792, 8vo. 3. “ Botany for ladies and amateurs,” Weimar, 1795, 1798, 1805, 8vo. 4. “ An introductory essay to the knowledge of Animals and Minerals,” two parts, Jena, 1789, 8vo. This author died Sept. 29, 1802.
BATTAGLINI (MARK) was born at Rimini, March 25, 1645, of a noble family, and studied at Cesena, under the most celebrated professors, and such was his proficiency, that he was honoured with a doctor's degree at the age
of sixteen. He next went to Rome, where Gaspar' de Carpegna, then auditor of the Rota, wished him to accept an office in that tribunal, and employed him in some negociations, but the air of Rome proving unfavourable to his health, he removed to Ancona, where for five years he filled the office of civil lieutenant of that city. He was afterwards governor of various towns, the last of which was Fabriano. In 1690, pope Alexander VIII. appointed him bishop of Nocera, and in 1703 Clement XI. commissioned him to visit several dioceses. After being employed in this for two years, the pope made him assistant prelate, and gave him the abbey of St. Benedict of Gualdo. In 1716 he was translated to the see of Cesena, which he enjoyed but a short time, dying at St. Mauro, Sept. 19, 1717. He wrote in Italian, i. “Il Legista Filosofo," Rome, 1680, 4to. 2. « Istoria universale di tutti i Concili Generali,” Venice, 1689, 2 vols. fol. This we suspect is the second, and much improved edition. 3. " Annali del Sacerdozio," 4 vols. fol. Venice, 1701, 1704, 1709, 1711. He wrote, also, some devotional tracts. 2
1 Dict. Hist.
? Moreri.-Niceron, vol. XIX.
BATTELY (Dr. John), an English antiquary, was born at St. Edmund's Bury, in Suffolk, in 1647.
He was some time fellow of Trinity college, Cambridge, and chaplain to archbishop Sancroft, afterwards, by his grace's favour, rector of Adisham, in Kent, prebendary of Canterbury, and archdeacon of the diocese, and died Oct. 10, 1708. Dr. Thomas Terry, canon of Christ-church, Oxford, published Dr. Battely's “ Antiquitates Rutupinæ, in 1711, 8vo, a work composed in elegant Latin, in the form of a dialogue between the author and his two learned friends and brother chaplains, Dr. Henry Maurice, and Mr. Henry Wharton. The subject is the antient state of the Isle of Thanet. A second edition of the original was published in 1745, 4to, with the author's “Antiquitates St. Edmondburgi, an unfinished history of his native place, and its ancient monastery, down to the year 1272. This was published by his nephew, Oliver Battely, with an appendix also, and list of abbots, continued by sir James Burrough, late master of Caius college, Cambridge. The doctor's papers are said, in the preface, to remain in the hands of his heirs, ready to be communicated to any who will undertake the work. In 1774, Mr. John Duncombe published a translation of the “ Antiquitates Rutupinæ,” under the title of “ The Antiquities of Richborough and Reculver, abridged from the Latin of Mr. · Archdeacon Battely," Lond. 1774, 12mo.
His brother Nicholas Battely, A. M. was editor of the improved edition of “ Somner’s Antiquities of Canterbury,” and wrote some papers and accounts of Eastbridge hospital, in Canterbury, which are printed in Strype's life of Whitgift."
BATTEUX (CHARLES), professor of philosophy in the college royal, member of the French academy and that of inscriptions, honorary canon of Rheims, was born in that diocese in 1713. He died at Paris the 14th of July 1780. Grief at finding that the elementary books for the use of the military school, the composition of which had been entrusted to him by the government, did not succeed, accelerated, it is said, his death. This estimable scholar was of a grave deportment, of a firm character without moroseness ; his conversation was solid and instructive, the attainments of a man grown grey in the study of Greek
1 Duncombe's preface to his Abridgement.-Gough's Topography, vol. I... Archäologia, vol. I. xxvi.-Nicolson's English Ílistorical Library.
and Roman authors. We have by him, l. “ Cours de belles-lettres,” 1760, 5 vols. 12mo; to which are added the “ Beaux-arts réduits à un même principe," and his tract" de la construction oratoire,” which has been separately published. These books, more elaborate, more methodical, more precise than the “ Traité d'Etudes” of Rollin, are written with less elegance and purity. The style is strongly tinctured with a metaphysical air, a stiff and dry precision reigns through the whole, but a little tempered by choice examples, with which the author has embellished his lessons. He is likewise censurable, that when he discusses, certain pieces of the most eminent French writers, for instance, the fables of Fontaine, the rage for throwing himself into an estacy on all occasions, makes him find beauties, where critics of a severer taste have perceived defects. 2. “ Translation of the works of Horace into French,” 2 vols. 12mo; in general faithful, but deficient in warmth and grace. 3. “ The morality of Epicurus," extracted from his writings, 1758, in 12mo; a book well compiled, and containing a great stock of erudition, without any ostentatious display of it. 4. “ The four poetics, of Aristotle, of Horace, of Vida, and of Boileau," with translations and remarks, 1771, 2 vols. 8vo, a work that evinces the good taste of an excellent scholar, with sometimes the amenity of an academic. 5.“ History of primary causes," 1769, 8vo. The author here unfolds some principles of the ancient philosopy. 6. “ Elemens de Littérature, extraits du Cours des Belles Lettres,” 2 vols. 12mo. 7. His - Cours élementaire,” for the use of the military school, 45 vols. 12mo, a book hastily composed, in which he has copied himself, and copied others. He was admitted of the academy of inscriptions in 1759, and of the academie Françoise in 1761, and was a frequent contributor to the memoirs of both societies. He was still more estimable by his personal qualities than by his literary talents. He supported by his bounty a numerous but impoverished family.
BATTIE (WILLIAM), an English physician of considerable eminence, was born at Medbury, in Devonshire, 1704, the son of Edward Battie, and grandson of William Battie, D.D. He received his education at Eton, where his mother resided after her husband's death, in order to assist
Dict. Hist. Saxii Onomasticon, vol. VIII.
her son, on the spot, with that advice, and those accommodations, which would have been more useless and expensive, had she lived at a greater distance. In 1722 he was sent to King's college, Cambridge, and on a vacancy of the Craven scholarship, he succeeded to it by a combination of singular circumstances. The candidates being reduced to six, the provost, Dr. Snape, examined them all together, that they might, as he said, be witnesses to the successful candidate. The three candidates from King's' were examined in Greek authors, and the provost dismissed them with this pleasing compliment, that not being yet determined in his choice, he must trouble them to come again. The other electors were so divided, as, after a year and a day, to let the scholarship lapse to the donor's family, when lord Craven gave it to Battie. Probably the remembrance continued with him, and induced him to make a similar foundation in the university, with a stipend of 20l. a year, and the same conditions for the benefit of others, which is called Dr. Battie's foundation. He nominated to it himself, while living, and it is now filled up by the electors to the Craven scholarships. To Battie this scholarship was of much importance, and, as appears by a letter he wrote in 1725, when he got it, he was enabled to live comfortably. In 1726, he took his bachelor's, and in 1730, his master's degree.
His intention now was to study the law, and in order to procure the means, he applied to two old bachelors, his cousins, both wealthy citizens, whose names were Coleman, soliciting the loan of a small allowance, that he might be qualified to reside at one of the inns of court, but they declined interfering with his concerns. This disappointment diverted his attention to physic, and he first commenced practitioner at Cambridge, where, in 1729, he printed “ Isocratis Orationes septem et epistolæ. Codicibus MSS. nonnullis, et impressis melioris notæ exemplaribus collatis : varias lectiones subjecit, versionen novam, notasque, ex Hieronymo Wolfio potissimum desumptas, adjecit Gul. Battie, Col. Reg. Cantab. Socius,” 8vo, with a promise in the preface, that the remainder of the work should be given nitidiore vestitu. This word vestitu being construed by Dr. Morell into an allusion to Battie's residence in Taylors-inn, he wrote some ludicrous verses, which were inserted at the time in the Grub-street Journal. On this edition of Isocrates, however, Battie regularly employed himself for a certain VOL. IV.