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sia Alexandrinæ ad Apostolicamr sedem," 1598, 8vo, respecting the re-union of the church of Alexandria to the see of Rome, which did not last long. And some other works of less reputation."


BARRADAS, or BARRADIUS (SEBASTIAN), a Jesuit and eminent Portuguèse divine, was born at Lisbon, 1542. After entering among the Jesuits, he taught a long time at Coimbra and other places; and, applying himself to preaching, gained the title of “ The apostle of Portugal.” He died April 14, 1615, in great reputation for sanctity. All his works were printed at Cologn, 1628, 4 vols. fol. under the title of “ Commentaria in concordiam et historiam Evangelicam.” The most particularly esteemed among them is, “ Itinerarium filiorum Israel ex Ægypto in terram repromissionis," Paris, 1620, fol.

BARRAL (ADBE PETER), born at Grenoble, and died at Paris, July 21, 1772, came early in life to that metropolis, where he took up the employment of a schoolmaster. He wrote, in conjunction with fathers Gaubile and Varra, a “ Dictionnaire historique, littéraire, et critique, des hommes célèbres," 1758, 6 vols. 8vo, in which he is said to have betrayed too much of the spirit of party. A French wit called it the Martyrology of Jansenism, compiled by a Convulsionnaire. Notwithstanding this, his dictionary has some merit, as in the articles of poets, orators, and literary men, he writes with spirit, and generally gives his judgment with taste. There is likewise by him, 1. An abstract of the letters of madame de Sévigné in 12mo, under the title of " Sevigniana.” 2. An abridgment, much esteemed, of the “ Dictionnaire des Antiquités Romaines,” by Pitiscus, in 2 vols. 8vo. 3. “ Dictionnaire hist. geographique et moral de la Bible," 1758, 2 vols. 8vo. 4. “ Maximes sur le devoir des Rois, et le bon usage de leur authorité,” Paris, 1754, and reprinted twice under different titles; and 5. “Memoires historiques et litteraires de l'abbe Gouget,” with a correct list of his works. The abbé Barral was a man of erudition, of a lively conversation, and the style of his writings is vigorous and manly, though sometimes negligent and incorrect. .

1 Gen. Dict. vol. X.-Moreri.--Dupin..Baillet Jugements, vol. II. and VI. Pabr. Bibl. Græc. vol. XII. p. 165, an excellent article on the annals and their history. Saxii Onomasticon.-Blount's Censura. 8 Moreri, ---Antonio Bibl. Hisp.

3 Dict. Histo VOL. IV.


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BARRE (FRANCIS POULLAIN DE. LA), was born July 1647, at Paris. He applied himself to studying the Scriptures and councils, and conceived so great a contempt for scholastic divinity, as to give up the design he had entertained of being a doctor of the Sorbonne. He was curate of Flamingrie, in the diocese of Laon, 1680; but imbibing the tenets of the Protestants, and fearing lest he should be arrested for the opinions which he propagated in his sermons and discourses, he went to Paris, 1688, and afterwards took refuge at Geneva, where he married, 1690. He at first taught French to the foreign nobility; but was afterwards declared a citizen, and admitted into one of the first classes of the college at Geneva, in which city he died May 1723. His best works are those which he published in France before his retiring to Geneva, they are, “ Un traité de l'Egalité des deux sexes,” 1673, 12mo. Traité de l'Education des Dames, pour la conduite de l'esprit dans les sciences et dans les meurs," 12mo.

66 De l'excellence des Hommes contre l'Egalité des Sexes," 12mo. ports de la Langue Latine à la Françoise,” 12mo. Jolin James de la Barre, his son, was author of “ Pensées philo. sophiques et théologiques," 1714 et 1717, 2 vols. 8vo. They are theses."

BARRE (LEWIS FRANCIS JOSEPH DE LA), a learned French historian, antiquary, and biographer, was born at Tournay, March 9, 1688. His father, Paul Joseph de la Barre, an emineut lawyer, sent him early to Paris, where he made great proficiency in classical studies, particularly Greek, which he not only studied critically, but acquired considerable skill in the collation of ancient manuscripts, and the antiquities of the language. When Banduri came to Paris, with some works for the press, young de la Barre was recommended to him as an assistant in transcribing and comparing manuscripts, and it was by his aid that Banduri was enabled to publish his “ Imperium Orientale,” 2 vols. folio, and his “ Medals" (see BANDURI); for which services Banduri prevailed on the grand duke of Tuscany

hiin a pension, which was punctually paid to de la Barre, until the death of the last sovereign of the house of Medici. As soon as de la Barre was at leisure from his engagements with Banduri, the booksellers employed him on a new edition of D'Acheri's “ Spicilegium,” which he accordingly undertook, and which was published in 1723, 3 vols. folio, in a very much improved state. He next contributed to the edition of Moreri's dictionary of 1725. In 1727 he was admitted a member of the academy of inscriptions and belles lettres, a choice which the many learned papers he published in their memoirs fully justified. In the same year he undertook to continue the literary journal of Verdun, which he did during his life, and added much to its character. In 1729 he published a work very interesting to French historians, “ Memoires pour servir à l'histoire de France et de Bourgogne.” In 1732 he published new editions of the “Secretaire du Cabinet," and the “ Secretaire du Cour," 2 vols. 12mo; improving both very essentially, although we may be allowed to doubt whether “ Letter-writing” can be effectually taught by models. In 1733 he revised and corrected an edition of M. de Larrey's “ L'histoire de France, sous le regne de Louis XIV." 12mo. In 1735 appeared a new history of Paris, in 5 vols. taken from that of father Lobineau, but la Barre wrote only the fifth volume. A very few months before his death he had projected a dictionary of Greek and Roman antiquities, which was to form four folio volumes, and had executed some parts of it with great care and accuracy, at the time of his death, May 23, 1738. was pronounced by M. de Boze.

to grant


i Dict. Hist.Moreri in Poullain.

BARRE (JOSEPH), a canon regular of St. Genevieve, and chancellor of the university of Paris, was born in 1692, and died at Paris in 1764. He joined his order early in life, and became distinguished for his knowledge and researches in civil and ecclesiastical history, and his numerous works afford a considerable proof of his industry.

The principal are, 1. “Vindiciæ librorum deutero-canonicorum veteris Testamenti," 1730, 12mo, a very ingenious attempt. 2. “ Histoire generale d'Allemagne,” 1743, 11 vols. 4to, a work of rast labour, but has few of the elegant and fascinating charms of modern history, and is in many respects inaccurate. 3. “ Vie de marechal de Fabert, 1752, 2 vols. 12mo. 4. " Examen des defauts theologiques,” Amst. 1744, 2 vols. 12mo. He also wrote notes to the edition of Bernard Van Espen's works, 1753, 4 vols. folio; and about the time of his death had made some pro.

His eloge


I Moreri. Saxii Onomasticon.

gress in a history of the courts of justice, of which he had published a prospectus in 1755.'


BARRELIER (JAMES), was born at Paris in 1606; and after having gone through a course of study, and taken the degree of licentiate in medicine, he entered into the order of Dominicans in 1635. His talents and his prudence were so conspicuous, that in 1646 he was elected assistant to the general, with whom he made the tour of France, Spain, and Italy. Amidst the avocations of this post, and without neglecting his duties, he found the means of applying himself to the study of botany, to which he seemed to have a natural propensity. He collected a great number of plants and shells, and made drawings of several that had not been known, or but very imperfectly described, He had undertaken a general history of plants, which he intended to entitle “ Hortus Mundi," or“ Orbis Botanicus," and was employed on it with the utmost diligence, when an asthma put an end to his labours in 1673, at the age' of sixty-seren. All that could be collected of this work was published by Ant de Jussieu, with a life of the author, under the title “ Planta per Galliam, Hispaniam, et Italiam observatæ, et iconibus æneis exhibitæ," Paris, 1714, folio, a valuable contribution to a botanical library, but by no means correct.

BARRERE (PETER), physician of Perpignan, who practised some time at Cayenne, and died in 1755, was well versed both in the theory and practice of his art, and had the reputation of being an accurate observer. His principal works are, 1. “ Relation et essai sur l'histoire de la France equinoxiale," with a catalogue of plants collected at Cayenne, 1748, 12mo. 2. “Dissertation sur la couleur des Nègres,” 1741, tto. 3. “ Observations sur l'origine des pierres figurées," 1646, 4to, &c. 3

BARRET (GEORGE), an English landscape painter, was horn about 1728, in the city of Dublin. It is not known that he received any regular instructions in painting. Не began his attempts in the very humble line of colouring prints, in which he was employed by one Silcock, in Nicholas street, Dublin. From this feeble commencement he rose to considerable powers as a landscape painter, by studying from the scenes of nature in the Dargles, and in


? Moreri...Janget Bibl. Script. Med. 3 Dict. Hist.-Haller Bibl. Bot.

1 Dict. Hist.

the park at Powerscourt, places near Dublin, and is said to have received patronage and encouragement from the noble owner of Powerscourt. About this time a premium was offered by the Dublin society for the best landscape in oil, which Mr. Barret won. In 1762 he visited London, where he soon distinguished himself; and, the second year after his arrival, gained the premium given by the society for the encouragement of arts, &c. for the best landscape in oil. The establishment of the royal academy was in a great measure indebted to the efforts of Mr. Barret, who formed the plan, and became one of its members.

He had two decided manners of painting, both with regard to colour and touch; his first was rather heavy in both, his latter much lighter. Scarcely any painter equalled him in his knowledge or characteristic execution of the details of nature. His attention was chiefly directed to tlie true colour of English scenery, its richness, dewy freshness, and that peculiar verdure, especially in the vernal months, which is so totally different from the colouring of those masters who have formed themselves on Italian sce. nery or Italian pictures. This strong desire sometimes tempted him to use colours rich and beautiful when first applied, but which no art could render permanent; which, in some of his slighter works, prevailed to such a degree ás to leave scarcely any traces of the original colouring.

The best pictures in his first manner are to be found in the houses of the dukes of Buccleugh and Portland, &c. &c. and those of his latter, in his great work, at Mr. Lock's, at Norbury-park, Surrey, consisting of a large room painted with a continued scene entirely round. The idea in general characterizes the northern part of this country; and for composition, breadth of effect, truth of colour, and boldness of manner in the execution, has not been equalled by any modern painter. He exerted his powers to the utmost in this work, as he entertained the warmest sense of Mr. Lock's great kindness and friendly patronage. He also painted in water-colours, in which he excelled.

As a man he was remarkably kind and friendly, gentle in manners, with a vast flow of spirits, even to playfulness, and a strong turn to wit and humour. For the last ten years of his life, he was obliged, on account of his health, to retire to Paddington, near London, where he painted (in conjunction with Mr. Gilpin, the celebrated animal-painter) some of his best easel-pictures. He died in March 1784,

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