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liminio reversis, in quibus tractatur de re navali," Paris, 1536, 4to, and often reprinted with the preceding work, as well as inserted in Gronovius? Thesaurus. He also translated some of Plutarch's lives, but we do not find that they were published. '

BAYLE (FRANCIS), a learped French physician and me. dical writer, was royal professor of philosophy in the university of Toulouse, where he died, Sept. 24, 1709, in the eighty-seventh year of his age. He was a member of the Floreal academy, and a man of integrity, always more ready to discern merit in others than in himself, a strict disciplinarian, and, through many unpleasant vicissitudes, a truly Christian philosopher. As to his profession, it appears from his works that he was a good theorist, as well as a successful practitioner. Haller pronounces him “ Iatromechanicus, sed ex cautioribus." His works, which are partly in Latin and partly in French, were, 1. “Systema generale philosophiæ,” Toulouse, 1669, 8vo. 2. “ Tractatus de Apoplexia,” ib. 1676, 12mo; Hague, 1678. 3. “ Dissertationes Medicæ tres," Toulouse, 1678, fol. 4. “ Dissertationes Physicæ," Hague, 1678, 12mo. 5. " Dissertationes de experientia et ratione conjungenda in Physica, Medicina, et Chirurgia,” Paris, 1675; Hague, 1678. “ Problemata Physica et Medica," ib. 1678, 12mo. “ Histoire Anatomique d'une grossesse de 25 ans," Tou. louse, 1678, 12mo. 8. “ Instructiones Physicæ ad usum scholarum accommodatæ,” ibid. 1700, 3 vols. 4to. “ Dissertatio quæstiones nonnullas Physicas et Medicas explanáns,” ibid. 1688, 12mo. 10. “Opuscula,” ibid. 1701, 4to.

BAYLE (PETER), a French writer who once made a great figure in the literary world, was born Nov. 18, 1647, at Carla, a small town in the county of Foix, the son of John Bayle, a Protestant minister. Peter gave early proofs of genius, which his father cultivated with the utmost care; he himself taught him the Latin and Greek languages, and sent him to the Protestant academy at Puylaurens in 1666. The same year, when upon a visit to his father, he applied so closely to his studies, that it brought upon him an illness which kept him at Carla above eighteen months. On his recovery he returned to Puylaurens to prosecute his studies, and afterwards he went to Toulouse




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in 1669, where he attended the lectures in the Jesuits' coto lege. The controversial books which he read at Puylaurens raised several scruples in his mind in regard to the Protestant religion, and his doubts were increased by some disputes he had with a priest, who lodged in the same house with him at Toulouse. He thought the Protestant tenets were false, because he could not answer all the arguments raised against them; so that about a month after his arrival at Toulouse, he embraced the Roman Catholic religion. This gave much uneasiness to all his relations, and Mr. Bertier, bishop of Rieux, rightly judging, that after this step young Bayle had no reason to expect any assistance from them, took upon him the charge of his maintenance. They piqued themselves much, at Toulouse, upon the acquisition of so promising a young man.

When it came to his turn to defend theses publicly, the most distinguished persons of the clergy, parliament, and city, were present; so that there had hardly ever been seen in the university a more splendid and numerous audience. The theses were dedicated to the Virgin, and adorned with her picture, which was ornamented with several emblematical figures, representing the conversion of the respondent.

Some time after Mr. Bayle's conversion, Mr. Naudis de Bruguiere, a young gentleman of great wit and penetration, and a relation of his, happened to come to Toulouse, where he lodged in the same house with him. They disputed warmly about religion, and after having pushed the arguments on both sides with great vigour, they used to examine them over again coolly. These familiar disputes often puzzled Mr. Bayle, and made him distrust several opinions of the church of Rome; and he began to suspect that he had embraced them too precipitately. Some time after Mr. de Pradals came to Toulouse, whom Mr. Bayle's father had desired to visit him, hoping he would in a little time gain his confidence; and this gentleman so far succeeded, that Bayle one day owned to him his having been too hasty in entering into the church of Rome, since he now found several of her doctrines contrary to reason and scripture. August 1670, he departed secretly from Toulouse, where he had staid eighteen months, and retired to Mazeres in the Lauragais, to a country-house of Mr. du Vivie. His elder brother came thither the day after, with some ministers of the neighbourhood; and next day Mr. Rival, minister of Saverdun, received his abjuration in

presence of his elder brother and two other ministers, after which they obliged him instantly to set out for Geneva. Soon after his arrival here, Mr. de Normandie, a syndic of the republic, having heard of his great character and abilities, employed him as tutor to his sons. Mr. Basnage at that time lodged with this gentleman, and it was here Mr. Bayle commenced his acquaintance with him. When he had been about two years at Geneva, at Mr. Basnage's recommendation he entered into the family of the count de Dhona, lord of Copet, as tutor to his children; but not liking the solitary life he led in this family, he left it, and went to Roan in Normandy, where he was employed as tutor to a merchant's son; but he soon grew tired of this place also. His great ambition was to be at Paris; he went accordingly thither in March 1675, and, at the recommendation of the marquis de Ruvigny, was chosen tutor to messieurs de Beringhen, brothers to M. de Beringhen, counsellor in the parliament of Paris.

Some months after his arrival at Paris, there being a vacancy of a professorship of philosophy at Sedan, Mr. Baswage proposed Mr. Bayle to Mr. Jurieu, who promised to serve him to the utmost of his power, and desired Mr. Basnage to write to him to come immediately to Sedan. But Mr. Bayle excused himself, fearing lest if it should be known that he had changed his religion, which was a secret to every body in that country but Mr. Basnage, it might bring him into trouble, and the Roman catholics from thence take occasion to disturb the protestants at Sedan. Mr. Jurieu was extremely surprised at his refusal ; and even when Mr. Basnage communicated the reason, he was of opinion it ought not to hinder Mr. Bayle's coming, since he and Mr. Basnage being the only persons privy to the secret, Mr. Bayle could run no manner of danger. Mr. Basnage therefore wrote again to Mr. Bayle, and prevailed with him to come to Sedan. He had three competitors, all natives of Sedan, the friends of whom endeavoured to raise prejudices against him because he was a stranger, But the atfair being left to be determined by dispute, and the candidates having agreed to make their theses without books or preparation, Mr. Bayle defended his theses with such perspicuity and strength of argument, that, in spite of all the interest of his adversaries, the senate of the uniyersity determined it in his favour; and notwithstanding


the opposition he met with upon his first coming to Sedan, his merit soon procured him universal esteem.

In 1680, an affair of the duke of Luxemburgh made a great noise : he had been accused of impieties, sorcery, and poisonings, but was acquitted, and the process against him suppressed. Mr. Bayle, having been at Paris during the harvest-vacation, had heard many particulars concerning this affair, and immediately composed an harangue on the subject, wherein the marshal is supposed to vindicate himself before his judges. This speech is a smart satire upon the duke and some other persons. He afterwards wrote one more satirical, by way of criticism upon. the harangue. He sent these two pieces to Mr. Minutoli, desiring his opinion of them; and, that he might speak his mind more freely, he concealed his being the author. About this time father de Valois, 'a jesuit of Caen, published a book, wherein he maintained that the sentiments of M. Des Cartes concerning the essence and properties of body, were repugnant to the doctrine of the church, and agreeable to the errors of Calvin on the subject of the eu. charist. Mr. Bayle read this performance, and judged it well done. He was of opinion the author had incontestably proved the point in question; to wit, that the principles of M. Des Cartes were contrary to the faith of the church of Rome, and agreeable to the doctrine of Calvin. He took occasion from thence to write his ó Sentimens de M. Des Cartes touchant l'essence, &c." wherein he main. tained the principles of Des Cartes, and answered all the arguments by which father de Valois had endeavoured to confute them.

The great comet, which appeared December 1680, hava ing filled the generality of people with fear and astonish: ment, induced Mr. Bayle to think of writing a letter on this subject to be inserted in the Mercure Galant; but, finding he had such abundance of matter as exceeded the bounds of a letter for that periodical work, he resolved to print it by itself; and accordingly sent it to M. de Vise. He desired M. de Vise to give it to his printer, and to procure a licence for it from M. de la Reynie, lieutenant of the police, or a privilege from the king if that was necessary, but M. de Vise returned for answer, that M. de la Reynie, being unwilling to take upon him the consequences of printing it, it would be necessary to obtain the approbation of the docs tors before a royal privilege could be applied for; which

being a tedious and difficult affair, Mr. Bayle gave over all thoughts of having it printed at Paris.

The protestants in France were at this time in a distressed situation; not a year passed without some infringement of the edict of Nantz, and it was at length resolved to shut up their academies. That at Sedan was accordingly suppressed by an arret of Lewis XIV. dated the 9th of July, 1681. Mr. Bayle staid six or seven weeks at Sedan after the suppression of the academy, expecting letters of invitation from Holland; but not receiving any during that time, he left Sedan the 2d of September, and arrived at Paris the 7th of the same month, not being determined whether he should go to Rotterdam or England, or continue in France; but whilst he was in this uncertainty he received an invitation to Rotterdam, for which place he accordingly set out, and arrived there the 30th of October, 1681. He was appointed professor of philosophy and history; with a salary of five hundred guilders per annum. The year following he published his “ Letter concerning Comets ;" and father Maimbourg having published about this time his History of Calvinism, wherein he endeavours to draw upon the protestants the contempt and resentment of the catholics, Mr. Bayle wrote a piece to confute his history: in this he has inxserted several circumstances relating to the life and disputes of Mr. Maimbourg, and has given a sketch of his character, which is thought to have

a strong

likeness. The reputation which Mr. Bayle had now acquired, induced the states of Friezland, in 1684, to offer him a professorship in their university ; but he wrote them a letter of thanks, and declined the offer. This same year he began to publish his “ Nouvelles de la republique des lettres ;” and the year following he wrote a second part to bis :“. Censure on the History of Mr. Maimbourg."

In 1686, he was drawn into a dispute respecting the famous Christina queen of Sweden: in his Journal for April, be took notice of a. printed letter, supposed to have been written by her Swedish majesty to the chevalier de Terlon, wherein she condemns the persecution of the protestants in France. He inserted the letter itself in his Journal for Maysand in that of June following he says: “ What we hinted at in our last month, is confirmed to us from day to day, that Christina is the real author of the letter concerning the: persecutions, in France which is ascribed to her:

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