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ters, and from his own prolific and prurient imagination. It is much to be regretted that his reputation was such as to render this mode of writing Biography a fashion, and particularly that it was followed in our Biographia Britannica, in many parts of which Bayle's garrulity has been exactly followed. With respect to Bayle's other works, a reference for their titles to Niceron may be sufficient. They are now in little repute, and his fame must principally stand or fall on the merits of his Dictionary.'

BAYLIS (WILLIAM), one of the physicians to the king of Prussia, and member of the colleges of physicians of London and Edinburgh, was author of " An essay on the Bath Waters, 1757 ; " " A narrative of facts demonstrating the existence and cause of a Physical Confederacy, made known in the printed letters of Dr. Lucas and Dr. Oliver, 1757," and " An historical account of the General Hospital or Infirmary in the city of Bath,” 1758, all which excited a contest between him and his medical brethren, who seemed to have the public on their side, and he was excluded from consultations at Bath, where as well as in London he formerly practised physic. It is related of him that when he was first introduced to the late king of Prussia, to whom much had been said of his medical skill, the king observed to him, “ That to have acquired so much experience, he must necessarily have killed a great many people.”. To which the doctor replied, “ Pas tant que votre majesté,”—“Not so many as your majesty.” died in 1787 at Berlin, and left his library and medals to the king of Prussia, in the service of which court he had lived for many years. It was at the German Spa where his talents were first noticed. Previously to his going abroad he is said to have lived in a very splendid manner at Eves ham in Worcestershire, and was once a candidate for a seat in the British parliament, but without success.

BAYLY (Lewis), an English prelate, was born at Caermarthen in Wales, and educated at the university of Oxford; but in what college, or what degrees he took is uncertain. We find only that he was admitted, as a member of Exeter college, to be reader of the sentences in 1611; about which time he was minister of Evesham in Worcestershire, chaplain to prince Henry, and rector of St. Matthew's,

· Life by Des Maizeaux prefixed to his Dictionary.Gen. Dict.-Saxii Onemasticon.

* Gent. Mag. 1787. Lond. Chron. May, 1737.

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Friday-street, in London. Two years after he took his degrees in divinity; and being very much celebrated for his talent in preaching, was appointed one of the chaplains to king James I. who nominated him to the bishopric of Bangor in the room of Dr. H. Rowlands, in which see he was consecrated at Lambeth, Dec. 8, 1616. On the 15th of July 1621, he was committed to the Fleet, but was soon after discharged. It is not certain what was the reason of his commitment, unless, as Mr. Wood observes, it was on account of prince Charles's intended marriage with the Infanta of Spain. He died in the beginning of 1632, and was interred in the church of Bangor. His fame rests chiefly on his work entitled “ The practice of Piety," of which there have been a prodigious number of editions in 12mo and svo, that of 1735 being the fifty-ninth. It was also translated into Welsh and French in 1633, and such was its reputation, that John D'Espagne, a French writer, and preacher at Somerset-house chapel in 1656, complained, that the generality of the common people paid too great a regard to it, and considered the authority of it as almost equal to that of the Scriptures. This book was the substance of several sermons, which Dr. Bayly preached while he was minister of Evesham. But Lewis du Moulin, who was remarkable for taking all opportunities of reflecting upon the bishops and church of England, in his “ Patronus Bonæ Fidei, &c.” published in 8vo, 1672, asserts, that “this book was written by a Puritan minister, and that a bishop, whose life was not very chaste and regular, after the author's death, bargained with his widow for the copy, which he received, but never paid her the money; that he afterwards interpolated it in some places, and published it as his own.” It is not very probable, however, that a man “ whose life was not very chaste and regular," should have been anxious to publish a work of this description; but Dr. Kennet, in his Register, has very clearly proved that bishop Bayly was the real author.'

BAYLY (JOHN), son of the above, born in Herefordshire, in 1595, entered of Exeter college in 1611, and became fellow the year following. His tutor was Dr. Prideaux. After completing his master's degree, he went into orders, and had some church preferment from his father. He was afterwards one of his majesty's chaplains,

Biog. Brit.--Wood's Athenæ, vol. I.--Kennet's Register, p. 359.

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and guardian of Christ's hospital in Ruthyn. He published " The Angel Guardian,” a collection of sermons, London, 1630, 4to, and some others which Wood has not enumerated, nor does he give any account of his death."

BAYLY (THOMAS), the fourth and youngest son of bishop Bayly, was educated at Cambridge, and having commenced B. A. was presented to the subdeanery of Wells by Charles I. in 1638. In 1644, he retired with other loyalists to Oxford, where, proceeding in his degrees he was created D. D. and two years after we find him with the marquis of Worcester, in Ragland castle, after the battle of Naseby. When this was surrendered to the parliament army, on which occasion he was employed to draw up the articles, he travelled into France and other countries; but returned the year after the king's death, and published at London, in 8vo, a book, entitled “Certamen Religiosum, or a conference between king Charles I. and Henry late marquis of Worcester, concerning religion, in Ragland castle, anno 1646.” But this conference was believed to have no real foundation, and considered as nothing else than a prelude to the declaring of himself a papist. The same year, 1649, he published “The Royal Charter granted unto kings by God himself, &c. to which is added, a treatise, wherein is proved, that episcopacy is jure divino," 8vo. These writings giving offence, occasioned him to be committed to Newgate; whence escaping, he retired to Holland, and became a zealous Roman catholic. During his confinement in Newgate, he wrote a piece entitled, “ Herba Parietis, or the wall-flower, as it grows out of the stone-chamber belonging to the metropolitan prison ; being an history, which is partly true, partly romantic, morally divine; whereby a marriage between reality and fancy is solemnized by divinity," Lond. 1650, in a thin folio. Some time after, he left Holland, and settled at Douay; where he published another book, entitled “ The end to controversy between the Roman catholic and Protestant religions, justified by all the several manner of ways, whereby all kinds of controversies, of what nature soever, are usually or can possibly be determined,” Douay, 1654, 4to, and afterwards “Dr. Bayly's Challenge.” At last this singular person went to Italy, where he lived and died extremely poor (although Dodd says that he died in

1 Wood's Ath. vol, I.

cardinal Ottoboni's family): for Dr. Trevor, fellow of Merton college, who was in Italy in 1659, told Mr. Wood several times, that Dr. Bayly died obscurely in an hospital, and that he had seen the place where he was buried.

The works above mentioned occasioned the following answers; “A vindication of the Protestant Religion against the marquis of Worcester's last papers. By Christ. Cartwright, Lond. 1652, 4to. “ An answer to the marquis of Worcester's papers relating to king Charles I.” by L'Esstrange, Lond. 1651, 8vo. “ Answer to Dr. Bayly's Challenge,” an imperfect work, by Rob. Sanderson. Animadversions on Certamen Religiosum, &c. by Peter Heylin, who in 1649, 1650, and 1659, published a collection of papers entitled “ Bibliotheca Regia.” In this, says Wood, is inserted the conference between king Charles I. and the marquis of Worcester at Ragland, which is by niany

taken to be authentic, because published by Heylin. Dr. Bayly's name is likewise to a well-known « Life of bishop Fisher,” which is said to have been the production of Richard Hall, D.D. of Christ church, Cambridge, and afterwards canon and official of the cathedral church of St. Omer's, where he died in 1604. The manuscript, after his death, came into the possession of the English monks of Dieulwart, in Lorrain; from whence a copy fell into the hands of one Mr. West, who presented it to Francis a St. Clara, alias Francis Davenport, a Franciscan friar. Davenport gave it to sir Wingfield Bodenham, who

put

it into the hands of Dr. Bayly. The doctor read it, took a copy of it, and sold it to a bookseller who published it with Dr. Bayly's name.-Such is the account Wood gives, and in which he is followed by Dodd, on which we have only to remark that this life is preceded by a dedication signed with the doctor's initials, and avowing himself to be the author. ?

BAYLY (WALTER). See BALEY.

BAYNARD (Anne), a learned English lady, the only daughter of Dr. Edward Baynard, a gentleman of an ancient family, and an eminent physician in London, was born at Preston, in Lancashire, in 1672. Her father, who discovered her early capacity, bestowed great care on her education, and was rewarded by the extraordinary proficiency she made in

1 Biog. Brit.---Ath. Ox. vol. I. II.-- Dodd's Ch. Hist. VOL. IV.

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various branches of learning not usual with her sex. She was well acquainted with philosophy, mathematics, and physics. She was also familiar with the writings of the ancients in their original languages. At the age of twentythree she had the knowledge of a profound philosopher, and in metaphysical learning was a nervous and subtle disputant. She took great pains with the Greek language, that she might read in their native purity the works of St. Chrysostom. Her Latin compositions, which were various, were written in a pure and elegant style. She sessed an acute and comprehensive mind, an ardent thirst of knowledge, and a retentive memory:

She was accustomed to declare, “that it was a sin to be content with a little knowledge.” To the endowments of the mind she added the virtues of the heart; she was modest, humble, and benevolent, exemplary in her whole conduct, and in every relative duty. She was pious and constant in her devotions, both public and private ; beneficent to the poor; simple in her manners; retired, and rigid in her notions and habits. It was her custom to lay aside a certain portion of her income, which was not large, for charitable uses; to this she added an ardent desire and strenuous efforts for the mental and moral improvement of those within her circle and influence. About two years previous to her death, she seems to have been impressed with an idea of her early dissolution ; which first suggested itself to her mind while walking alone among the tombs, . in a church-yard; and which sho indulged with much complacency. On her death-bed she earnestly entreated the minister who attended her, that he would exhort all the young people of his congregation to the study of wisdom and knowledge, as the means of moral improvement and real happiness. “I could wish,” says she," that all young persons might be exhorted to the practice of virtue, and to increase their knowledge by the study of philosophy ; and especially to read the great book of nature, wherein they may see the wisdom and power of the Creator, in the order of the universe, and in the production and preservation of all things.”—“That women are capable of such improvements, which will better their judgments and understandings, is past all doubt, would they but set about it in earnest, and spend but half of that time in study and thinking, which they do in visits, vanity, and folly.

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