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Funebre," the subject of which (John xvii. 3.) was pointed out by the prince himself. After residing eight years at Dessau, Beausobre, in 1694, removed to Berlin, where the refugees for the cause of religion, many of them his particular friends, had formed an asylum, and where he might enjoy the means of educating his family. Here he passed the rest of his life, and exercised his ministry for the space of forty-six years, not only as one of the pastors appointed to supply the churches of the French refugees, but as chaplain to their majesties, an office he had the honour to fill until the death of the queen Sophia-Charlotte. He was besides, counsellor of the royal consistory, inspector of the French college, and a year before his death was appointed inspector of the French churches in Berlin, and of the other churches comprised within the inspection of that city. As every church had its separate pastor, Basnage belonged first to that of Ville-Neuve, but on the death of his friend Mr. Lenfant in 1728, he succeeded him in the church of Werder, where he officiated through the remainder of his life.
As soon as Beausobre became settled at Berlin, he resumed his favourite studies, and particularly his “ History of the Reformation," which he carried down to the Augsburgh confession, and left it in manuscript. In this state it remained until 1784, when it was published at Berlin in 4 vols. 8vo. Its principal object is the origin and progress of Lutheranism, in treating of which the author has availed himself of Seckendorff's history, but has added many valuable materials. It contains also very curious and ample details relative to the progress of the reformation in France and Swisserland; but it nevertheless is not free from objections, both on the score of impartiality and accuracy. In the mean time, the Prussian court having desired M. Beausobre and his friend M. Lenfant to prepare a translation of the New Testament, they shared the labour between them, M. Lenfant taking the Evangelists, Acts, Catholic epistles, and the Apocalypse, and M. Beausobre the epistles of St. Paul. The whole was published in 2 vols. 4to, Amst. 1718, with prefaces, notes, &c. A second edition appeared in 1741, with considerable additions and corrections. Their “ Introduction" was published separately at Cambridge (translated into English) in 1779; and Dr. Watson, bishop of Llandaff, who inserted it in the third volume of his “ Theological Tracts," pronounces it a work of extraordinary merit, 'the authors having left scarcely any topic
untouched, on which the young student in divinity may be supposed to want information. Their only opponent, at the time of publication, was a Mr. Dartis, formerly a minister at Berlin, from which he had retired, and who published a pamphlet, to which Beausobre and Lenfant made separate replies. Beausobre was one of the principal members of a society of literary men of Berlin, who called them the " Anonymi,” and this connection led him to be a contributor to the “ Bibliotheque Germanique,” of which he was editor from vol. IV. to the time of his death, excepting vol: XL. One of the pieces he wrote for this journal was translated into English, and published at London, 1735, 8vo, under the title of “ St. Jatzko, or a commentary on a passage in the plea for the Jesuits of Thorn.? But his most celebrated work was his “ Histoire critique de Manicheisme," Amst. 1734, 1739, 2 vols. 4to. Of the merit of this work it may, perhaps, be sufficient to give the opinion of a man of no religion, Gibbon, who says that “it is a treasure of ancient philosophy and theology. The learned historian spins, with incomparable art, the systematic thread of opinion, and transforms himself by turns into the person of a saint, a sage, or an heretic. Yet his refinement is sometimes excessive: he betrays an amiable partiality in favour of the weaker side, and while he guards against calumny, he does not allow sufficient scope for superstition and fanaticism,” things, or rather words, which Gibbon is accustomed to use without much meaning. The journalists of Trevoux having attacked this work, gave Mr. Beausobre an opportunity of showing his superiority in ecclesiastical history, by an answer published in the Bibl. Germanique, which perhaps is too long. He wrote also a curious preface to the “ Memoirs of Frederick-Henry, prince of Orange,” Amst. 1733. These are all the works which appeared in the life-time of our author, but he left a great many manuscripts, dissertations on points of ecclesiastical history, and sermons, none of which, we believe, have been published, except the “ History of the Reformation,” already noticed. M. Beausobre reached the period of old age, without experiencing much of its influence. He preached at the age of eighty with vigour and spirit. His last illness appears to have come on in October 1737, and although it had many favourable intermissions, he died June 5, 1738, in the full possession of his faculties and recollection, and universally regretted by his flock, as well as
by the literary world. The most remarkable encomium bestowed on bim, is that of the prince, afterwards Frederick king of Prussia, in a letter to Voltaire, published in the works of the latter. 66 We are about to lose one of the greatest men in Germany. This is the famous M. de Beausobre, a man of honour and probity, of great genius, a taste exquisite and delicate, a great orator, learned in the history of the church and in general literature, an implacable enemy of the Jesuits, the best writer in Berlin, a man full of fire and vivacity, which eighty years of life have not chilled; has a little of the weakness of superstition, a fault common enough with people of his stamp, and is conscious enough of his abilities to be affected by applause. This loss is irreparable. We have no one who can replace M. de Beausobre; men of merit are rare, and when nature sows them they do not always come to maturity.” The applause of such a man as Beausobre, from Frederick of Prussia to Voltaire, is a curiosity.
Beausobre left, by his first wife, two sons and a daughter, and by his second, whom he married in his seventieth year, 'two infant sous. His second son by the first marriage, CHARLES Louis BEAUSOBRE, was born at Dessau in 1690, and became a pastor of a church at Berlin, where he died in 1753. He published
He published “ Discours sur le Nouv. Test.” as a sequel to that of Saurin; “ Apologie des Protestans," and contributed to the completion of his father's History of the Reformation, which he did not, however, live to see published.'
BEAUSOBRE (LEWIS), perhaps of the same family with the preceding, was born at Berlin in 1730, where he also died, Dec. 3, 1784, in consequence of an apoplectic stroke. He was privy counsellor to the king of Prussia in the French department, counsellor of revision of the supreme consistory, and member of the royal academy of sciences and belles lettres at Berlin. He published, 1. “ Des dissertations philosophiques sur la nature de Feu," 1753, 12mo, containing many accurate observations, with some of a more doubtful kind. 2. “ Le Pyrrhonisme du sage,'' 1754, 12mo. 3. “ Les songes d'Epicure," 1756, 12mo, 4. “ Introduction generale a l'etude de la Politique, des Finances, et du Commerce,” Berlin, 1771, 3 vols. 12mo.
I Chaufepie's Dict. Hist.—Dict. Hist.
6. “Essai sur le Bonheur,” and 7. “ Introduction à la Statistique.” 1
BEAUVAIS (VINCENT OF). See VINCENT.
BEAUZEE (Nicholas), one of the French academy, and professor of grammar in the military school, was born at Verdun, May 9, 1717, and died at Paris, Jan. 25, 1789. Of his early life we have no account, but he appears to have been selected by the encyclopedists to furnish the articles on grammar in their celebrated undertaking. The abbé Barruel, who says he was a layman much to be respected for his piety, once asked him, how a man of his principles came to be associated with the encyclopedists, who were notoriously infidels. “ The very same question," answered Beauzee, “have I put to d'Alembert. At one of the sittings, seeing that I was almost the only person who believed in God, I asked him how he possibly could ever have thought of me for a member, when he knew that my sentiments and opinions differed so widely from those of his brethren? D'Alembert without hesitation answered, “I am sensible of your amazement, but we were in want of a skilful grammarian, and among our party not one had acquired a reputation in that study. We knew that you believed in God, but being a good sort of a man, we cast our eyes on you, for want of a philosopher to supply your place.” About the same time, probably, Beauzee published his “ Grammaire generale, ou exposition raisonnée des elemens necessaires du Langage, pour servir de fondement a l'etude de toutes les Langues,” Paris, 1767, 2 vols. a work which, although it falls short of its title, contains much valuable instruction, especially respecting the French. language. The chief fault is, that the author wants preci. sion, and is frequently too metaphysical to be intelligibie. He published also a new edition of the abbé Girard's “Synonymes,” with great additions, 2 vols. 12mo; translations of Sallust, often reprinted, and much admired ; of Quintus Curtius, which likewise became popular; and of Thomas à Kempis. He promoted the publication of the translation of sir Isaac Newton's optics by Marat, 2 vols. 8vo, 1787, which is thought to be very correct. The Dict. Hist."mentions another work by Beauzee, but without date, “ Exposition abregée des preuves historique de le religion,” 12mo.
1 Dict. Hist.
2 Dict. Hist. ---Barruel's Memoirs of Jacobinism, vol. I.
BEBELE (BALTHAZAR), a Lutheran divine, was born at Strasburg, in 1632, where he was first pastor and professor of divinity and ecclesiastical history, and afterwards professor of divinity, pastor and superintendant general at Wittemberg, where he died of an apoplexy, Oct. 2, 1686. When very young he wrote “Theses Philologicæ de re nummaria veterum,” and “ Disputationes Philologicæ de Theologia Gentili ex antiquis nummis eruta,” Wittemberg, 1658, 4to. He afterwards published " Dissertatio de aris et mensis Eucharisticis veterum,” Strasb. 1666, 4to; “ Antiquitates Ecclesiæ," ibid. 1669-1680, 3 vols. 4to. And after his death, appeared “ Ecclesia Autediluviana vera et falsa,” ibid. 1706. morabilia Hist. Ecclesiasticæ recentioris," Dresden, 1731, 4to. Witte, in his Diarium, gives a longer list of his writings, but without specifying whether they are collected dissertations or separate volumes ; a neglect very common with the biographers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
BEBELE (HENRY), a native of Justingen, in Suabia, where his father was a labourer, was educated at home, and in 1495 went to Cracow, where, and at Tubingen, he studied the languages, jurisprudence, and particularly poetry. In 1501, the emperor Maximilian I. honoured him with the poetical crown. Before this, in 1497, he was professor at Tubingen, and lectured on the ancient orators and historians, and is said to have been the first who introduced into Germany a relish for the purity of the Latin tongue, in which his works show that he had attained considerable excellence. His Latin dissertations of the historical kind, relating to Germany, are inserted in the first volume of Scharde's Scrip. Rer. Germanicarum. It is less to his credit that he wrote some tales of a very licentious kind. He formed, also, a collection of German proverbs, which with his poems were published at Strasburgh, in 1512, 4to, under the title “ Opuscula BebeJiana." A posthumous work of his, 6 De necessitate linguæ Latinæ," was published at Augsburgh, in 1801, with his life in German, by Zapf. Saxius fixes his death in 1514.
BECAN (MARTIN), an eminent Jesuit, born in 1561, at Hilvarenbec, a small village of Brabant, entered the
1 Moreri...-Saxii Onomasticon.