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ratus ad historiam Hungariæ ; sive, Collectio miscellanea monumentorum ineditorum partim, partim editorum, sed fugientium,” Presburg, several volumes in folio, 1735– 1746. This collection of historians of Hungary is adorned with learned and well-written prefaces. 5.“ Amplissimæ historico-criticæ Præfationes in scriptores rerum Hungaricarum veteres ac genuinos,” 3 vols. in folio. 6. “ Notitia Hungariæ novæ historico-geographica,” Vienna, 1735 et ann. seq. 4 vols. folio, with maps. A work of much learning, and executed with accuracy.

His son CHARLES ANDREW, who died by his own hand, in 1782, was in 1741 appointed professor extraordinary of philosophy at Leipsic, and in 1756 professor of poetry, and librarian to the university, with the title of counsellor of state. He wrote “ De vera origine et epocha Hunnorum,” 1757, 4to, and was editor of the “ Acta eruditorum” from 1754 to 1781.1


BELCHIER (John), was born in the year 1706, at Kingston in Surrey. He received his education at Eton; and discovering an inclination for surgery, was bound apprentice to Mr. Cheselden, by far the most eminent man of his profession. Under this great master, who used to say, that of all the apprentices he ever had Mr. Belchier was the most industrious and assiduous, he soon became an accurate anatomist.

His preparations were esteemed next to Dr. Nicholls's, and allowed to exceed all others of that time. Thus qualified, his practice soon became extensive; and in 1736 he succeeded his fellow-apprentice Mr. Craddock, as surgeon to Guy's hospital. In this situation, which afforded such ample opportunity of displaying his abilities, he, by his remarkably tender and kind attention to his pauper patients, became as eminent for his humanity as his superior skill in his profession. Like his master Cheselden, he was very reluctant before an operation, yet quite as successful as that great operator. He was particularly expert in the reduction of the humerus; which, though a very simple operation, is frequently productive of great trouble to the surgeon, as well as excruciating pain to the patient. Being elected fellow of the royal society, he communicated to that learned body several curious cases that fell within his cognizance; particularly a remarkable case

1 Dict. Hist-Saxii Onomasticon,

of an hydrops ovarii, published in the Philosophical Transactions, No. 423 ; an account of the miller whose arm was torn off by a mill, August 15,1737, No. 449; and a remarkable instance of the bones of animals being turned red by aliment only, No. 442. The greatest discoveries frequently are owing to trifling and accidental causes. Such was the case in the last-mentioned circumstance, Mr. Belchier being led to make his inquiries on that subject, by the bone of a boiled leg of pork being discovered to be perfectly red, though the meat was well-flavoured, and of the usual colour. On his resignation as surgeon of Guy's, he was made governor both of that and St. Thomas's hospital, to which he was particularly serviceable, having recommended not less than 140 governors. Mr. Belchier in private life was a man of strict integrity, warm and zealous in his attachments, sparing neither labour nor time to serve those for whom he professed a friendship. Of this he gave a strong proof, in becoming himself a governor of the London hospital, purposely to serve a gentleman who had been his pupil. Indeed, he on every occasion was particularly desirous of serving those who had been under his care. A man of such a disposition could not fail of being caressed and beloved by all that really knew him. In convervation he was entertaining, and remarkable for bons mots, which he uttered with a dry laconic bluntness peculiar to himself; yet under this rough exterior he was possessed of a feeling and compassionate heart. Of the latter, his constantly sending a plate of victuals every day, during his confinement, to a man, who, having gained admittance to him, presented a pistol with an intent to rob him, and whom he seized and secured, is an unquestionable proof, as well as of his personal courage. Such were his gratitude and friendship too for those of his acquaintance, that on several sheets he has mentioned their names with some legacy as a token of remembrance, as medals, pictures, books, &c. trinkets and preparations, and on another paper says he could not do more, having a family of children. Whenever he spoke of Mr. Guy, the founder of the hospital, it was in a strain of enthusiasm, which he even carried so far as to saint him. A gentleman having on one of those occasions begged leave to remark, that he had never before heard of St. Guy, Mr. Belchier, in his sentimental way, replied, “ No, sir: -perhaps--you may not find his name in the calendar, but give me leave to tell you, that he has a

better title to canonization than nine-tenths of those whose names are there; some of them may, perhaps, have given sight to the blind, or enabled the lame to walk; but can you quote me an instance of one of them bestowing one hundred and fifty thousand pounds sterling for the purpose of relieving his fellow-creatures ?” Mr. Belchier was a great admirer of the fine arts, and lived in habits of intimacy with the principal artists of his time. He enjoyed a great share of health, though far advanced in years. A friend of his being some time since attacked with epileptic fits, he exclaimed, “ I am extremely sorry for him, but when I fall I hope it will be to rise no more;” and he succeeded in a great measure in his wish, for being taken with a shivering fit at Batson's coffee-house, he returned home and went to bed. The next day he thought himself better, got up, and attempted to come down stairs, but complained to those who were assisting him, that they hurried him, and immediately after exclaiming, “ It is all over!"-fell back and expired. His body was interred in the chapel at Guy's hospital. He died in 1785.1

BELGRADO (James), an eminent Italian mathematician, was born at Udina, Nov. 16, 1704, and from his infancy afforded the promise of being an ornament to his family and country. At Padua, where he was first educated, his proficiency was extraordinary, and at the age

of nineteen he excited considerable attention by an elegant Latin oration he delivered in honour of cardinal Barbadici. He afterwards entered the society of the Jesuits at Udina, and having completed his noviciate, went to Bologna, and studied mathematics and theology at Parma, where he was appointed professor of mathematics and had the direction of the observatory, and became eminent as an observer of the phenomena of nature, and a profound antiquary. When the society of the Jesuits was suppressed, Belgrado went to Bologna, and was appointed rector of the college of St. Lucia, where, and in other parts of Italy, he occasionally resided until his death in 1789. The extent and variety of his knowledge will be best understood by a list of his works. 1. “ Gratulatio Cardinali J. F. Barbadico, &c.” already noticed, Padua, 1723. 2. “ Ad disciplinam Mechanicam, Nauticam, et Geographicam Acroasis critica et historica,” Parma, 1741. 3. Ad disciplinam Hydrostaticam Acroasis historica et critica,” ibid. 1742. f. " De

1 Preceding edition of this Dictionary,


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altitudine Atmospheræ æstimanda critica disquisitio,” ib. 1743. 5.“ De Phialis vitreis ex minimi silicis casa dissilientibus Acroasis,” Padua, 1743. 6. “ De Gravitatis legibus Acroasis Physico-mathematica," Parma, 1744. 7. “De vita B. Torelli Puppiensis commentarius,” Padua, 1745. 8.“De corporis elasticis disquisit. physico-mathem.” Parma, 1747. 9. “ Observatio Solis defectus et Lunæ," Parma, 1748. 10. I fenomeni Elettrici con i corollari da lor dedotti,” Parma, 1749.

11. “ Ad Marchionem Scipionem Maphejum epistolæ quatuor,” Venice, 1749. 12. 5 Della Reflessione de Corpi dall' Acqua," &c. Parma, 1753. 13. “Observatio defectus Lunæ habita die 30 Julii in novo observatorio, 1757." 14. “ Dell' azione del caso nelle invenzioni, e dell'influsso degli Astri ne' corpi terrestri, dissertationi due,” Padua, 1757. Observatio defectus Lunæ,” Parma, 1761. 16. “ De utriusque Analyseos usu in re physica,” vol. II. ibid. 1761. 17. “ Delle senzazioni del calore, e del freddo, dissertazione,” ibid. 1764, IL Trono di Nettuno illustrato,” Cesene, 1766. 19. ^ Theoria Cochleæ Archimedis," Parma, 1767. 20. “Dissertazione sopra i Torrenti,” ibid. 1768. 21. “ Della Rapidita delle idee dissertazione,” Modena, 1770. 22. 66 Della proporzione tra i talenti dell' Uomo, e i loro usi, dissertazione,” Padua, 1773. 23. “ De Telluris viriditate, dissertatio," Udina, 1777. 24. “ Della Esistenza di Dio da' Teoremi Geometrici dimostrata, dissert." Udina, 1777. 25. “ Dall’Esistenza d'una sola specie d'esseri ragionevoli e liberi si arguisce l'Esistenza di Dio, dissertazione,' ibid. 1782, 26. “ Del Sole bisoguevole d'alimento, e dell' Oceano abile a procacciarglielo, dissert. Fisico-matematica,” Ferrara, 1783. 27. Dell'Architettura Egiziana, dissert.” Parma, 1786. He left also several manuscript works, and published some pieces in the literary journals, being a correspondent of the academy of sciences at Paris, and a member of the institute of Bologna.'

BELGRAVE (RICHARD), a writer of the fourteenth century, of the ancient family of the Belgraves in Leicestershire, was born at the town of Belgrave, about a mile from Leicester, and educated in the university of Cambridge, where he applied himself with great diligence and success to his studies, and afterwards took the degree of D.D. He entered himself into the order of Carmelite friars, and distinguished himself by his great skill in the Aristotelian

Fabroni Vita Italorum, - Dict, Hist.-Mazzuchelli.

philosophy and school-divinity, but he was more remarkable for the strength and subtilty of his lectures, than the elegance of his style, the study of polite literature being generally neglected in that age. Pits gives him the character of a man of eminent integrity and piety. He flourished in 1320, under the reign of king Edward II. and wrote, among other works, “ Theological Determinations, in one book," the subject of which was, Utrum Essentia Divina possit videri? Whether the Divine Essence could be seen? and '“ Ordinary Questions, in one book.” This single question, concerning the Divine Essence, is enough to shew the inutility of the inquiries and studies which engaged the attention of men in that age.?

BELIDOR (BERNARD FOREST DE), a member of the academies of sciences of Paris and Berlin, was born in Catalonia in 1697. Being left an orphan at the age of five years, he was educated by an engineer, a friend of his father's family, and very early discovered a genius for mathematics. In the course of time he was appointed royal professor of the schools of artillery of la Fere, and superintended the education of some scholars who proved worthy of him. His success in this situation procured him also the place of provincial commissary of artillery, but here his zeal cost him both places. Having discovered by some experiments that a smaller quantity of powder was sufficient to load a cannon than commonly employed : that, for example, eight pounds of powder would produce the same effect as twelve, which was the usual quantity, he thought to pay court to the cardinal de Fleury, then prime minister, by communicating to him in private a scheme by which government might make so important a saving. The cardinal, who was partial to all schemes of economy, listened with pleasure to this of Belidor, and spoke of it to the prince de Dombes, who was master of the ordnance. The prince was astonished that a mathematician, who served under him, and on whom he had conferred favours, should not have communicated this to him, and irritated by what he considered as a mark of disrespect, dismissed him from the posts he held, and obliged him to leave la Fere. De Valliere, lieutenant-general of artillery, took upon him on this occasion to justify the prince's conduct, in a printed memorial, and endeavoured at the same time to refute Beli

1 Biog. Britannica.

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