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casioned partly by the heat of the climate, but chiefly from that grief which this miscarriage occasioned, as appeared by his letters to his lady, in which he expressed much more concern for the condition in which he was like to leave the public affairs in the West Indies, than for his own.

During all the time of his illness, he behaved with great calmness and presence of mind, having never flattered himself, from the time his leg was cut off, with any hopes of recovery, but shewed an earnest desire to be as useful as he could while he was yet living, giving the necessary directions for stationing the ships of his squadron, for protecting commerce, and incomnioding the enemy. He continued thus doing his duty to the last moment of his life. His spirits did not fail him until very near his end, and he preserved his senses to the day he expired, Nov. 4, 1702. He left several sons and daughters; but his sons dying without issue, his two surviving daughters became coheiresses, and the eldest married Paul Calton, esq. of Milton near Abington in Berkshire, who contributed much of the admiral's memoirs to the Biographia Britannica. One of his sons, John, was brought up to the sea, but in the year his father died was shipwrecked on the coast of Madagascar, where, after many dangerous adventures, he was reduced to live with, and in manner of the natives, for many years, and at last, when he least expected it, he was taken on board by a Dutch captain, out of respect to the memory of his father, and brought safe to England, when his relations thought him long since dead. He was a young gentleman naturally of a very brisk and lively temper, but by a long series of untoward events, his disposition was so far altered that he appeared very serious or melancholy, and did not much affect speaking, except amongst a few intimate friends. But the noise of his remaining so long, and in such a condition, upon the island of Madagascar, induced many to visit him; for though naturally taciturn, he was very communicative on that subject, although very few particulars relating to it can now be recovered. It was supposed by Dr. Campbell, in his life of the admiral, that some information might have been derived from a large work which Mr. John Benbow composed on the history of Madagascar, but it appears from a letter in the Gent. Mag. vol. XXXIX. p. 172, that this was little more than a seaman's journal, the loss of which may perhaps be supplied by Drury's description of Madagascar, one of the fellow-sufferers with Mr. Benbow, of


for six years.

which work a new edition was published a few years ago. Mr. Benbow's MS. was accidentally burnt by a fire which took place in the house, or lodgings, of his brother William, a clerk in the Navy office, who died in 1729. The whole family is now believed to be extinct, and a great part of the admiral's fortune is said to remain in the bank of England, in the name of trustees, among the unclaimed dividends. One William Briscoe, a hatter, and a member of the corporation of Shrewsbury, who was living in 1748, was supposed to be his representative, but was unable to substantiate bis pretensions.

BENCI, or BENCIO (FRANCIS), an Italian orator and poet, was born at Aquapendente in 1542, and received his early education from his father. He was then sent to Rome, and in 1563 began to attend the Jesuits' college for the study of philosophy and jurisprudence, which he pursued

His master was the celebrated Muretuş, but for some time, as his biographer informs us, the love of the world predominated, notwithstanding the voice of conscience, to which, however, at length he listened, and, in 1570, entered into the society of the Jesuits, going through the regular probations. He now changed his name, which was Plautus, to that of Francis, a practice usual among the religious of that order. Yet still his new engagements did not interrupt his favourite studies, which led him to high reputation as an orator and poet. For many years likewise he taught rhetoric at Sienna, Perugia, and Rome, and was regarded by his learned contemporaries, as another Muretus. Flattered, however, as he might have been by these lavish praises, and encouraged to hope for preferment adequate to such acknowledgments of his merit, he is said to have been a man of great modesty, and entirely free from ambition. Muretus had admitted him to the closest intimacy, and Benci no further presumed on his friendship than to request he would introduce more of the Christian in his life and writings than had yet been visible. Muretus acknowledges this very handsomely in the dedication to Benci, of his Latin translation of Aristotle's rhetoric. Benci died in the Jesuits' college at Rome, May 6, 1594.

An edition of his works was published at Lyons in 1603; but most of them had been separately and very often printed,

1 Biog. Brit.-Gent. Mag. vol. XXXIX.-Some account of the ancient and present state of Shrewsbury, 12mo, 1810. A view of the house in which he was born, &c. Gent. Mag. LXXIX. p. 1097.


They consist of orations, Latin dramas and poems, and some religious treatises, enumerated by Moreri.'

BENCIVENNI (JOSEPH), an Italian writer, was born in 1728, the last branch of a noble and ancient family in Tuscany. He rendered himself eminent in the literary and political world, and filled some situations of importance; and among others, more connected with his favourite pursuits, he was director of the once magnificent gallery of Florence, of which he wrote “ Saggio Historico,” &c. “ An historical essay concerning the Gallery,” vol. I. and II. 1779, 8vo, and which, we believe, was continued in more volumes, but we find these only noticed in the Monthly Review, vol. LXII. He wrote also the eloges of many eminent characters, a " life of Dante,” which is much esteemed, some “ academical dissertations," and other works without his name. He died July 31,


His mind was a library open to all his friends, and his heart a hospitable asylum for the unhappy. He was learned without pedantry, pious without superstition, benevolent without ostentation, the friend of virtue wherever he found it, and his death, it is added, was as placid and calm as his life had been.

BENCIUS, or DE BENCIIS (Hugo), was a native of Şienna, which circumstance has procured him to be recorded in some biographical works under the name of Hugo SENENSIS, and Freher, otherwise a correct biographer, has given these as distinct persons. He became one of the most celebrated physicians of the fifteenth century, and not less esteemed as a philosopher and divine. In such admiration was he held, that his contemporaries hailed him as another Aristotle and a new Hippocrates; and such was his memory, that he could readily and promptly give answers to any questions or doubts that were propounded from the works of Plato or Aristotle. He was, according to Ghilini, professor of medicine at Ferrara, and was a member of the council called to adjust the religious disputes between the Greeks and Latins. Castellanus informs us, that when Nicholas of Este founded the university of Parma, Bencius was appointed one of its first professors, and this Bencius himself confirms in the introduction to his commentary on Galen. He died at Rome in 1438, according to Castellanus, or in 1445, according to Ghilini. His principal works are, 1. “In aphorismos Hippocratis," &c. expositio,” Ve

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nice, 1493, folio, reprinted 1517, 1523. 2. “ Consilia'são luberrima ad omnes Ægritudines,” Venice, 1518, folio. 3. “ In tres libros Microtechni Galeni luculentissimi expositio,” ibid. 1523, fol. 4. “ In primi canonis Avicenna Fen primam expositio,” ibid. 1523, fol. 5. “ Supra quarta Fen primi Avicennæ expositio,” ib. 1717. 6. “ In quarti canonis Avicennæ Fen primam expositio,” ibid. 1523. There is an edition of his works, Venice, 2 vols. folio, 1518, but whether it includes the above is not mentioned in our authorities.

BENDER (BLAISE COLOMBAN, BARON DE) a field-marshal in the Austrian service, was born in the Brisgaw, 1713, and entered very young into the Austrian service. He was engaged in the war of 1741, and in the seven years war against the Prussians, and distinguished himself in various engagements, in which he received several wounds. He had attained the rank of captain, when he married a countess of the house of Isembourg, by the influence of which alliance he attained successively the rank of major, colonel, and major-general, and had the command of the Brisgaw. Having been appointed lieutenant-general, the government of the important fortress of Luxemburgh was intrusted to him. On the commencement of the insurrection in 1789, he was commander-in-chief in the Netherlands, and directed the principal part of the operations, notwithstanding his great age. In 1790 he was promoted to the rank of fieldmarshal, and obtained the grand cross of Maria Teresa. In 1792 his infirmities did not permit him to take an active part in the war against France, and he remained at Luxemburgh, when blockaded by the French in 1794. There he defended himself bravely for eight months, but in spite of

reiterated demands, this fortress had been left unsupported with provisions, and was forced to surrender, June 1, 1794, when the garrison, however, obtained an honourable capitulation, and were sent back to Germany, on condition that they should not bear arms for a year.

M. de Bender was then appointed governor-general of Bohemia, and having retired to Prague, died there November 20, 1798. ?

BENDLOWES, or BENLOWES (EDWARD), a poet of considerable note in his day, was son and heir of Andrew Bendlowes, esq. and born in 1613. At sixteen years of age he was admitted a fellow-commoner of St. John's col1 Dict. Hist.-Freheri Theatrum.-Manget.com-Haller. Biographie Moderne.- Dict. Hist.


lege in Cambridge, to which he was afterwards a benefac-
tor; and as such his portrait is hung up in the master's
lodge. From Cambridge he travelled through several
countries, and visited seven courts of princes, and returned
home a most accomplished gentleman both in behaviour
and conversation, but a little tinctured with the principles
of popery. Being very imprudent in the management of
his worldly concerns, he made a shift (though he was never
married) to squander away his estate, which amounted to
seven hundred or a thousand pounds a year, on poets, mu-
sicians, buffoons, and flatterers, and in buying curiosities.
He gave a handsome fortune with a niece named Philippa,
who was married to --- Blount, of Maple-Durham in Ox-
fordshire, esq.; but being security for the debts of some
persons, which he was not able to discharge, he was put
into prison at Oxford, and upon his release spent the re-
mainder of his life, which was eight years, in that city.
He was esteemed in his younger days a great patron of the
poets, especially Quarles, Davenant, Payne, Fisher, &c.
who either dedicated books to him, or wrote epigrams and
poems on him. His flatterers used to style him “Benevo-
lus,” by way of anagram on his name, in return for his ge-
nerosity towards them. About the latter end of his life,
he was drawn off from his inclination to popery, and would
often take occasion to dispute against the Papists and their
opinions, and particularly disliked the favourers of Arminius
and Socinus. This gentleman, reduced, through his own
indiscretion, to great want, died at Oxford, Dec. 18, 1686,
and was buried in the north aile of St. Mary's church, the
expences of his funeral being defrayed by a contribution of
several scholars who respected him. His picture is in the
Bodleian gallery.
Among his poetical pieces Wood mentions the following,

Sphinx Theologica, seu Musica Templi, ubi discordia concors," Camb. 1626, 8vo. 2. 66 Honorifica armorum cessatio, sive pacis et fidei associatio," Feb. 11, 1643, Svo. 3. “ Theophila, or Love-Sacrifice," a divine poem, Lond. 1652, folio, with the author's picture before it. Several parts of this poem were set to music by Mr. John Jenkyns, an eminent musician whom Mr. Bendlowes patronized; and a whole canto of it, consisting of above three hundred verses, was turned into elegant Latin verse, in the space of one day, by Mr. John Hall of Durham.

4. “ A summary of Divine Wisdom,” London, 1657, 4to. 5.“ A glance at the glories of Sacred Friendship,” London, 1657, printed

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