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on one side of a large sheet of paper. '6. “ De Sacra Amicitia," printed with the former in Latin verse and prose. 7. “Threnothriambeuticon, or Latin poems on king Charles II.'s Restoration,” London, 1660, printed on a side of a large sheet of paper. A few were printed on white satin, one copy of which, in a frame suitable to it, he gave to the public library at Oxford. 8. “ Oxonii Encomium,” Oxon. 1672, in four sheets folio, mostly in Latin verse. 9. “Oxonii Elogia,” Oxon. 1673, printed on one side of a large sheet of paper; it consists of twelve stanzas, and is followed by I. “ Oxonii Elegia ;" II. “ Academicis Serenitas;" III. “ Academicis Temperantia ;" IV. “ Studiosis Cautela,” and some other pieces. 10. Magia Cælestis," Oxon. 1673, a Latin poem, printed on one side of a large sheet of paper.

The three last-mentioned pieces were composed at Oxford. 11. “ Echo veridica joco-seria," Oxon. 1673, printed on one side of a large sheet of paper, a Latin poem, chiefly against the pope, the Papists, Jesuits, &c. 12. “Truth's touch-stone,” consisting of an hundred distichs, printed on one side of a long sheet of paper, and dedicated to his niece Mrs. Philippa Blount. 13. “Annotations for the better confirming the several truths in the said poem;" uncertain when printed. 14. Mr. Bendlowes wrote a “ Mantissa” to Richard Fenn's “ Panegyricon Inaugurale," entitled, “ De celeberrima et florentiss. Trinobantiados Augusta Civ. Prætori, reg. senatui populoque,” Lond. 1673, 4to; in the title of which piece he styles hiniself “ Turmæ Equestris in Com. Essex. Præfectus." These writings, according to Wood, acquired Mr. Bendlowes the name of a Divine Author, but we fear the value of that character is considerably sunk; although we cannot agree with Pope, that “ Bendlowes, propitious to blockheads, bows," nor with his commentator Warburton, that “ Bendlowes was famous for his own bad poetry, and for patronising bad poets.” In his “ Theophila” there are many uncommon and excellent thoughts, but it must be allowed that his metaphors are often strained and far-fetched, and he sometimes loses himself in mystic divinity. Granger, who thinks his Latin verses better than his English, quotes a passage from his

prayer in “ Theophila,” which has been deservedly admired for piety and sense.

BENEDETTO. See CASTIGLIONE. | Biog. Brit.--Wood's Fasti, vol. II.Granger.-Bowles's Pope's Works, vol. V. p. 206.

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BENEDICT (St.), the founder of the order of the Benedictin monks, was a native of Norcia, formerly an episcopal see in Umbria, and was born about the year 480. He was sent to Rome when he was very young, and there received the first part of his education.

At fourteen years of age he was removed from thence to Sublaco, about forty miles distant. Here he lived a most retired life, and shut himself up in a cavern, where nobody knew any thing of him except St. Romanus, who, we are told, used to descend to him by a rope, and supply him with provisions; but being afterwards discovered by the monks of a neighbouring monastery, they chose him for their abbot. Their manners, however, not agreeing with those of Benedict, he returned to his solitude, whither many persons followed him, and put themselves under his direction, and in a short time he was enabled to build twelve monasteries. About the year 528, he retired to Mount Cassino, where idolatry was still prevalent, a temple of Apollo being erected there. He instructed the people in the adjacent country, and having converted them, broke the image of Apollo, and built two chapels on the mountain. Here he founded also a monastery, and instituted the order of his name, which in time became so famous, and extended over all Europe. It was here too that he composed his “ Regula Monachorum,” which Gregory the Great speaks of as the most sensible and best written piece of that kind ever published. Authors are not agreed as to the place where Benedict died; some say at Mount Cassino, others affirm it to have been at Rome, when he was sent thither by pope Boniface. Nor is the year ascertained, some asserting it to have been in 542 or 543, and others in 547, but the calendar fixes the day on Saturday, March 25. St. Gregory the Great has written his life in the second book of his Dialogues, where he has given a long detail of his pretended miracles. Du Pin says, that the “Regula Monachorum” is the only genuine work of St. Benedict. There have been several editions of these rules. Several other tracts are, however, ascribed to him, as particularly a letter to St. Maurus; a sermon upon the decease of St. Maurus; a sermon upon the passion of St. Placidus and his companions; and a discourse “ De ordine monasterii.” 1

1 Gen. Dict.-Mosheim's Eccl. Hist.--Dupin, Cave, vol. I.-Butler's Lives of the Saints. VOL. IV.


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BENEDICT, abbot of Peterborough in the twelfth century, was educated at Oxford, became a monk in the monastery of Christ's church, Canterbury, and some time after was chosen prior by the members of that society. Though be had been a great admirer of archbishop Becket, and wrote a life of that prelate, he was so much esteemed by Henry II. that by the influence of that prince he was elected abbot of Peterborough, in 1177. He assisted at the coronation of Richard I. 1189, and was advanced to

of the

great seal in 1191, but he did not long enjoy this high dignity, as he died on Michaelmas day, 1193. He composed a history of Henry II. and Richard I. from 1170 to 1192, which has been esteemed by many of our antiquaries, as containing one of the best accounts of the transactions of those times. A beautiful edition of this work was published at Oxford by Hearne, 1735, 2 vols. Svo. With respect to his life of Becket, Bale and Pits speak of two pieces, which probably are but one; the first entitled “ Vita Thomæ Cantuariensis ;" the other, “ Miracula Thomæ Martyris.” Leland, who mentions only Life of Becket” as written by our author, gives it the character of an elegant performance. But Bale treats it as a mere heap of lies and forgeries, in order to palm Becket on the multitude for a first-rate saint, and intercessor with God. Nor is this author's zeal confined to Berredict, but extends itself to the monks of those times in general, whom he represents as a set of debauchees and impostors, concealing their vices under a mask of piety, and cheating the people with the most diabolical illusions. Dr. Cave tells us, that the author of the “ Quadrilogus” transcribed a great part of Benedict's Life of Becket into the third and fourth books of his work. This “Quadrilogus, or De Vita et Processu S. Thomæ Cantuariensis et Martyris super Libertate ecclesiastica” (Nicolson tells us), is collected out of four historians, who were contemporary and conversant with Becket, in his height of glory, and lowest depression; namely, Herbert de Hoscham, Johannes Carnotensis, William of Canterbury, and Alan of Teuksbury; who are brought in as so many several relaters of matters of fact, interchangeably. Here is no mention of our Benedict in this list; so that either the doctor is mistaken in his assertion, or the bishop is not exact in his account of the authors from whence the Quadrilogus was compiled.' J Biog. Brit. Leland. --- Bale ---Henry's Histe of Great Britain, vol. VI. p. 143

BENEDICT (Biscop or EPISCOPUS), a famous abbot in the seventh century, was born of a noble family among the English Saxons, and flourished under Oswi and Egfrid kings of Northumberland. In the twenty-fifth year of his age, he abandoned all temporal views and possessions, to devote himself wholly to religion, and for this purpose travelled to Rome in the year 653, where he acquired a knowledge of ecclesiastical discipline, which, upon his return home, he laboured to establish in Britain. In the year 665, he took a second journey to Rome; and after some months stay in that city, he received the tonsure in the monastery of Lerins, where he continued about two years in a strict observance of the monastic discipline. He was sent back by pope Vitalian, and upon

his return;

took upon himself the government of the monastery of Canterbury, to which he had been elected in his absence. Two years after, he resigned the abbey to Adrian, an abbot, and went a third time to Rome, and returned with a very large collection of the most valuable books. Then he went to the court of Egfrid, king of Northumberland, who had succeeded Oswi. That prince, with whom he was highly in favour, gave him a tract of land on the east side of the mouth of the river Were; where he built a large monastery, called, from its situation, Weremouth; in which, it is said, he placed three hundred Benedictine monks. The church of this convent was built of stone after the Roman architecture, and the windows glazed by artificers brought from France, in the year of Christ 674, and the fourth of king Egfrid ; and both the monastery and the church were dedicated to St. Peter. In the year 678, Benedict took a fourth journey to Rome, and was kindly received by pope Agatho. From this expedition he returned loaded with books, relics of the apostles and martyrs,' images, and pictures, when, with the pope's consent, he brought over with him John, arch-chanter of St. Peter's, and abbot of St. Martin's, who introduced the Roman manner of singing mass. In the year 682 king Egfrid gave him another piece of ground, on the banks of the Tyne, four miles from Newcastle, where he built another monastery called Girwy or Jarrow, dedicated to St. Paul, and placed therein seventeen monks under an abbot named Ceolfrid. About the same time he appointed a Presbyter named Easterwinus to be a joint abbot with himself of the monastery of Weremouth : soon after which,

he took his fifth and last journey to Rome, and, as before, came back enriched with a farther supply of ecclesiastical books and pictures. He had not been long at home before he was seized with the palsy, which put an end to his life on the 12th of January, 690.

His behaviour during his sickness appears to have been truly Christian and exemplary. He was buried in his own monastery of Weremouth. He wrote some pieces, but Leland ascribes to him only a treatise on the Agreement of the rule of the Monastic life. Bale and Pits give this book the title of “ Concordia Regularum," and the last-mentioned author informs us, that the design of this book was to prove, that the rules of all the holy fathers tallied exactly with that of St. Benedict, founder of the Benedictines. He wrote likewise “ Exhortationes ad Monachos ;" “ De suc Privilegio.” And « De celebratione Festorum totius anni." Mr. Warton, in his History of Poetry, mentions Benedict Biscop as one of the most distinguished of the Saxon ecclesiastics. The library which he added to his monastery, was stored with Greek and Latin volumes. Bede has thought it worthy to be recorded, that Ceolfrid, his successor in the government of Weremouth abbey, augmented this collection with three volumes of Pandects, and a book of cosmography, wonderfully enriched with curious workmanship, and bought at Rome. The historian Bede, who wrote the lives of four of the abbots of Weremouth and Jarrow, was one of the monks in those convents, and pronounced a homily on the death of Benedict.

His body was deposited in the monastery of Thorney, in Cambridgeshire.?

BENEDICT XI. (Pope), was a native of Trevigi, belonging to the state of Venice, and the son of a shepherd, or, as some say, of a notary. His name was Nicholas Bocasini. For some time he earned a livelihood by teaching children at Venice, but becoming afterwards a Dominican, be applied himself diligently to his studies, and acquired such superiority among his order, that in 1298 he was appointed general; and, by Boniface VIII. created cardinal bishop of Sabina, from which he was soon after translated to that of Ostia. He discharged likewise several embassies with great reputation, and having returned from Hungary when Boniface was taken and imprisoned in

| Biog. Brit.-Warton's Hist. of Poetry, vol. II. Dissert. II.

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