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cabinet he had long had under his care. In the execution of this project he was defeated by the unhappy circumstances of the times, which pressed very severely upon him in other respects. His places and appointments, by the madness of the moment, were suppressed, and he was at the close of his life reduced to great difficulties. Still, however, he was never known to complain, and might be seen daily traversing the streets of Paris on foot, bent double with age and infirmity, making his accustomed visits to madame De Choiseul.

In the year 1792, a visible change took place in his constitution; his health declined, and he became subject to fainting fits, which deprived him of his senses for many hours together. This state of imbecility was rendered more unhappy. On the 30th of August 1793, he, with his nephew and six other persons belonging to the public library, were denounced under pretence of aristocracy, by persons to whom he was an utter stranger. Being then at madame de Choiseul's, he was removed from her house, and conducted to the prison called Les Magdelonettes. Though, from his great age and bodily infirmities, he was sensible he could not long survive the severity of confinement, still he submitted to his fate with that calmness and serenity of mind which innocence only can inspire. So great was the estimation in which he was held, that in prison every attention was paid to his convenience. A separate chamber was allotted to him and his nephew, where they received, on the evening of their imprisonment, an early visit from madame de Choiseul. By her interference, aided by some others, the order for his arrest was revoked, and before midnight he was released and carried back to her house, from whence he had been taken. To compensate, in some degree, for the insult offered him (for even the wretches then in power could not divest themselves of all sense of shame), he in October following was proposed on the execution of Carra, and the resignation of Champfort, to succeed the former as principal librarian; but he chose to decline it, on account of his age and infirmities. These last increased visibly, and about the beginning of 1795, being then in his eightieth year, his decease appeared visibly approaching, and it was probably hastened by the extreme severity of the season. He died on the 25th of April, with little corporal suffering, preserving his senses so entirely to the last, that he was reading Horace, in company with

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his nephew, two hours before his death, and was probably unconscious of his approaching fate.

His person was tall, and of good proportion, and the structure of his frame seemed well adapted to support the vigorous exertions of his mind. Houdon, an artist of merit, has finished an excellent bust of him. “ He leaves," says his biographer, “ each of his relations a father to bewail, his friends an irreparable loss to regret, the learned of all countries an example to follow, and the men of all times a model to imitate."

The works of the abbé Barthelemi, published separately, are, 1.“ Les Amours de Carite et de Polydore," a romance translated from the Greek, 1760, 12mo, and 1796. 2. “ Lettres sur quelques monumens Pheniciens,” 1766, 4to. 3. “ Entretiens sur l'etat de la Musique Grecque au quatrieme siecle,” 1777, 8vo. 4.“ Voyage du jeune Anacharsis," already mentioned, of which there have been various editions of the original, particularly a superb one by Didot, and translations into English, and other languages. 5. About the time of his death he was preparing a vast medallic history, under the title of “ Paleographie numismatique,” 3 vols. fol. 6. “ Discours prononcé a l'academie Française,” 1789, 4to. 7.Voyage in Italie,” 1801, 8vo. S. “ Dissertation sur une inscription Greque, relative aux finances des Atheniens," 1792, 8vo. 9. “ Euvres diverses,” published by Sainte Croix, 1798, 2 vols. 8vo. Besides these he wrote many papers on subjects of classical antiquity in the Memoirs of the Academy, vol. X. to LXXX."

BARTHES DE MARMORIONS (PAUL JOSEPH), a French physician and medical writer, was born Dec. 1734, at Montpellier, and discovered in his earliest years a noble ardour for study, particularly of the languages, both ancient and modern, which laid the foundation for that extensive and various knowledge for which he was afterwards distinguished. Having at Jength given the preference to. medicine as a profession, he applied himself to that art. under the ablest masters; and such was his proficiency, that. he obtained his doctor's degree in 1753, when only nineteen years of age. In 1756 he was crowned by the academy of inscriptions and belles lettres at Paris, having been before, in 1754, appointed physician to the military hospital in

From a memoir of his life drawn up by the duke de Nivernois, and translated in the Gent. and European Magazines for 1796.—Dict. Hist. See also Gente Mag. 1795, p. 647; 1796, p. 20, 93.

Normandy. During this service he made many observations and inquiries, which were published in the Memoirs of the academy of sciences. In 1757 he was sent to the army in Westphalia, with the rank of consulting physician, and in 1761 he was appointed professor of medicine at Montpellier, where he became as celebrated as Boerhaave at Leyden, Stahl at Hall, or Cullen at Edinburgh, giving such a new direction to the medical studies as to create an important epoch in the history of that school. Here he filled the professor's chair for twenty years, with the highest reputation. In 1775, he was named joint chancellor of the faculty of Montpellier, and in 1786 obtained the full title of chancellor. About six years before, he had been appointed member of the court of accounts and finance, and some time before that, physician to the duke of Orleans. About the time that he visited Paris, and formed an intimacy with the leading men in the learned world, particularly d'Alembert and Malesherbes, he became a member of the academy of sciences of Paris, Berlin, Gottingen, and Stockholm. At length he was chosen corresponding member of the national institute of France, and professor, honorary and actual, of the new school of medicine at Montpellier, physician to the French government, and consulting physician to the emperor. He died at Paris, Oct. 15, 1806, aged seventy-two. His works, according to the Dict. Historique, are various medical theses and dissertations, memoirs published by various academies, particularly that of Paris, in the years 1799 and 1801; and, 1. “ La nouvelle mecanique de l'homme et des animaux,” 1802. 2. “L'Histoire des maladies goutteuses," Paris, 1802. 3. “ Discours sur le genie d'Hippocrate," pronounced in the school of Montpellier. 4.“ Traite sur le Beau," a posthumous work. In Fourcroy's catalogue we find another publication attributed to him, under the title of “ Elnathan, ou les ages de l'homme, trad. du Chaldeen,” 1802, 3 vols. 8vo. The compiler of this catalogue calls him Barthes-Marmorieres.

BARTHIUS (CASPAR), a very learned and voluminous writer, was born at Custrin in Brandenburg, June 22, 1587. His father was professor of civil law at Francfort upon the Oder, councillor to the elector of Brandenburg, and his chancellor at Custrin. Having discovered in his son very

1 Dict. Historique.

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early marks of genius, he provided him with proper masters; but he enjoyed only a little time the pleasure of seeing the fruits of his care, for he died in 1597. Mr. Baillet has inserted Caspar in his “Enfans célébres;” where he tells us, that, at twelve years of age, he translated David's psalms into Latin verse of every measure, and published several Latin poems. Upon the death of his father he was sent to Gotha, then to Eisenach, and afterwards, according to custom, went through the different universities in Germany. When he had finished his studies, he began his travels; he visited Italy, France, Spain, England, and Holland, improving himself by the conversation and works of the learned in every country. He studied the modern as well as ancient languages, and his translations from the Spanish and French shew that he was not content with a superficial knowledge. Upon his return to Germany, to took up his residence at Leipsic, where he led a retired life, bis pas. sion for study having made him renounce all sort of employment; so that as he devoted his whole time to books, we need be the less surprised at the vast number which he published.

Barthius formed early a resolution of disengaging himself entirely from worldly affairs and profane studies, in order to apply himself wholly to the great business of salvation : he did not, however, put this design in execution till towards the latter end of his life ; as appears from his Soliloquies, published in 1654. He died Sept. 1658, aged 71.

Barthius, in his comment on Statius, after noticing that that poet congratulated himself on having written two hundred and seventy-eight hexameters in two days, adds, that he himself was not ignorant of what it is to make a great inany verses iv a short time, as he translated into Latin the first three books of the Iļiad, which contain above two thousand verses, in three days. In 1607, he published, at Wittemberg, a collection of “ Juvenilia ;" containing all the poems which he wrote from the thirteenth to the nineteenth year of his age. When only sixteen he wrote a treatise, or dissertation, on the manner of reading to advantage the Latin authors, which shows that his own reading was as judicious as extensive, and both far exceeding what could be expected at that age. This piece is inserted in the 50th book of his “ Adversaria." His other works were, 1.“ Zodiacus vitæ Christianæ,” Francfort, 1623. 2.“ Epidorpidon ex mero

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Scazonte Libri III. in quibus bona pars humanæ Sapientiæ metro explicatur,” ibid. 1623. 3. “ Tarræus Hebius,” Epigrams, divided into thirty books, and dedicated to king James, date not mentioned. 4. “ Amabilium Anacreonte decantati,” 1612, with many other works, original and translated, which are now forgotten, except his editions of Claudian and of Statius, and his “ Adversaria," fol. Francfort, 1624 and 1648. This last is a collection of remarks on various authors and subjects, which proves most extensive reading and erudition, with, what frequently accompanies these, some defect of judgment in the arrange

Barthius was in all respects an extraordinary man, and his writings published and left in manuscript, form a mass scarcely to be equalled in the annals of literary industry. It is recorded of him that he never made use of any collections, or common-place books, trusting to the vigour of his memory, and that he very rarely corrected what he had written.

BARTHOLINE (CASPAR), an eminent physician, was born Feb. 12, 1585, at Malmoe or Malmuylin in Scandinavia, where his father was a Lutheran divine. In his third year, it is said, he could read with ease, and at thirteen he composed Greek and Latin orations, and pronounced them in public, and at eighteen, he went to study in the university of Copenhagen. In 1603 he removed to Ro. stock, and thence to Wirtemberg. He continued three years in this last place, where he applied himself to philosophy and divinity with so much assiduity, that he rose always before break of day, and went to bed very late. When he had finished his studies, he took his degree of master of arts in 1607.

Bartholine now began his travels; and, after having gone through part of Germany, Flanders, and Holland, he passed over to England, whence he removed to Germany, in order to proceed to Italy. After his departure from Wirtemberg, he had made physic his principal study, and neglected nothing to improve himself in the different universities through which he passed. He received everywhere marks of respect; at Naples particularly they solicited him to be anatomical professor, but he declined it. In France he was offered the Greek professorship at Sedan, 1 Gen, Dict, Niceron, vol. VII.-Moreri,--Saxii Onomast.--Blount's Cea.

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