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which he also refused. After he had travelled as far as the frontiers of Spain, he returned to Italy, in order to perfect himself in the practice of medicine. He went from thence to Padua, where he applied with great care to anatomy and dissection. After some stay in this place be removed to Basil, where he had studied physic some time before ; and here he received his doctor's degree in physic in 1610. He next went to Wirtemberg and Holland, and intended to have extended his travels still farther, had he not been appointed professor of the Latin tongue at Copenbagen ; but he did not enjoy this long; for, at the end of six months, in 1613, he was chosen professor of medicine, which was much more adapted to his talents and disposition. He held this professorship eleven years, when he fell into an illness, which made him despair of life: in this extremity he made a vow, that if he was restored to health, he would apply himself to no other study than that of divinity. He recovered, and kept his promise. Conrad Aslach, the professor of divinity, dying some years after, Caspar was appointed his successor, the 12th of March 1624 ; the king also gave him the canonry of Roschild. He died of a violent colic, the 13th of July 1629, at Sora, whither he had gone to conduct his eldest son. His works are, 1. “Problematum philosophicorum et medicorum miscellaneæ observationes," 1611, 4to. 2. “ Opuscula quatuor singularia, de lapide nephritico, &c." Hafviæ, 1623 and 1663. 3. “ Anatomica institutiones," 161', often reprinted. 4. “ Controversiæ Anatomicæ," 1631. 5.“ Syntagma medicum et chirurgicum de cauteriis," 1642. 6. “ Enchiridion physicum," 1625. 7." Systema physicum,” 1628. 8. “ Manuductio ad veram phycologiam ex sacr. litter. &c." 1631, 12mo. Brochmand pronounced a funeral oration, containing a life of Bartholine.
BARTHOLINE (THOMAS,) son of the preceding, and likewise'a celebrated physician, was born at Copenhagen the 20th Oct. 1616. After some years education in his own country, he went to Leyden in 1637, where he studied physic for three years. He travelled next to France; and resided two years at Paris and Montpellier, in order to improve himself under the famous physicians of these two universities. He went from thence to Italy, and continued
1 Moreri.—Manget Bibl, Script. Med.-Haller Bibl. Anat,-Saxii Onomasti, pon. -Niceron, vol. VI.
three years at Padua, where he was treated with great honour and.respect, and was made a member of the Incogniti by John Francis Loredan. After having visited most parts of Italy, he went to Malta, from that to Padua, and then to Basil, where he received his doctor's degree in physic, the 14th of Oct. 1645. The
year following he returned to his native country, where he did not remain long without employment; for, upon the death of Christopher Longomontanus, professor of mathematics at Copenhagen, he was appointed his successor in 1647. In 1648 he was named to the anatomical chair ; an employment more suited to his genius and inclination, which he discharged with great assiduity for thirteen years. His intense application having rendered his constitution very infirm, he resigned his chair in 1661, and the king of Denmark allowed him the title of honorary professor. He retired to a little estate he had purchased at Hagested, near Copenhagen, where he intended to spend the remainder of his days in peace and tranquillity. An unlucky accident, however, disturbed him in his retreat : his house took fire in 1670, and his library was destroyed, with all his books and manuscripts. In consideration of this loss, the king appointed him his physician, with a handsome salary, and exempted his land from all taxes. The university of Copenhagen, likewise, touched with his misfortune, appointed him their librarian; and in 1675 the king honoured him still farther, by giving him a seat in the grand council of Denmark. He died the 4th of Dec. 1680, leaving a family of five sons and three daughters. Gaspard, one of the sons, succeeded him in the anatomical chair; another was counsellor-secretary to the king, and professor of antiquities; John was professor of theology; Christopher, of mathematics; and Thomas, mentioned hereafter, professor of history. Margaret, one of the daughters of this learned family, acquired considerable fame for her poetical talents.
The principal of Bartholine's works are, l. “ Anatomia Caspari Bartholini parentis novis observationibus primum locupletata,” L. Bat. 1641, 8vo. 2. “ De unicornu observationes novæ. Accesserunt de aureo cornu Olai Wormii eruditorum judicia," Patavii, 1645, 8vo. 3.. " De monstris in Natura et Medicina,” Basil, 1645, 4to. 4. “ Antiquitatum veteris puerperii synopsis, operi magno ad eruditos præmissa," Hafniæ, 1646, 8vo. 5. « De luce animalium libri tres, admirandis historiis rationibusque
novis referti,” L. Bat. 1647, 8vo. 6." De armillis veterum, præsertim Danorum Schedion,” Hafnice, 16+5, 8vo. A more full catalogue, including all his papers, memoirs, &c. may be seen in Manget's Bibliotheca. Bartholine has the honour to rank with those who have contributed essentially to the improvement of medical science. He added considerably to the discovery of the lacteal vessels, and that of the lymphatics.'
BARTHOLINE (THOMAS), son of the preceding, became eminent in the science of jurisprudence, in the prosecution of which he studied at the universities of Copenhagen, Leyden, Oxford, Paris, Leipsic, and at London. On his return home he was appointed professor of history and civil law, and held the offices of assessor of the consistory, secretary, antiquary, and keeper of the royal archives. He died Nov. 5, 1690. He published, l. “ De Holgero Dano,” 1677, 8vo. 2. “ De Longobardis," 1676, 4to. 3. “ De equestris ordinis Danebrogici a Christiano V. instaurati origine," fol. 4. " De causis mortis a Danis
gentilibus contemptæ.” Antiquit. Danic. libri tres, 1689, 4to. He left also, but unfinished, an ecclesiastical history of the North.”
BARTHOLINE (ERASMUS), one of the sons of Caspar, was born Aug. 13, 1625, at Roschild. After pursuing his studies at Copenhagen, he travelled from 1646 to 1657, through England, France, Italy, Germany, and the Netherlands. In 1654 he was admitted to the degree of doctor at Padua, and on his return to Denmark he was appointed professor of medicine and geometry. The time of his death we have no where been able to discover. He published, 1. “ De figura nivis dissertatio," Hafniæ, 1661, 8vo. 2. “ De cometis anni 1664 et 1665,” ibid. 1665, 4to. 3. “ Experimenta crystali Islandici disdiaclasti,” 1665, 1670, 4to. .4. “ De naturæ mirabilibus, quæstiones academicæ," 1674, 4to.
5. “ De Aere,'' 1679, 8vo. There were others of this family, celebrated in their day for learning and personal worth, but whose memoirs have not been handed down with much precision.
BARTHOLOMEW OF THE MARTYRS, a pious and learned Dominican, and archbishop of Braga in Portugal, was born in May, 1514, in the city of Lisbon. His father's
1 Moreri. Manget Bibl. Script. Med.-Haller. Bibl. Anat.-Saxii Onomastia con. -Niceron, vol. VI. 9 Moreri.
3 Dict. Hist. ---Moreri.--Saxii Onomasticon.
wame was Dominic Fernandez; but as the son happened to be baptised in the church of our Lady of the Martyrs, he adopted this last name instead of that of his family. 1528 he took the habit of the order of St. Dominic, and after arriving at his doctor's degree, was appointed preceptor to Don Antonio, son of the infant Don Lewis, brother of king John III. For twenty years also he taught divinity, and acquired such a character for sanctity and talents, that on a vacancy for the archbishopric of Braga, Bartholomew was universally recommended; but he persisted for a long time in refusing it, until threatened with excommunication. Nor was this reluctance affected, for he had such a fixed repugnance against undertaking this high charge, that the compulsion employed threw him into a disorder from which it was thought he could not recover. When it abated, however, he went to his diocese, and began to exercise his functions in the most exemplary manner.
In 1561 he was present at the council of Trent, under pope Pius IV. where he discovered such knowledge and spirit as to acquire general esteem. It was he who advised the fathers of this council to begin business by a reformation of the clergy; and when some of the bishops demanded if he meant to extend his reform to the most illustrious cardinals, he replied, that those “most illustrious” cardinals stood very much in need of a “most illustrious” reformation. In 1563 he went with cardinal de Lorraine to Rome, where the pope received him with every mark of esteem and confidence. Here he spoke his mind on ecclesiastical abuses with great freedom, and observing the custom in one of their assemblies, that the bishops stood uncovered, while the cardinals sat covered, he remonstrated with the pope so effectually, that this affront to the episcopal dignity was no longer tolerated. His principal motive, however, for this journey to Rome, was to obtain leave to resign his archbishopric; but the pope refused, on.which he returned to Trent, and as soon as the council was over, went to Braga, where he remained until the pontificate of Gregory XIII. who at length accepted his resignation. After this he led a retired life, entirely occupied in acts of charity and devotion. He died in the convent of Viana, July 16, 1590, in the seventy-seventh year of his age. His works were published at Rome, 1744, 2 vols. fol. and consist of pious treatises, and an itinerary of his travels, in which we discover much of the excellence of his character. M. le Maitre de
Saci published his life in 4to and 12mo, 1664. beatified by pope Clement XIV. in 1773.'
BARTOLI (DANIEL), a learned and laborious Jesuit, was born at Ferrara in 1608. After having professed the art of rhetoric, and for a long time devoted himself to preaching, his superiors fixed him at Rome in 1650. · From that period till his death he published a great number of works, as well historical as others, all in the Italiav lavguage. The most known and the most considerable is a history of his society, printed at Rome, from 1'650 to 1673, in 6 vols. folio; translated into Latin by father Giannini, and printed at Lyons in 1666 et seq. All his other works, the historical excepted, were collected and published at Venice in 1717, 3 vols. in 4to. Both the one and the other are much esteemed, no less for their matter, than for the purity, the precision, and the elevation of their diction; and this jesuit is regarded by his countrymen as one of the purest writers of the Italian language. . Haller praises his philosophical works, and Dr. Burney that on Harmony, published at Bologna, 1680, under the title “ Del Suono de Tremori Armonici e dell'Udito," a truly scientific and ingenious work, in which are several discoveries in harmonics, that have been pursued by posterior writers on the subject. He died at Rome, Jan. 13, 1685, at the age of seventy-seven, after having signalized himself as much by his virtues as by his literary attainments.?
BARTOLO, or BARTHOLUS, an eminent lawyer, was born in 1313, at Saxo Ferrato, in the march of Ancona. He studied law under the ablest masters at Perugia and Bologna; and when the university of Pisa was founded, he was appointed one of its professors, although then only in his twenty-sixth year. After remaining here eight or nine years, he left Pisa for a professor's chair at Perugia, where he was honoured with the title and privileges of a citizen. In 1355, when the emperor Charles IV. came to Italy, Bartolo was appointed to make him a complimentary address at Pisa. Taking advantage of so favourable an opportunity, he obtained for that infant university the same privileges enjoyed by more ancient establishments of the kind; and the emperors bestowed many favours on Bartolo himself, particularly his permission to use the arms of the
Antonio Bibl. Hisp.-Moreri.--Dict. Hist. 3 Diet. llist. Moreri.-Haller Bibl. Anat.--Burney's Hist. of Music, vol. III.