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Old Authors, selections from, recom Rhine, No. II., The Hochkreuz, or Swamp in the Southern States of Useful Arts; Animals used in Hunt.
mended, 232
High Cross, at Godesberg, 114
America, 11

ing, 55
Organs of Voice in Man and Animals, Riches and Happiness, 11

Swan River, natives of, 29

The Chetah, Hawking,
236

Rich and great men not always happy, Swift, extract from, 33—on Vanity, 232 &c., 64
Origin and progress of written cha 76

Swiss Valley, 246

Animals of the Chase, 67,
racters, 51
Ripon Minster, 234
Switzerland, Hermit of, 141

79, 103, 112
Rogers, remark by, on Travelling, 108

Cod and Sturgeon Fish.
Papyrus Manuscript of the Psalms, 3 Roman Bridges and Aqueducts, 122

Tale of the Indian Wars, 155

ries, 149
Passenger-Pigeon of America, 15 Rooks, their relish for walnuts, 235

Tapioca and Cassava, 103

Whale Fishery, 156
Past-present-future. 151
Roses, Attar or Otto of, 143
Taste, remarks on, 199

Voyage of a Whale Ship,
Peasantry, Russian, 89
Roslyn Castle and Chapel, 207

188

Taylor, Jeremy, selections from, 30,
Pedantry in what consisting, 231 Rouen, Il., The Grosse Horloge, or

222, 232

Seal-fishery, 198
Pepys, the l'amily of, 243

Great Clock of, 18

Temperature of the Weather, effects Vegetable Kingdom, its products, 168
Pfaltz, or Castle of the Palatinate, 98

173

of, 157
Pins, remarks on, 32
Rural Funerals, 204
Testimony, remark on its weight, 54

Venice, some account of, 249——its

origin,
Plague of Flies, 237
Russia, I., Winter Travelling in, 49
Thanksgiving, verbal, 38

rise, and greatness, 250-its de.
Plauetury System, grandeur of, 120

II., Russian Peasantry, 89
Thebes, Egyptian, some Account of,

cline and capture, 25)—its general
Plants, Repose or Sleep of, 168

III., Church of Basil the
42--origin and rise, 43-its huns

plan and appearance, 252-St.
Pleasure, Religious, remark on, by Blessed, in Moscow, 185

dred gates, 43—its situation, 43—

Mark's Place, 253–the Ducal
South, 76

its extent and internal arrange-

Palace, 254–public buildings, 255
its lawfulness or unlawful Satire and Ridicule, dangerous, 243

Virtue and Knowledge-Addison. 76

ment, 44-ancient contracts for the
ness, 221
Savings, Banks for, 199

sale of land in, 45—its splendour,

commendation of, Lord Bacon,
Plumage of Birds, 116
Saxeln, the Hermit of, 141

deeline, and ruin, 45-Luxor, 46–
Poisonous Plants, II., Monk's-hood, Scio, or Chios, account of, 226

its inhabitants, 47-Christianity Voice, organs of, in Man and Animals,
or Woll's-bane, 76–111., Helle Seal-fishery, 198

in moderu Thebes, 47-grandeur

236
bore, 96-IV., The common Thorn Secret Writing, the Art of, 224

of the ruins, 47--the ruins of
apple, 148—V., Black Henbane, Sell, on the love of, 35

Luxor 82-sculptures at Luxor, 83

Wall, remark of, on avoiding cala-
200
Sell-denial, remark on, 167

-ruins and great temple at Kar-

mity, 76
Popular Errors and Superstitions, 920 Seven-eared Wheat, 7

nak, 86-ruins at Medeenet Ha-

Walnuts, fondness of certain Birds for,
228
Ship and Sea, Moving Model of, 151

bou, 86—the Memnonium, or palace

235
Pottery and Porcelain 31, 135

Siege of Londonderry, 25
Praise sharpens Wit, 228

War, remarks on, by Washington
Sinjonides, anecdote of, 200

of Osymandyas, 86-Goornoo and
its cavern-tombs, 87—the sitting Washington Irving, selections from,

Irving, 77
- how to appreciate, 239
Simplicity, remark on, 246

Colossi, 88
Prayer, the sum of duty, 922

Sincerity and Simplicity, 223
Presumption the offspring of Folly, Singularity, affectation of, 100

Thorn-Apple, common, 149

37, 60, 63, 107, 143, 204
Tieck, on the exercise of Benevo-

Water, great Value of in Hot Climates,
115
Skating Soldiers of Norway, 9

232

.lence, 230
Proper modes of taking Exercise, 102 Skelton, extract from, 27

Tillotson, extract from, 31

Weight of testimony illustrated, 54
Psalms, Papyrus Manuscript of the, 3 Sketches of New South Wales, 1..

Time and distance, tendency of, 115

West, Mrs., extract from, 23
Quartetts of Haydn, 60

Scenery of the Blue Mountains,
Time and Eternity, 166

Whale-fishery, 156
Quills and Pens, 157

177-II., The Aboriginal Natives,
201-111., Manners, customs, &c.

dissipation of, 199

Whale-ship, Journal of the Voyage of,
Trade, beneficial effects of, 142

188
Raghery, Island of, some account of, of the Natives, 217-IV., The
209—situation and difficulty of

Travelling, enjoyment of, 50

Whately, Archbishop, on the admix-
Corroboree, 241

results of, 108

ture of Good and Evil, 204
access, 209-historical notices of, Snowdon, 247
211-excursion to the western side Soap-wort, its uses, 159

Trees, Economy of-Jesse, 103

Wheat, the Seven-eared, 7
Trimmer, Mrs., extract from, 23

Wilberforce, extract from, 35
of, 212– the Bull Rocks, 213— Solar System, the, lines on, 8

Try, 167

Wild Bird Catching, 164
superstitions, 214
Soliloquy, the Crocus's, 63

Winter Travelling in Russia, 49
Raikes, Robert, anecdote of, 167 Sonnet to a Child playing in a Church. Turkey. Rites of Burial and Cemete-

ries in, 36

Wisdom, Truth, and Genius, 14
Ramazan, or Mohammedan Lent, 105 yard, 78

Turks, Manners and Customs of the, ..

Woman compared to a Vine, 63
Reading and Rumination, 186

Soul, the, 35
Reason and Instinct compared, 223

105, 129

the stay

and solace of Mau in
South American Slave-market, 68
Religion the basis of happiness, 23

adversity, 134
Southey, selections from, 54, 149, 221, Tyrol, Capital of the, 138

Turner, Sharon, extract from, 157 Women, their fortitude, 63
Repose or Sleep of Plants, 168
235, 243

Workman, the careless, 39
Results of Commerce, 100
· lines by, on his Library, 142

World, the Field of, liues on, by
Retirement, 7
Spanish Proverb, 222

Ultramarine and Cobalt, how pre Montgomery, 23
Robert Hall on the neces Stormy Petrels, immense stream of, 157

pared, 111

Wreck at Sea, 37
sity of, 199

Sturgeon-fishery on the Volga, 151 Useful Arts; The Sheep, the Hog, 14 Written characters, their origin and
Retrospection, advantages of, 93 Success, one of the worst uses of, 235

Domesticated Birds, 23

progress, 51
Khinoceros attacked by Elephants, ? Sugar Maple-tree, 132

Capture of Wild Animals,
Rhine, No. I., The Pfaltz, or Castle Sumner, Bishop J. B., extract from, 35

Young Chemist, the, 8, 167, 183
of the Palatinate, 98
Suspicions, pecessity of repres 199

Traps, Snares, Nets,&c. 39

28

INDEX TO THE ENGRAVINGS.

ABBEY of St. Stephen, Caen, 173 Egyptian Hierog!yphics, 52, 53 Medenet Habou, Ruins of the Palace Russian Serf, Cottage of the, 89;
Automaton Ship, Diagrams to illus. Ely Cathedral, 33

and Temple at, 81
trate the motion of an, 152
Etruscan Vases, 32
Membnium, 'Ruins of the, 85

Scio, Fountain in the Island of, 295
Mermaids, 221

Scythian Lamb, 220
Bairam, Festival of the, 129
Fairhead, view of, 209

Milling-machine in the Royal Mint, Seal, common, 198
Barrackpore, Pagoda and Ghaut at, 120 Fowl, varieties of the common, 24

154

Sedge, Great Panicled, 4
Battle of Cressy, ancient Picture of

Mocha, Town and Port of, 145

Seven-eared Wheat, 7
tbe, 57

Godesberg on the Rhine, Cross at, 113 Monk's hood, or Woll's-bane, 76 Skating Soldiers of Norway, 9
Black Heubane, 200

Grand Vizier entertaining the officers Moscow, Church of Basil the Blessed Sleep of Plants, illustrations of the
Bows and Arrows, ancient, 28

of state, 105
at, 185

168
Bridge of Sighs, Venice, 256
Grass-tree, and Natives of New South

Snowdon, and Village of Beddgelart,
Bridges of Timber, Diagrams to illus. Wales kindling a fire, 184

New South Wales, Natives of, 201

249
trate the mode of building, 127 Greyhound, 56

Netting, 40

Southwark Bridge, 128
Gruso River, from Govatt's Leap, 177 New Caledonian Huts, 4, 8

Spoonbill, Wind pipe of, 237
Chamæleon, tongue of the, 108 Grosse Horloge, or Great Clock at

Sugar Maple (Acer sacenarinum), 132
Charcoal, illustrations of the manu Ronen, 17
facture of, 12, 13

Oak, native Species of, in Britain, 65

Takhaize, a large African Antelope, 80
Charcoal-burners, Hut and Caravan Havre, entrance to the harbour of, 176
of, 5

Thebes, Colossal Statues at, 88
Head, section of the Human, 236

Passenger Pigeon, Flights of the, in Thorn-Apple, conmon, 148
Cherry Laurel, 224
Hellebore, white, fetid, and black, 96

an American wood, 16
Chester, view of Eastgate-street, 73

Tiger-shooting from a Platform, 112
Human Heart, situation of the 229

Pfaltz, or Castle of the Palatinate, on Trial of a Native of New South
Chetal, or Hunting Leopard of India,

the Rhine, 97

Wales, 217
64
Touspruck, the capital of the Tyrol, 197 Pointer, 56

Turkish Funeral, Procession to a, 36
Coining-press in the Royal Mint, 153

Potters throwing the Clay, 136
Corroboree, or Dance of New South Karnak, Ruins of the Temple of, 48

Venice, Ducal Palace at, 249
Wales, 241

Rathlin, West end of, 216

Colounade and Library in the
Cos, Market-place and celebrated Tree Lasso, mode of throwing the, in South Refraction, effect of, 192

Procuratorie Nuove, 253
at, 16

America, 40
Rhinoceros attacked by Elephants, 1

Bridge of Sighs at, 256
Coypou, or Myopotamos Bonariensis, Londonderry Cathedral, 25

Ripon Minster, 233
104

Laxor, Colonnade in the Great Tem Roma. Aqueduct, near Nismes, 125 Whale, common Greenland, 156
Cressy, Plains of, from a sketch taken ple at, in Egypt, 41

Roman As Libralis, 240

tossing a Boat, 188
in 1835, 72

Roo Na Scariff, or Rock of the Scarf,

Fishery, Implements used in
Croyland Bridge, Lincolnshire, 121 Mandrake, forked roots of the, 228

Rathlin, 213

the, 157
Mastiff, Greyhound, and Pointer, 56 Roses, three species of, 144

Wild Bird Catching, 164
Death-watch Beetle, 229
Mechanical Arithmetic, illustrations Roslyn Castle, Ruins of, 208

Windpipes of various Birds, 937
Durham Cathedral, 193

of, 160
Rouen, Street in, 169

Winter Travelling in Russia, 49

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A RHINOCEROS ATTACKED BY

bone, but when the Rhinoceros is in its ordinary ELEPHANTS.

state, stands loose between the nostrils; the moment, The Rhinoceros * is the least intelligent of the larger however, the animal is excited to resistance by the quadrupeds. Fierce and intractable, it is at all approach or attack of a foe, the muscular tension is times very formidable, as well to animals as to so great that the horn instantly becomes immoveably

Being protected by nature with a skin like a fixed, and he is able to dart it into the trunk of a coat of armour, it commits the greatest devastations tree to the depth of several inches. with impunity. It is a native both of Asia and of The upper lip of the Rhinoceros is of great length, Africa, though the species found in the two countries and remarkably pliant, acting like a sort of proboscis, greatly differ; the Rhinoceros of Africa having two by which he grasps the roots of trees, and other horns on the snout, while that of Asia has only one. esculent substances, and it is capable of contraction Of the former, Mr. Bruce says, “When pursued, and or expansion, as circumstances may require. “With in fear, the Rhinoceros possesses an astonishing degree this lip,” says Bruce, "and the assistance of his of swiftness, considering his size, the apparent un tongue, he pulls down the upper branches which have wieldiness of his body, his great weight before, and most leaves, and these he devours first. Having the shortness of his legs. He is long, and has a stripped the tree of its branches, he does not directly kind of trot, which, after a few minutes, increases, in abandon it; but, placing his snout as low in the a great proportion, and takes in a great distance. trunk as he finds his horn will enter, he rips up the It is not true that on a plain he beats the horse in body of the tree, and reduces it to thin pieces, like so swiftness. I have passed him with ease, and seen many laths; and when he has thus prepared it, he many more mounted do the same; and though it is embraces as much as he can of it in his monstrous certainly true that a horse can very seldom come up jaws, and twists it round with as much ease as an ox with him, this is owing to his cunning, not to his would do a root of celery." swiftness. He passes constantly from wood to wood, The female generally produces only a single young and forces himself into the thickest parts of them. one at a birth, which attains to a full state of matuThe dry trees are broken down as with a cannon-shot, rity in about fifteen years. The Rhinoceros is su and fall about him in all directions. Others that are stupid, and of so savage a disposition, that it seems more pliable, greener, and fuller of sap, are bent back to exist merely to gratify a voracious appetite. It is by his weight and the velocity of his motion; and, the terror of its native woods, and if it had been a after he has passed, restoring themselves like a green gregarious animal, would have been a terrible scourge branch to their natural position, they sweep the in- to the countries in which it is found. When excited, cautious pursuer and his horse from the ground, and it displays paroxysms of fury which render it highly dash them in pieces against the surrounding trees." dangerous for any one to approach. As it is of a

Of the two species of this animal, one is called the temper much less mild than the elephant, it is far bicornis, or two-horned, and the other the unicornis, more formidable when exasperated, on account of or one-horned: the latter has been supposed to be the its greater activity and more desperate ferocity. unicorn of Scripture. The former is, I believe, peculiar The voraciousness of this creature is extraordito Africa: it is never known in India, where the one nary; it will consume as much as an elephant, and horned Rhinoceros alone is found. Its size is only is always very fierce if intruded upon whilst feeding. inferior to that of the elephant, although it is con- | A young Rhinoceros, only two years old, sent from siderably smaller. Its bulk, however, is greater in Bengal in 1739, cost a thousand pounds sterling for proportion to its height; and, from its superior food, including the expenses of its passage. courage and activity, it is a much more formidable When the Rhinoceros and Elephant meet, which creature. Its head resembles that of a pig; and it is not very often the case, the conflict is terrific. has two small, dull eyes, which give it an appearance The former will stand his ground, even though surat once stupid and intractable. Its length, not in-rounded by a herd of elephants, by which indeed he cluding the tail, is from eleven to twelve feet, and the is generally destroyed, though not without making a circumference of its body about the same; though it desperate resistance. He will frequently inflict a is said sometimes to exceed this standard. It occa- mortal wound upon one or two before he is subdued. sionally, though rarely, attains to the height of seven The Elephant, therefore, always approaches him with feet, and is amazingly strong; while its skin is so extreme reluctance: if the Rhinoceros succeeds in hard and thick, as to be generally impervious to a making good his stroke at his huge adversary, it musket-ball. The hide is curiously divided into sec- generally proves fatal ; his horn, ploughing through tions, and the different divisions are adapted with the side, exposes the intestines, and the gigantic creasuch exquisite precision, as to have the appearance, at ture falls dead. If, however, the Elephant is successful a short distance, of a beautiful coat of mail. It is in preventing the rush of his enemy, he receives him extremely rough, and offers so complete a resistance upon his tusks, which inflict too severe a wound to to the touch, as not to yield in the slightest degree enable the Rhinoceros to renew the encounter. The to the strongest pressure. The only vulnerable parts timidity of the Elephant generally causes it to have the are the belly, the eyes, and near the ears.

worst in conflicts with this mailed foe, so that the This animal is of very sequestered habits: it tra- latter is seldom molested, and consequently roams at verses the most impenetrable jungles alone, and is large as the monarch of the jungle; even the tiger the terror of every creature with which it comes in and the lion shun bim, as an enemy not to be procontact, although it seldom attacks unless provoked voked without peril. by aggression. The horn upon its nose, which is The following account of the Rhinoceros is exthick and pointed, curves upwards towards the fore-tremely curious, being by the celebrated Baher, Emhead, forming an acute angle with the bone of the peror of the Moguls, and is to be found in his autosnout, and projecting from it about thirty inches. biography, translated by Dr. Leyden and Mr. Erskine. It is a most fearful weapon; so much so, that even the « The Rhinoceros," writes this remarkable man, colossal elephant has been frequently laid prostrate“ is a huge animal; its bulk is equal to that of three by a well-directed stroke from the armed head of this buffaloes. The opinion prevalent in our countries, terrible adversary. The horn does not adhere to the that a Rhinoceros can lift an Elephant on its horn, is See Saturday Magazine, Vol. I., p. 224.

probably a mistake. It has a single horn over its

nose, upwards of a span in length, but I never saw NATURE, USES, AND MANUFACTURE OF one of two spans. Out of one of the largest of these

CHARCOAL. I. horns I had a drinking-vessel * made, and a dice-box, The various processes by means of which natural and about three or four fingers' bulk of it might be productions become available to the arts of life, left. Its hide is very thick : if it be shot at with a

deserve inquiry on the part of all persons who desire powerful bow, drawn up to the arm-pit with much

an insight into the general adaptation of matter to force, and if the arrow pierces at all, it enters only man. The changes undergone by almost all subthree or four fingers' breadth. They say, however, stances, as they pass through the hands of industry that there are parts of his skin that may be pierced, to their destined uses, as, for instance, the progresand the arrows enter deep. On the sides of its sive transition of the ore of lead, from the dark two shoulder-blades and of its two thighs, are folds recesses of the mine, through the fire of the furnace, which hang loose, and appear at a distance like cloth to the brilliant pigment ready to the painter's brush; housings dangling over it. It bears more resemblance such changes, so variously and craftily wrought, are to the horse than to any other animalf. As the horse found to be not unworthy of notice, even when the subhas a large stomach, so has this ;-as the pastern of ject is one of such familiar and universal occurrence as the horse is composed of a single bone, so also is that white paint. Trusting, therefore, to that interest which of the Rhinoceros ;-as there is a gumek | in the usually attends the detail of operations carried on horse's fore-leg, so is there in that of the Rhinoceros. remotely from the sphere in which we daily move, it It is more ferocious than the elephant, and cannot be is our intention to collect a few particulars respecting rendered so tame or obedient. There are numbers of the manufacturer of a more equable substance than them in the jungles of Pershâwer and Hashnaghar, the above, namely, that which is at the head of our as well as between the rivers Sind and Behreh, in the

present article. jungles. In Hindostan too they abound, on the But our readers will not perhaps object to accombanks of the river Sirwu ş. In the course of my pany us to the rural scene, with which we would assoexpedition into Hindostan, in the jungles of Per- ciate our recollections of the Charcoal-burner and his shâwer and Hashnagharl, I frequently killed the fiery craft. Indeed, if it be possible for language to Rhinoceros. It strikes powerfully with its horn, with describe faithfully such a spot as that to which we which, in the course of these hunts, many men and allude, the charm imparted to our detail by the conhorses were gored.

J. H. C.

templation of its beauties, will not fail to draw on * The Rhinoceros' horn was supposed to sweat on the approach the attention of any reader whose mind is capable of poison, a quality which fitted it, in a peculiar manner, for being of appreciating the graces of a woodland scene. made into a drinking-cup for an eastern king. + It has more the appearance of a huge over-grown hog.

Newington Moor opened unexpectedly upon our A marginal note on the Tûrki copy, translates gumek, marrow. view, during a ramble over the picturesque country The Goggra.

about the coast of South Kent. We had already The Rhinoceros is now almost entirely expelled from the countries about the Indus.

explored more than one of those valleys, or perhaps salt-water inlets, which agreeably diversify the walks

in the neighbourhood of Hythe and Saltwood; but PAPYRUS MANUSCRIPT OF THE PSALMS. we had met with nothing which could compare with A PORTION of the Book of Psalms, written on papy the peculiar features of the moor. Leaving the road rus, probably the earliest fragment of Sacred Writ from Newington to Beachborough village, by a narknown to exist, has recently been brought into this

row footway, which presents itself opposite the sandy country, from Egypt, by Dr. Hogg, who gives the banks to the left, we were at once struck with the following account of it.

lively characters of a marshy tract, overshadowed by Among the various objects of antiquity which alders and lofty ashes, which appeared to extend far were purchased from the Arabs, at Thebes, were two

into the bosom of some low hills, partly occupied by papyri, the one in Coptic, the other in Greek; both hop-gardens, and partly by variably productive crops in the form of books. The subject of the Coptic of mangel-wurzel, lucerne, and wheat. Immediately papyrus, now in the possession of Sir William Gell, before us was a flour-mill, turned by the water of a at Naples, has not yet been ascertained; but since stream which takes its rise a mile to the north, at the my return to England, the Greek papyrus has been base of the chalk-downs, and enters the moor beneath discovered to contain a portion of the Psalms. The a brick arch, broadly stretched above where the road leaves, of about ten inches in length, by seven in intersects its course. At this moment, the scene, cirwidth, are arranged, and have been sown together cumscribed by a few yards, was our principal inducelike those of an ordinary book. They are formed of ment to deviate from the road; the stroke of a strips of the papyrus plant, crossing each other at water-mill

, indeed, seldom fails to arrest one's step right angles. The writing, continued on both sides, for a moment: the simple ingenuity of the machine, is perfectly legible, the letters partaking both of the the lively sound, and agreeable sense of falling uncial and cursive forms, sometimes standing quite waters, especially in summer-time, conspiring to apart, unconnected by cursive strokes, with accents, recommend it to the respect of a moment's regard. occasionally, but not regularly, inserted.

Upon advancing farther into the valley, a rude plankThe beginning of the manuscript is imperfect, bridge offered us safe conduct towards the mill and and it concludes with the second verse of the thirty- the rustic cottage at its side ; but we preferred enfourth Psalm. The text, as far as it has been col- tering the vale, for its wildness had already atlated, has been found to be a good one, and to possess tracted our attention through the trees which oversome interesting variations not found in other ancient shadowed the path. The vegetation of this moor versions. These papyri were both discovered among (which, by means of obstruction offered to the the rubbish of an ancient convent at Thebes, re

streamlet in its bosom, has become, in the greater markable as still presenting some fragments of an part, a poachy morass,) is unusually luxuriant. The inscription, purporting to be a pastoral letter from gladwyn (Iris pseudacorus) bar-reed, (Sparganium raiAthanasius, Patriarch of Alexandria, who died A.D. nasum,) the rush and sedge-tribes, rise around in giant 371, which has been conjectured to be the age of the proportions; but there was one species of sedge (Carex manuscript."

paniculata,) which we had not observed elsewhere, but [Dr. Hogy's Visit to Alexandria, Damascus, and Jerusalem.) which on this spot presented a novel and very interest

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ing appearance. Its roots, continually decaying from quarters in which the burner and his family were below, and advancing from above, form, in the course todged. A spacious caravan occupied the ground in of years, solid cones of vegetable earth, from the sum- front of the burning; a little to the left was a green mit of which spring forth plenteous crowns of slender cone of turf, about eight feet in height, which, upon leaves and Aowers; the whole group of a single our walking round it, proved to be a chamber so conplant, or rather family of plants, frequently mca- structed for temporary use. These dwellings, with

the familiar appendages of a line of drying clothes, a water-tub, a rough-haired and much-besooted dog, tied up to a beech, groups of black bags of the coal, and various “ lots" of cleft billets, together with the decent presence of the matron and newly-married wife of the burner and his son, constituted a picture which would have tempted the pencil of a far more

able draughtsman than either of the observers, whose

trude sketches, however, may convey some notion of pentil to the scene. The hut, indeed, took our attention very

much, being such a bride-chamber as could have gratified the ambition of the most romantic lovers. Its turfy sides were verdantly clad with grass; a rough piece of canvas, suspended over the entrance, sufficed as a door, at the same time that it admitted air and light ad libitum, performing, in fact, the threefold duty of ventilator, window, and door. Averse as my lady of the hut might have been to such a comparison, her simple chamber at once recalled to our memories the almost as simple huts of the natives of New Caledonia, and of the Esquimaux, the most readily available materials being employed upon the construction of each of the three dwellings.' The hut of the New Caledonian is finished upon a frame-work of strong reeds, the interlacing of which within the conical roof, would seem likely at once to suggest a style of art having much resemblance to our gothic architecture : the exterior is thatched with the foliage of grasses, &c., and attention is carefully directed to the

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CAREX PANICULATA (Great Panicled Sedge ) suring eight feet from the base of the cone to the

1995 summit of the foliage. These cones, accumulating fast and contiguously upon the impracticable face of a barren morass, and gradually approximating through the farther access of vegetable matter upon their sides, as well as upon their heads, eventually prove, in many cases, the means of converting the most unproductive tracts into land capable of tillage, and offering singular advantage to the judicious hand of the agriculturist.

Pursuing the course of the stream by the most practicable path which we could find, and having preservation, and probably the defensibility, of the crossed it at length by a plank lying upon the oozing structure, by means of a strong fence, also of reeds, moor-soil, beneath a group of young alders, we at

which, encircling the hut, is open only where a last reached the spot with which we associate our

narrow passage is found opposite to the door-way. recollections of the Charcoal-burner.

See Cut in page 8.

Upon first descrying the gloomy and mysterious cloud of dusky icebound storms of heaven, the faithful witness of

The hut of the Esquimaux *, the offspring of the smoke, which arose from the burning heap and obscured the hill side, beneath the shelter of which

the unfailing resources of reason guided by Provithe manufacture was carried on, our contemplations dence, is constructed of squared masses of snow, were immediately exchanged for all the variety of rudely arranged in the form of a dome; the interior recollections of handicraft and household economy, being ventilated by means of an aperture from above; revived in us by the very thought of charcoal.

and being approached from below by a long and On approaching the heap, which, indeed, except

narrow passage composed of the self-same material. : by that dense, gray column of smoke, did not at once

Charcoal, as must be familiar to most of our meet observation, being three parts surrounded by readers, proves of various and very important use in a rude hurdle-fence, and open only in that direc- the arts and manufactures, as well as in domestic tion towards which the current of the valley seldom economy. Two of the most conspicuous advantages, bure the wind, we were struck with the substantial

* See Saturday Magazine, Vol. III., p. 209.

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