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Old Authors, selections from, recom Rhine, No. II., The Hochkreuz, or Swamp in the Southern States of Useful Arts; Animals used in Hunt.
Swan River, natives of, 29
The Chetah, Hawking,
Rich and great men not always happy, Swift, extract from, 33—on Vanity, 232 &c., 64
Swiss Valley, 246
Animals of the Chase, 67,
79, 103, 112
Cod and Sturgeon Fish.
Tale of the Indian Wars, 155
Tapioca and Cassava, 103
Whale Fishery, 156
Voyage of a Whale Ship,
Taylor, Jeremy, selections from, 30,
Great Clock of, 18
Temperature of the Weather, effects Vegetable Kingdom, its products, 168
Venice, some account of, 249——its
rise, and greatness, 250-its de.
II., Russian Peasantry, 89
cline and capture, 25)—its general
III., Church of Basil the
plan and appearance, 252-St.
dred gates, 43—its situation, 43—
Mark's Place, 253–the Ducal
its extent and internal arrange-
Palace, 254–public buildings, 255
Virtue and Knowledge-Addison. 76
ment, 44-ancient contracts for the
sale of land in, 45—its splendour,
commendation of, Lord Bacon,
deeline, and ruin, 45-Luxor, 46–
its inhabitants, 47-Christianity Voice, organs of, in Man and Animals,
in moderu Thebes, 47-grandeur
of the ruins, 47--the ruins of
Luxor 82-sculptures at Luxor, 83
Wall, remark of, on avoiding cala-
-ruins and great temple at Kar-
nak, 86-ruins at Medeenet Ha-
Walnuts, fondness of certain Birds for,
bou, 86—the Memnonium, or palace
Siege of Londonderry, 25
War, remarks on, by Washington
of Osymandyas, 86-Goornoo and
Sincerity and Simplicity, 223
Thorn-Apple, common, 149
37, 60, 63, 107, 143, 204
Water, great Value of in Hot Climates,
Tillotson, extract from, 31
Weight of testimony illustrated, 54
Time and distance, tendency of, 115
West, Mrs., extract from, 23
Scenery of the Blue Mountains,
177-II., The Aboriginal Natives,
dissipation of, 199
Whale-ship, Journal of the Voyage of,
Travelling, enjoyment of, 50
Whately, Archbishop, on the admix-
results of, 108
ture of Good and Evil, 204
Trees, Economy of-Jesse, 103
Wheat, the Seven-eared, 7
Wilberforce, extract from, 35
Wild Bird Catching, 164
Winter Travelling in Russia, 49
ries in, 36
Wisdom, Truth, and Genius, 14
Turks, Manners and Customs of the, ..
Woman compared to a Vine, 63
Soul, the, 35
and solace of Mau in
Turner, Sharon, extract from, 157 Women, their fortitude, 63
Workman, the careless, 39
World, the Field of, liues on, by
Ultramarine and Cobalt, how pre Montgomery, 23
Wreck at Sea, 37
Sturgeon-fishery on the Volga, 151 Useful Arts; The Sheep, the Hog, 14 Written characters, their origin and
Domesticated Birds, 23
Capture of Wild Animals,
Young Chemist, the, 8, 167, 183
Traps, Snares, Nets,&c. 39
INDEX TO THE ENGRAVINGS.
ABBEY of St. Stephen, Caen, 173 Egyptian Hierog!yphics, 52, 53 Medenet Habou, Ruins of the Palace Russian Serf, Cottage of the, 89;
and Temple at, 81
Scio, Fountain in the Island of, 295
Scythian Lamb, 220
Milling-machine in the Royal Mint, Seal, common, 198
Sedge, Great Panicled, 4
Mocha, Town and Port of, 145
Seven-eared Wheat, 7
Godesberg on the Rhine, Cross at, 113 Monk's hood, or Woll's-bane, 76 Skating Soldiers of Norway, 9
Grand Vizier entertaining the officers Moscow, Church of Basil the Blessed Sleep of Plants, illustrations of the
of state, 105
Snowdon, and Village of Beddgelart,
New South Wales, Natives of, 201
Southwark Bridge, 128
Spoonbill, Wind pipe of, 237
Sugar Maple (Acer sacenarinum), 132
Oak, native Species of, in Britain, 65
Takhaize, a large African Antelope, 80
Thebes, Colossal Statues at, 88
Passenger Pigeon, Flights of the, in Thorn-Apple, conmon, 148
an American wood, 16
Tiger-shooting from a Platform, 112
Pfaltz, or Castle of the Palatinate, on Trial of a Native of New South
the Rhine, 97
Turkish Funeral, Procession to a, 36
Potters throwing the Clay, 136
Venice, Ducal Palace at, 249
Rathlin, West end of, 216
Colounade and Library in the
Procuratorie Nuove, 253
Bridge of Sighs at, 256
Ripon Minster, 233
Laxor, Colonnade in the Great Tem Roma. Aqueduct, near Nismes, 125 Whale, common Greenland, 156
Roman As Libralis, 240
tossing a Boat, 188
Roo Na Scariff, or Rock of the Scarf,
Fishery, Implements used in
Wild Bird Catching, 164
Windpipes of various Birds, 937
Winter Travelling in Russia, 49
PRICE (ONE PENNY
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
A RHINOCEROS ATTACKED BY
bone, but when the Rhinoceros is in its ordinary ELEPHANTS.
state, stands loose between the nostrils; the moment, The Rhinoceros * is the least intelligent of the larger however, the animal is excited to resistance by the quadrupeds. Fierce and intractable, it is at all approach or attack of a foe, the muscular tension is times very formidable, as well to animals as to so great that the horn instantly becomes immoveably
Being protected by nature with a skin like a fixed, and he is able to dart it into the trunk of a coat of armour, it commits the greatest devastations tree to the depth of several inches. with impunity. It is a native both of Asia and of The upper lip of the Rhinoceros is of great length, Africa, though the species found in the two countries and remarkably pliant, acting like a sort of proboscis, greatly differ; the Rhinoceros of Africa having two by which he grasps the roots of trees, and other horns on the snout, while that of Asia has only one. esculent substances, and it is capable of contraction Of the former, Mr. Bruce says, “When pursued, and or expansion, as circumstances may require. “With in fear, the Rhinoceros possesses an astonishing degree this lip,” says Bruce, "and the assistance of his of swiftness, considering his size, the apparent un tongue, he pulls down the upper branches which have wieldiness of his body, his great weight before, and most leaves, and these he devours first. Having the shortness of his legs. He is long, and has a stripped the tree of its branches, he does not directly kind of trot, which, after a few minutes, increases, in abandon it; but, placing his snout as low in the a great proportion, and takes in a great distance. trunk as he finds his horn will enter, he rips up the It is not true that on a plain he beats the horse in body of the tree, and reduces it to thin pieces, like so swiftness. I have passed him with ease, and seen many laths; and when he has thus prepared it, he many more mounted do the same; and though it is embraces as much as he can of it in his monstrous certainly true that a horse can very seldom come up jaws, and twists it round with as much ease as an ox with him, this is owing to his cunning, not to his would do a root of celery." swiftness. He passes constantly from wood to wood, The female generally produces only a single young and forces himself into the thickest parts of them. one at a birth, which attains to a full state of matuThe dry trees are broken down as with a cannon-shot, rity in about fifteen years. The Rhinoceros is su and fall about him in all directions. Others that are stupid, and of so savage a disposition, that it seems more pliable, greener, and fuller of sap, are bent back to exist merely to gratify a voracious appetite. It is by his weight and the velocity of his motion; and, the terror of its native woods, and if it had been a after he has passed, restoring themselves like a green gregarious animal, would have been a terrible scourge branch to their natural position, they sweep the in- to the countries in which it is found. When excited, cautious pursuer and his horse from the ground, and it displays paroxysms of fury which render it highly dash them in pieces against the surrounding trees." dangerous for any one to approach. As it is of a
Of the two species of this animal, one is called the temper much less mild than the elephant, it is far bicornis, or two-horned, and the other the unicornis, more formidable when exasperated, on account of or one-horned: the latter has been supposed to be the its greater activity and more desperate ferocity. unicorn of Scripture. The former is, I believe, peculiar The voraciousness of this creature is extraordito Africa: it is never known in India, where the one nary; it will consume as much as an elephant, and horned Rhinoceros alone is found. Its size is only is always very fierce if intruded upon whilst feeding. inferior to that of the elephant, although it is con- | A young Rhinoceros, only two years old, sent from siderably smaller. Its bulk, however, is greater in Bengal in 1739, cost a thousand pounds sterling for proportion to its height; and, from its superior food, including the expenses of its passage. courage and activity, it is a much more formidable When the Rhinoceros and Elephant meet, which creature. Its head resembles that of a pig; and it is not very often the case, the conflict is terrific. has two small, dull eyes, which give it an appearance The former will stand his ground, even though surat once stupid and intractable. Its length, not in-rounded by a herd of elephants, by which indeed he cluding the tail, is from eleven to twelve feet, and the is generally destroyed, though not without making a circumference of its body about the same; though it desperate resistance. He will frequently inflict a is said sometimes to exceed this standard. It occa- mortal wound upon one or two before he is subdued. sionally, though rarely, attains to the height of seven The Elephant, therefore, always approaches him with feet, and is amazingly strong; while its skin is so extreme reluctance: if the Rhinoceros succeeds in hard and thick, as to be generally impervious to a making good his stroke at his huge adversary, it musket-ball. The hide is curiously divided into sec- generally proves fatal ; his horn, ploughing through tions, and the different divisions are adapted with the side, exposes the intestines, and the gigantic creasuch exquisite precision, as to have the appearance, at ture falls dead. If, however, the Elephant is successful a short distance, of a beautiful coat of mail. It is in preventing the rush of his enemy, he receives him extremely rough, and offers so complete a resistance upon his tusks, which inflict too severe a wound to to the touch, as not to yield in the slightest degree enable the Rhinoceros to renew the encounter. The to the strongest pressure. The only vulnerable parts timidity of the Elephant generally causes it to have the are the belly, the eyes, and near the ears.
worst in conflicts with this mailed foe, so that the This animal is of very sequestered habits: it tra- latter is seldom molested, and consequently roams at verses the most impenetrable jungles alone, and is large as the monarch of the jungle; even the tiger the terror of every creature with which it comes in and the lion shun bim, as an enemy not to be procontact, although it seldom attacks unless provoked voked without peril. by aggression. The horn upon its nose, which is The following account of the Rhinoceros is exthick and pointed, curves upwards towards the fore-tremely curious, being by the celebrated Baher, Emhead, forming an acute angle with the bone of the peror of the Moguls, and is to be found in his autosnout, and projecting from it about thirty inches. biography, translated by Dr. Leyden and Mr. Erskine. It is a most fearful weapon; so much so, that even the « The Rhinoceros," writes this remarkable man, colossal elephant has been frequently laid prostrate“ is a huge animal; its bulk is equal to that of three by a well-directed stroke from the armed head of this buffaloes. The opinion prevalent in our countries, terrible adversary. The horn does not adhere to the that a Rhinoceros can lift an Elephant on its horn, is See Saturday Magazine, Vol. I., p. 224.
probably a mistake. It has a single horn over its
nose, upwards of a span in length, but I never saw NATURE, USES, AND MANUFACTURE OF one of two spans. Out of one of the largest of these
CHARCOAL. I. horns I had a drinking-vessel * made, and a dice-box, The various processes by means of which natural and about three or four fingers' bulk of it might be productions become available to the arts of life, left. Its hide is very thick : if it be shot at with a
deserve inquiry on the part of all persons who desire powerful bow, drawn up to the arm-pit with much
an insight into the general adaptation of matter to force, and if the arrow pierces at all, it enters only man. The changes undergone by almost all subthree or four fingers' breadth. They say, however, stances, as they pass through the hands of industry that there are parts of his skin that may be pierced, to their destined uses, as, for instance, the progresand the arrows enter deep. On the sides of its sive transition of the ore of lead, from the dark two shoulder-blades and of its two thighs, are folds recesses of the mine, through the fire of the furnace, which hang loose, and appear at a distance like cloth to the brilliant pigment ready to the painter's brush; housings dangling over it. It bears more resemblance such changes, so variously and craftily wrought, are to the horse than to any other animalf. As the horse found to be not unworthy of notice, even when the subhas a large stomach, so has this ;-as the pastern of ject is one of such familiar and universal occurrence as the horse is composed of a single bone, so also is that white paint. Trusting, therefore, to that interest which of the Rhinoceros ;-as there is a gumek | in the usually attends the detail of operations carried on horse's fore-leg, so is there in that of the Rhinoceros. remotely from the sphere in which we daily move, it It is more ferocious than the elephant, and cannot be is our intention to collect a few particulars respecting rendered so tame or obedient. There are numbers of the manufacturer of a more equable substance than them in the jungles of Pershâwer and Hashnaghar, the above, namely, that which is at the head of our as well as between the rivers Sind and Behreh, in the
present article. jungles. In Hindostan too they abound, on the But our readers will not perhaps object to accombanks of the river Sirwu ş. In the course of my pany us to the rural scene, with which we would assoexpedition into Hindostan, in the jungles of Per- ciate our recollections of the Charcoal-burner and his shâwer and Hashnagharl, I frequently killed the fiery craft. Indeed, if it be possible for language to Rhinoceros. It strikes powerfully with its horn, with describe faithfully such a spot as that to which we which, in the course of these hunts, many men and allude, the charm imparted to our detail by the conhorses were gored.
J. H. C.
templation of its beauties, will not fail to draw on * The Rhinoceros' horn was supposed to sweat on the approach the attention of any reader whose mind is capable of poison, a quality which fitted it, in a peculiar manner, for being of appreciating the graces of a woodland scene. made into a drinking-cup for an eastern king. + It has more the appearance of a huge over-grown hog.
Newington Moor opened unexpectedly upon our A marginal note on the Tûrki copy, translates gumek, marrow. view, during a ramble over the picturesque country The Goggra.
about the coast of South Kent. We had already The Rhinoceros is now almost entirely expelled from the countries about the Indus.
explored more than one of those valleys, or perhaps salt-water inlets, which agreeably diversify the walks
in the neighbourhood of Hythe and Saltwood; but PAPYRUS MANUSCRIPT OF THE PSALMS. we had met with nothing which could compare with A PORTION of the Book of Psalms, written on papy the peculiar features of the moor. Leaving the road rus, probably the earliest fragment of Sacred Writ from Newington to Beachborough village, by a narknown to exist, has recently been brought into this
row footway, which presents itself opposite the sandy country, from Egypt, by Dr. Hogg, who gives the banks to the left, we were at once struck with the following account of it.
lively characters of a marshy tract, overshadowed by Among the various objects of antiquity which alders and lofty ashes, which appeared to extend far were purchased from the Arabs, at Thebes, were two
into the bosom of some low hills, partly occupied by papyri, the one in Coptic, the other in Greek; both hop-gardens, and partly by variably productive crops in the form of books. The subject of the Coptic of mangel-wurzel, lucerne, and wheat. Immediately papyrus, now in the possession of Sir William Gell, before us was a flour-mill, turned by the water of a at Naples, has not yet been ascertained; but since stream which takes its rise a mile to the north, at the my return to England, the Greek papyrus has been base of the chalk-downs, and enters the moor beneath discovered to contain a portion of the Psalms. The a brick arch, broadly stretched above where the road leaves, of about ten inches in length, by seven in intersects its course. At this moment, the scene, cirwidth, are arranged, and have been sown together cumscribed by a few yards, was our principal inducelike those of an ordinary book. They are formed of ment to deviate from the road; the stroke of a strips of the papyrus plant, crossing each other at water-mill
, indeed, seldom fails to arrest one's step right angles. The writing, continued on both sides, for a moment: the simple ingenuity of the machine, is perfectly legible, the letters partaking both of the the lively sound, and agreeable sense of falling uncial and cursive forms, sometimes standing quite waters, especially in summer-time, conspiring to apart, unconnected by cursive strokes, with accents, recommend it to the respect of a moment's regard. occasionally, but not regularly, inserted.
Upon advancing farther into the valley, a rude plankThe beginning of the manuscript is imperfect, bridge offered us safe conduct towards the mill and and it concludes with the second verse of the thirty- the rustic cottage at its side ; but we preferred enfourth Psalm. The text, as far as it has been col- tering the vale, for its wildness had already atlated, has been found to be a good one, and to possess tracted our attention through the trees which oversome interesting variations not found in other ancient shadowed the path. The vegetation of this moor versions. These papyri were both discovered among (which, by means of obstruction offered to the the rubbish of an ancient convent at Thebes, re
streamlet in its bosom, has become, in the greater markable as still presenting some fragments of an part, a poachy morass,) is unusually luxuriant. The inscription, purporting to be a pastoral letter from gladwyn (Iris pseudacorus) bar-reed, (Sparganium raiAthanasius, Patriarch of Alexandria, who died A.D. nasum,) the rush and sedge-tribes, rise around in giant 371, which has been conjectured to be the age of the proportions; but there was one species of sedge (Carex manuscript."
paniculata,) which we had not observed elsewhere, but [Dr. Hogy's Visit to Alexandria, Damascus, and Jerusalem.) which on this spot presented a novel and very interest
ing appearance. Its roots, continually decaying from quarters in which the burner and his family were below, and advancing from above, form, in the course todged. A spacious caravan occupied the ground in of years, solid cones of vegetable earth, from the sum- front of the burning; a little to the left was a green mit of which spring forth plenteous crowns of slender cone of turf, about eight feet in height, which, upon leaves and Aowers; the whole group of a single our walking round it, proved to be a chamber so conplant, or rather family of plants, frequently mca- structed for temporary use. These dwellings, with
the familiar appendages of a line of drying clothes, a water-tub, a rough-haired and much-besooted dog, tied up to a beech, groups of black bags of the coal, and various “ lots" of cleft billets, together with the decent presence of the matron and newly-married wife of the burner and his son, constituted a picture which would have tempted the pencil of a far more
able draughtsman than either of the observers, whose
trude sketches, however, may convey some notion of pentil to the scene. The hut, indeed, took our attention very
much, being such a bride-chamber as could have gratified the ambition of the most romantic lovers. Its turfy sides were verdantly clad with grass; a rough piece of canvas, suspended over the entrance, sufficed as a door, at the same time that it admitted air and light ad libitum, performing, in fact, the threefold duty of ventilator, window, and door. Averse as my lady of the hut might have been to such a comparison, her simple chamber at once recalled to our memories the almost as simple huts of the natives of New Caledonia, and of the Esquimaux, the most readily available materials being employed upon the construction of each of the three dwellings.' The hut of the New Caledonian is finished upon a frame-work of strong reeds, the interlacing of which within the conical roof, would seem likely at once to suggest a style of art having much resemblance to our gothic architecture : the exterior is thatched with the foliage of grasses, &c., and attention is carefully directed to the
Jolib bordo los toydan
T30230 enod! nos sind
CAREX PANICULATA (Great Panicled Sedge ) suring eight feet from the base of the cone to the
1995 summit of the foliage. These cones, accumulating fast and contiguously upon the impracticable face of a barren morass, and gradually approximating through the farther access of vegetable matter upon their sides, as well as upon their heads, eventually prove, in many cases, the means of converting the most unproductive tracts into land capable of tillage, and offering singular advantage to the judicious hand of the agriculturist.
Pursuing the course of the stream by the most practicable path which we could find, and having preservation, and probably the defensibility, of the crossed it at length by a plank lying upon the oozing structure, by means of a strong fence, also of reeds, moor-soil, beneath a group of young alders, we at
which, encircling the hut, is open only where a last reached the spot with which we associate our
narrow passage is found opposite to the door-way. recollections of the Charcoal-burner.
See Cut in page 8.
Upon first descrying the gloomy and mysterious cloud of dusky icebound storms of heaven, the faithful witness of
The hut of the Esquimaux *, the offspring of the smoke, which arose from the burning heap and obscured the hill side, beneath the shelter of which
the unfailing resources of reason guided by Provithe manufacture was carried on, our contemplations dence, is constructed of squared masses of snow, were immediately exchanged for all the variety of rudely arranged in the form of a dome; the interior recollections of handicraft and household economy, being ventilated by means of an aperture from above; revived in us by the very thought of charcoal.
and being approached from below by a long and On approaching the heap, which, indeed, except
narrow passage composed of the self-same material. : by that dense, gray column of smoke, did not at once
Charcoal, as must be familiar to most of our meet observation, being three parts surrounded by readers, proves of various and very important use in a rude hurdle-fence, and open only in that direc- the arts and manufactures, as well as in domestic tion towards which the current of the valley seldom economy. Two of the most conspicuous advantages, bure the wind, we were struck with the substantial
* See Saturday Magazine, Vol. III., p. 209.