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times as much as Hulings charged, and added, "Such is the odds between the counties of Westmoreland and Washington.

"Pittsburgh is in plain sight," he continued, “at half a mile distance. It is an irregular, poorly built place. The number of houses, mostly built of logs, about one hundred and fifty. The inhabitants (perhaps because they lead too easy a life) incline to be extravagant and lazy. They are subject, however, to frequent alarms from the savages of the wilderness. The situation is agreeable and the soil good."

He tells that Hulings informed him that more than two hundred and fifty boats of twenty to thirty tons filled with people, live stock and furniture had passed the place since early spring, going down the river, the destination being to the settlements farther south and west. He records that General Harmar called on him, crossing the river in a barge called the Congress, rowed by twelve men in white uniforms and caps, and took him to the north side of the Allegheny River where they visited some Indian graves at the head of which tall poles were fixed daubed with red. Later General Harmar also took him up the Monongahela River where they visited Braddock's field. Of this he said, "The bones of the slain are plenty on slain are plenty on the ground at this day. I picked up many of them which did not seem much decayed."

The constantly rising tide of immigration into Western Pennsylvania required more subdivisions of territory. Westmoreland County had been reduced on March 28, 1781, by the creation of Washington County, and was further reduced by the erection of Fayette County on September 26, 1783, but was still inordinately large, and on September 24, 1788, Allegheny County was formed out of Westmoreland and Washington counties, and the county seat located at Pittsburgh; and the village assumed a new importance.

In 1790, John Pope undertook a journey from Richmond to Kentucky and the region farther south, stopping on the way at Pittsburgh. In October he had crossed the Alleghany Mountains. He relates: "I passed through the shadow of Death-saw George Washington's intrenchments at the Meadows, and undismayed rode over Braddock's

[graphic][subsumed][merged small]

From General Collot's Voyage Dans L' Amerique Septentrionale,

grave." (20) While in Pittsburgh he made the acquaintance of Hugh Henry Brackenridge and he has much to say about that gentleman's recent marriage to the daughter of a German farmer. He even writes verses on the event. He tells that the lady whom Brackenridge married was named Wolfe, and that after the marriage Brackenridge sent her to a school in Philadelphia, where "she now is under the governance of a reputable female, whose business will be to polish the manners, and wipe off the rusticities which Mrs. Brackenridge had acquired whilst a Wolfe." He tells of viewing Fort Pitt and the neighboring eminences in company with Brackenridge, and says the fort "will one day or other employ the historic pen, as being replete with strange and melancholy events." His characterization of the people of Pittsburgh is the reverse of flattering. "The town at present is inhabited, with only some few exceptions, by mortals who act as if possessed of a charter of exclusive privilege to filch from, annoy and harrass their fellow creatures, particularly the incautious; many of whom have emigrated from various parts to Kentucky and can verify this charge-Goods of every description are dearer in Pittsburgh than in Kentucky," and he places the blame on the former Revolutionary officers who conducted the mercantile establishments, by adding, "which I attribute to a combination of pensioned scoundrels who infest the place."

Neville B. Craig relates in his life of his father, that Colonel Bayard withdrew from the firm of Turnbull, Marmie and Company in the spring of 1788, and that his father, Major Isaac Craig, left it in October, 1789. (2) The deed by which Major Craig conveyed his interest in the lots purchased from the Penns, which was made to William Turnbull and John Holker, two of the partners in the firm of Turnbull, Marmie and Company, is, however, dated September 8, 1795.

In February, 1791, Major Craig was appointed Quartermaster and Military Storekeeper at Pittsburgh, (22) and while holding this office wrote a number of letters to his military superiors which throw some light on conditions at Fort Pitt. His letter of March 25, 1791, is of more than usual interest. "In consequence of a number of

people killed and several taken prisoners by the Indians in the vicinity of this place, within a few days past," he writes, "and frequent reports of large parties of savages being on our frontier, the people of this town have made frequent applications for arms and ammunition to me, and I have been forced to lend them one hundred muskets and bayonets and cartouch boxes."

The two following letters show that Turnbull, Marmie and Company were still excluded from a portion of Fort Pitt, and indicate that while Major Craig retained an interest in the land purchased from the Penns, he was no longer on friendly terms with his old partners. The first letter is dated May 12, 1791, and in it he says, "Turnbull and Marmie are now in this country and have directed their lawyers to prosecute their ejectments in the Supreme Court -they are confident of being put in possession of the fort by the sheriff." The other letter is dated October 6, 1791, and in this Craig complains: "Turnbull and Marmie continue to pull down and sell the materials of the fort, and have lately been so ill-natured as to institute a suit against me for pointing out a piece of ground between the fort and the Allegheny River to Captain Buel for encampment."

In the next letter the requiem of Fort Pitt is sung. The new fort farther up the Allegheny River had been completed and the garrison was withdrawn from Fort Pitt and on May 13, 1792, Major Craig wrote to General Henry Knox, the Secretary of War: "Captain Hughes, with his detachment has occupied the barracks of the new fort since the 5th instant * *the works, if you have no objection, I shall name Fort LaFayette." (23)

REFERENCES.

CHAPTER VI.

1. Neville B. Craig, Sketch of the Life and Services of Isaac Craig, Pittsburgh, 1854, pp. 50-51.

2.

Ibid, pp. 51-52.

3. Colonial Records, Vol. 14, p. 521.

4. Richard Henry Lee. Life of Arthur Lee, LL. D., Boston, 1829, Vol. II, p. 387.

5. Neville B. Craig. The History of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, 1851, p. 182.

6. Pennsylvania Archives, Vol. 10, p. 464-467.

7. Ibid, pp. 464-467.

Archibald Loudon, Indian Narratives, Carlisle, 1808, pp. 38-50.

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