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lines, and on May 2, 1778, he was recalled by resolution of Congress. (4)
On May 19, 1778, Washington appointed Brigadier General Lachlan McIntosh as Hand's successor. (5) On August 6th he assumed command at Fort Pitt. His greatest achievement was the treaty which he concluded with the Delawares at Fort Pitt on September 19, 1778, whereby they bound themselves to the American cause and agreed to join in the contemplated expedition against the Western Indians. Late in October, McIntosh left Fort Pitt and proceeded to the mouth of Beaver Creek, where many of the regular troops and militia had preceded him, and had begun building a large stockade which was called Fort McIntosh after the General. The main body of the army consisting of twelve hundred men, more than half of whom were militia from northwestern Virginia, proceeded as far as the Tuscarawas, where the Delaware Indians met them. Fort Laurens was built; winter came on; dissatisfaction arose between the officers, the campaign proved a failure and on February 20, 1779, at his own request, McIntosh was recalled by resolution of Congress. (6)
Colonel Daniel Brodhead, who had been McIntosh's second in command, was appointed to succeed him on March 5, 1779. (7) On April 5th, McIntosh surrendered the command to Brodhead. (8) Great plans were in contemplation, but they all ended in a campaign against the Indians on the upper Allegheny River, which began on August 11th. Broahead proceeded as far as the present boundary of the state of New York, but the Indians had burned their villages and fled before the approaching army. (9) On April 7, 1781, Brodhead left Fort Pitt on his expedition against the Delaware Indians at Coshocton, who had gone over to the British. Completely surprised, the Indians were easily overcome, many being taken prisoners and the remainder dispersed; and their town was destroyed. (10)
It was during this time that part of the ground belonging to Fort Pitt began to be encroached upon by settlers and Colonel Brodhead wrote about the matter to the Secretary of of War. On June 22, 1779, he also complained to Timothy Pickering,
President of Pennsylvania: "The inhabitants of this place are continually encroaching on what I conceive to be the rights of the garrison *. They have now the assurance to erect their fences within a few yards of the bastions * * * The block houses likewise, which are part of the strength of the place, are occupied by private 1ersons to the injury of the service.". (11) On November 22, 1779, he again wrote to Pickering, "I hope the Hon. Congress has come to a determination what extent of clear ground to allow this garrison. The inhabitants on this side the Alleghany Hills profess a great law knowledge, and it would be exceedingly disagreeable to me to be pestered with their silly courts, and therefore the service will suffer until the pleasure of Congress is known respecting it." (12)
At Fort Pitt provisions were obtained with difficulty. The inhabitants of the neighboring country refused to accept the depreciated Continental currency. At Pittsburgh the troops marched in a body to the commandant's house and protested against their lack of rations. Force was resorted to to obtain the needed provisions. Charges were made against Brodhead that he was taking advantage of his position to further his private interests. (13) On May 5, 1781, Washington summoned Brodhead to Philadelphia, and on May 6th, Brodhead turned over the command to Colonel John Gibson and the next day left for that city. (14) On September 24th, Brigadier General William Irvine was appointed by Congress to the command of the Western Department.
Leaving Philadelphia on October 9th, (15) Irvine probably reached Fort Pitt in the middle or latter part of the month. At Yorktown, Virginia, on October 19th, Cornwallis had surrendered the flower of the British forces in America to the allied American and French armies, and the war was practically over. The news of the great victory reached Fort Pitt shortly after Irvine's arrival and his first important act was on November 6th to issue a proclamation congratulating the troops on the surrender, and ordering thirteen pieces of artillery be fired at one o'clock in the fort, at which time the troops were to be under arms, with their colors displayed. He further directed the commissary to issue “a gill of liquor extraord
inary to the non-commissioned officers and privates on this joyful occasion." (16)
During the administration of both McIntosh and Brodhead at Fort Pitt, the works had been sadly neglected and at the close of Brodhead's command the fort was said to be almost in ruins. This policy was immediately changed under Irvine. On December 3, 1781, he wrote to the Board of War: "Any person to look at the place and be told that a number of artificers were employed, I believe they would rather imagine they were pulling down than building up or repairing. Such a complete heap of ruins to retain the name of a post, I believe cannot be found in any other place." (17) And in the summer of 1782, Irvine made extensive repairs. On October 29th he wrote to Washington about them: "A new row of picketing is planted on every part of the parapet where the brick revetment did not extend, and a row of palisading is nearly finished to the ditch-above all a complete new magazine, the whole arched with stone-some parts of the ramparts and parapets are much broken down, a new main gate and drawbridge are wanted and some small earthworks are necessary to be erected." (18)
It was during this time that the British planned an attack on Fort Pitt, and a force of three hundred soldiers and five hundred Indians with twelve pieces of artillery, was sent from Canada for the purpose. They reached Lake Chautauqua and had already embarked in canoes for the further journey when word was received from spies, that the fort had been repaired and much strengthened. In consequence of this information the campaign was abandoned and the soldiers returned to Canada. Detachments of Indians, together with numerous Tories, were, however, sent out in different directions to harass the settlements on the borders of Pennsylvania. One of these bands, consisting of three hundred Indians and sixty Tories, under command of Kiyasuta, the Seneca chief, who had been so conspicuous in the Indian war of 1763, fell upon Hannastown on July 13, 1782.
The county court had just adjourned and those in attendance had gone to their homes, and many had resumed their labors in the fields when the foe appeared. The object
of the attacking party seemed to be to surprise the inhabitants and make them prisoners, rather than to attack them, but at the first alarm the settlers had hastened into the blockhouse. Thereupon the Indians and Tories began a vigorous attack on the building. Being unable to reduce the structure they commenced plundering the houses in the village, finally setting them on fire. This accomplished, the force withdrew, carrying with them their booty and the few prisoners they had taken.
Large areas, both in New York and Pennsylvania and to the westward of both states, were still owned by the Indians. The country across the Allegheny and Ohio rivers from Fort Pitt was all Indian territory and was forbidden to white men, and on February 25, 1783, Irvine issued an order regarding the same. (19) "Persons ferrying, either men or women, across the Allegheny River, or who shall be found crossing into what is generally called the Indian Country, between Kittanning and Fort McIntosh, without a written permit from the commanding officer at Fort Pitt or orders for that purpose-until further orders, shall be treated and prosecuted for holding or aiding others to correspond and give intelligence to the enemy."
The Revolution being over, Irvine, on October 1, 1783, left Pittsburgh finally (20), Captain Marbury assuming the command in his place.
Peace was declared by a preliminary treaty between Great Britain and the United States on November 30, 1782, the definitive treaty being signed at Versailles on September 3, 1783. Immigration to the West was now resumed and soon reached dimensions hitherto unknown. Also travelers came for purposes of pleasure, trade, or to inspect the lands in the Western country, who either made Pittsburgh the end of their journey, or tarried there in order to prepare for a continuation farther west. Among the earliest of the foreigners to arrive was Dr. Johann David Schoepf, who had been chief surgeon of the Anspach troops, a contingent of the German auxiliaries who fought on the British side in the Revolution, (21) accompanied by an Englishman named Hairs. The two men arrived in Pitts
burgh on September 6, 1783, and remained seven days. Speaking of their reception, Dr. Schoepf relates: "Not we, but our vehicle, had the honor of being the first object of their curiosity, for we had come the whole way in a twowheeled chaise." The place, he said, "numbers at this time perhaps sixty wooden houses and cabins, in which live something more than a hundred families * *. The first stone house was built this summer. Of public houses of worship or justice, there are none as yet. The state of Pennsylvania, as is customary in this country, sends hither a judge once or twice a year to administer the law * * However little to be regarded the place is now, from its advantageous site, it must be that Pittsburgh will in the future become an important depot for inland trade." He expressed his gratitude for the reception accorded him by the men to whom he had been opposed in the war just closed. "I should not fail to mention the courtesies and assistance rendered us by the officers of the garrison, and I must especially acknowledge our obligations to the commander of the fort, General Irvine, and to Colonel Bayard."
Another distinguished stranger who came to Pittsburgh shortly after the Revolution, was General Peter Muhlenberg, the former pastor of the German Lutheran Church at Woodstock, whose services in the Revolution had enabled him to attain the rank of major general. He remained for three weeks while on his way to the Falls of Ohio, now Louisville, having been appointed by Virginia one of the Superintendents to locate lands intended for the officers and soldiers of the Virginia line in the Continental service. (22) He was accompanied by his friend, Captain Paske', and records that he reached "Fort Pitt" in the afternoon of March 10, 1784. He must have attracted attention even in this frontier settlement as he rode into town, having, as he relates, a "perfect resemblance to Robinson Crusoe." He states that he had "four belts around him, carried two brace of pistols, wore a sword and had a rifle slung over his shoulder, and carried a pouch and a tobacco-pipe, which was not a small one." He concludes his description: "Add to this the blackness of my face, which occasioned the inhabitants to take me for a