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Aaditional details of the works of which Lieut. Col. Gillespie is in charge will be found in Appendix No. 1.
Concerning the construction of emplacements for two 10-inch and one 8-inch guns and of one mortar battery, Lieut. Col. King reports: Two emplacements are completed as far as the work can be carried until the plans for platforms and interior walls are decided upon. The third emplacement will reach a like stage of completion during the present working season. During the fiscal year 10,093 cubic yards of concrete was laid, 10,628 cubic yards of earth excavated, and 4,384 yards replaced in embankment.
The nature of the site of the mortar battery has necessitated blasting the magazines and mortar pits from the solid rock. Excavated material will all be used in the masonry and earthwork of the battery. The excavation of rock is nearly completed. During the year 1,939 cubic yards of rock has been excavated and 2,166 yards of earth excavated and placed in embankment. One thousand eight hundred and sixty yards of stone has been crushed for concrete and 1,952 yards of concrete laid. In case of emergencies platforms could be laid and mortars then mounted in the pits in their present condition. But even this would be the work of many weeks.
Philadelphia, Pa.-In charge of Maj. C. W. Raymond, Corps of Engineers, with Second Lieut. A. M. D'Armit, Corps of Engineers, under his immediate orders; Division Engineer, Col. H. L. Abbot, Corps of Engineers.
The project for the defense of Philadelphia by high power-guns is as yet unprepared; but its submarine defense will be by mines operated from three mining casemates.
During the past fiscal year the construction of one casemate was completed and a second casemate, constructed in 1876, was modified with a view of providing the additional cover rendered necessary by the increased power of modern ordnance. The cost of constructing one casemate was $37,760.13; of modifying the second casemate, $27,765.56.
Baltimore, Md.-In charge of Col. W. P. Craighill, Corps of Engineers. The project for the defense of this harbor by batteries is under consideration. Its submarine defense will be by mines operated from one mining casemate. An allotment for this casemate was made January 6, 1893, and the work was essentially completed at the close of the fiscal year.
Washington, D. C.-Officer in charge, Maj. C. E. L. B. Davis, Corps of Engineers, with First Lieut. G. A. Zinn, Corps of Engineers, under his immediate orders; Division Engineer, Col. W. P. Craighill, Corps of Engineers.
The approved project of defense contemplates emplacements for four 12-inch guns on lifts, six 10-inch and three 8-inch guns on disappearing carriages, eight 12-inch mortars, and submarine mines. operated from two mining casemates.
The construction of emplacements for two 8-inch guns has continued during the fiscal year. The necessary excavation has been completed and the mixing and laying of concrete for the parapet has been in progress. The concrete is mixed by machinery, and both the concrete material and the mixed concrete are transferred in cars. The work was suspended during the past winter, which was unusually severe.
One mining casemate, costing $15,784.95, is now complete, the slopes of the excavation made for cover having been shaped, soiled, and seeded.
Hampton Roads, Virginia.-Officer in charge, Maj. C. E. L. B. Davis. Corps of Engineers, with First Lieut. G. A. Zinn, Corps of Engineers, under his immediate orders; Division Engineer, Col. W. P. Craighill, Corps of Engineers.
The approved project of defense contemplates, for the present, five 12-inch guns on lifts, ten 10-inch guns on disappearing carriages, thirtytwo 12-inch mortars, and submarine mines operated from two mining casemates.
At the beginning of the fiscal year, the construction of emplacements for two 10-inch guns was progressing and is now well advanced. The concrete for the parapet is all in place and about half of the earthwork on the front is completed. Under an allotment of $64,000, from the appropriation of July 23, 1892, the construction of an emplacement for a third 10-inch gun was authorized December 13, 1892.
A track has been built for operating a steam railway, the necessary plant for hauling concrete has been installed, and the mixing and laying of concrete has been commenced.
One mining casemate is completed, its cost having been $29,452. A storehouse for mining material is also provided.
Charleston Harbor, South Carolina.-Officer in charge, Capt. F. V. Abbot, Corps of Engineers; Division Engineer, Col. W. P. Craighill, Corps of Engineers.
The approved project for the defense of this harbor contemplates an armament of six 12-inch guns on lifts, four 10-inch guns on disappearing carriages, sixteen 12-inch mortars, and submarine mines to be operated from one mining casemate.
During the last fiscal year the mining casemate has been completed at a cost of $13,100.
San Francisco Harbor, California.-Officers in charge, Col. G. H. Mendell, with Second Lieut. C. A. F. Flagler under his immediate orders, and Lieut. Col. W. H. H. Benyaurd, with First Lieut. C. L. Potter under his immediate orders, all officers of the Corps of Engineers. The approved project of defense contemplates, for the present, eighteen 12-inch guns on lifts, twenty-three 10-inch, and thirteen 8-inch guns on disappearing carriages, fifteen 12-inch, five 10-inch, and six 8-inch guns on nondisappearing carriages, one hundred and forty-four 12inch mortars, and submarine mines operated from seven mining case
One mining casemate is completed, and two, while incomplete, can readily be completed while in use.
Col. Mendell has charge of the construction of emplacements for three 10-inch guns on disappearing carriages and for three 10-inch guns on nondisappearing carriages, and of a battery for sixteen 12-inch mortars. Three of the gun emplacements are completed as far as can be pending the adoption of service-depressing carriages; the remaining three are practically ready for their platforms.
Ground was broken for the mortar battery on April 5, 1893. The excavation for the rooms and passages and the drainage over the excavated portion are completed. Concrete work is well underway. Rooms, passages, and one pit will be completed, including platforms in the latter, during the present year. Further details of the works under the charge of Col. Mendell are given in Appendix No. 2.
Under an allotment of $72,000 made November 9, 1892, from appropriation of July 23, 1892, Lieut. Col. Benyaurd in February, 1893, commenced the construction of emplacements for two 12-inch guns on nondisappearing carriages. An old wharf was repaired and extended;
stables and workshops erected; a concrete plant set up; and contracts were made for materials needed in the construction. The excavation, commenced in February, continued until the end of April, included the removal of old concrete and stone masonry, and amounted to 5,399 cubic yards. The natural site is loose rock, untit, however, for concrete. So far the excavation has been for magazines and wingwalls, and has not included that for the parapet. One thousand three hundred and eighty-four cubic yards of concrete has been placed in posi tion.
Lieut. Col. Benyaurd commenced the construction of a mining casemate in January. When doors, steps, and a surface drain have been put in the casemate will have been completed. Further details as to this work are given in Appendix No. 3.
Of the emplacements under construction, as above reported, two being provided with lifts need no additional platforms, and those for twenty mortars will be provided with platforms with funds appropriated by act of February 18, 1893. But emplacements for two 12-inch, seventeen 10-inch, and five 8-inch guns, and for forty-four 12-inch mortars are, or during the present working season will be, ready for their platforms. The guns and mortars will be ready for all of these by June 30, 1894, and mounting these should not be delayed. An estimate of $264,000 is therefore submitted for gun and mortar platforms.
An estimate of $51,550 is submitted for the purchase of submarine mines and necessary appliances. As above reported, many casemates have been built, but cable and mines, with storage buildings and tanks, have to be purchased or built, and the amount estimated will enable this preparation to be continued. The estimate of $50,000 for needful casemates and cable galleries, which is submitted, will by no means suffice for the construction of casemates whose construction is projected, but will, with the available balance, enable this work to progress with that of the construction of correllated defenses.
SITES FOR FORTIFICATIONS.
These are acquired by condemnation, purchase, or donation, as authorized by the act approved August 18, 1890.
During the fiscal year payment has been made for five small lots, part of the site for mortar batteries, and for three lots, part of the site for a gun battery, at Grovers Cliff, Mass. About four acres remain to be acquired at these sites. Condemnation proceedings to acquire this remnant were instituted, but suspended on receipt of favorable propositions to sell. The acceptance of these has been authorized, but the purchase is still incomplete.
Near Fort Wadsworth four tracts having an area of 82 acres, with the buildings thereon, have been acquired by condemnation. The value of this property as adjudged by the court of condemnation in November, 1892, was $568,030; and the price paid by the United States January 9, 1893, was $599,497.30. The excess of the price paid over the adjudged value includes costs, extra allowances, interest for one month and fifteen days at 6 per cent, services of district attorney and commissioners, and expenses attending condemnation.
By the act of the legislature of the State of New York, March 27, 1893, jurisdiction was ceded to the United States over the land acquired adjacent to the eastern side of the Fort Hamilton reservation.
By act approved July 23, 1892, an appropriation of $5,000, or so much thereof as might be necessary, was made to enable the Secretary of
War, in his discretion, to purchase the land adjoining the Government reservation at Sandy Hook, N. J., now belonging to the grantees of the Highland Beach Association of New Jersey, together with the right of way from said land to the main line of the Central Railroad Company of New Jersey, together with the rails, ties, switches, and all the railroad equipment on said lands."
The purchase has been made at a cost of $25,000; the area acquired is represented as being nearly 28 acres.
Proceedings were continued looking to the acquisition of 90.6 acres at Sheridans Point below Washington, D. C., on the Potomac River. The commissioners first appointed to appraise this tract assessed it at $140 per acre. This figure being considered excessive, new proceedings were instituted. The commissioners under the new proceedings appraised the land at about $150 per acre. The United States district attorney was of the opinion that no lower appraisement could be hoped for, and hence the last was accepted and the report of the commissioners was confirmed June 10, 1893. The award of $13,576.87 was paid in July, 1893, in conformity to the orders of the United States circuit court for the eastern district of Virginia.
A tract of 54.05 acres at Point Lobos, Cal., was condemned, and December 29, 1892, the award therefor of $75,000 and incidental expenses so far reported, amounting to $406.10, have been paid This tract is
to be used as a site for part of the defenses of San Francisco.
At Cushings Island, Portland Harbor, Me., a detailed survey has been made to determine the minimum area needed on that island as a site for batteries for the defense of the harbor. The Secretary of War has requested the Department of Justice to institute proceedings for the condemnation of about 33.4 acres.
After payment is made for the tracts at Sheridans Point, Va., and Cushings Island, Me., the balance of available funds will probably not exceed $75,000. It is estimated that nearly 1,700 acres should be acquired at different localities on the coast; much of this land continues to increase in value from year to year, and it is to the interest of the Government that it should be acquired at an early date. Therefore, an estimate of $500,000 is submitted for the purchase of sites for seacoast defenses.
PROTECTION OF THE SITE OF FORT NIAGARA, NEW YORK.
Officer in charge, Capt. Dan C. Kingman, Corps of Engineers; Division Engineer, Col. Henry L. Abbot, Corps of Engineers.
Protection of site.-Operations have been in progress for the protec tion of the site of Fort Niagara under allotments made from the appro priations for "sea walls and embankments" and preservation and repair of fortifications. The project provides for the repair of the sea wall along the lake front, the construction of dikes of fascines, iron. pickets, and stone along the river and a portion of the lake front, and the filling in behind these dikes along the river front to a height of 6 feet above low water, leaving a flat slope down to the water. this slope is a level place wide enough for a roadway, then a steeper slope up to the general level of the site, the lower slope to be protected by a growth of willows and the upper one by sod.
The total amount expended under this project to June 30, 1893, is $29,717.13, which has resulted in the repair of the sea wall, the construction of 1,711 linear feet of dike work, 941 feet of which is along the river, the construction of a concrete breakwater in front of the north
west angle to protect the wall, and in grading the bank along the river front according to the project for a distance of 941 feet. The grading was completed late in the season, and, as it was impossible to induce a growth of willows on this slope that would be any protection to it dur ing the winter and spring freshets, it was therefore covered with a rough pavement of stone. This answers the purpose so well that there seems to be no occasion to plant the willow.
July 1, 1892, balance unexpended...
June 30, 1893, amount expended during fiscal year.
July 1, 1893, balance unexpended...
Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project
Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1895. 13, 000.00 (See Appendix No. 4.)
SEA WALL AND EMBANKMENT AT DAVIDS ISLAND, NEW YORK HARBOR
Officers of the Corps of Engineers in charge: Col. D. C. Houston, until May 18, 1893; Lieut. Col. H. M. Robert, since June 12, 1893, and First Lieut. T. H. Rees has been under the immediate orders of Col. Houston and Lieut. Col. Robert since April 5, 1893, except from May 18 to June 12, during which period he was temporarily in charge of work.
Davids Island, 21 miles distant by water from the Battery, New York City, is one of the principal recruiting stations of the Army. On the east side of the island was a bay into which garbage and refuse matter frequently drifted, becoming a source of annoyance and possible disease to the troops stationed there. Separated from the bay by a low sand beach was a fresh water pond, formerly used as a water sup ply during drought, and still used as an ice pond.
To protect the pond from salt water, as well as for sanitary reasons, the construction of a sea wall in front of this beach was recommended in 1883 and 1884. In 1886 $47,000 was estimated as the cost of a masonry wall about 980 feet long, with embankment behind, the wall to be placed near low-water line and to rise to 12 feet above mean low-water level.
Under the appropriation of September 22, 1888, $47,000 was allotted for this sea wall and embankment. Recent stringent regulations prevent the deposit of garbage in this vicinity; therefore a riprap wall with dimension stone capping was substituted for the masonry wall originally designed, the cost being less and the wall equally effective. The sea wall was completed in April, 1890.
The wall and embankment are in good condition. Slight repair to the embankment is needed where heavy storms have washed away part of the earth.
A survey of the shores of the island made in June, 1891, to prepare estimates of cost of other needed sea walls upon this island showed that protection is needed at the west shore, north of the coal dock. A suitable sea wall with embankment at this place is estimated to cost $30,000. Estimates for other sea walls were also presented, but they are not deemed of as pressing importance as this one.
July 1, 1892, balance unexpended..
Amount transferred to allotment for sea wall at Governors Island, New York
July 1, 1893, balance unexpended
Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project. Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30,1895.. (See Appendix 5 A.)