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the consignor, consignee, or other person interested in the shipment after its delivery to the vessel. The Commission shall, in such manner as will preserve for the carrier by water the protection of limited liability provided by law, make such rules and regulations not inconsistent herewith as will prescribe the form of such through bill of lading. In all such cases it shall be the duty of the carrier by railroad to deliver such shipment to the vessel as a part of its undertaking as a common carrier. (5) The issuance of a through bill of lading covering shipments provided for herein shall not be held to constitute 'an arrangement for continuous carriage or shipment' within the meaning of this Act." 15

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"The Commission may, after investigation, order any carrier by railroad subject to this Act, within a time specified in the order, to install automatic train-stop or train-control devices or other safety devices, which comply with specifications and requirements prescribed by the Commission, upon the whole or any part of its railroad, such order to be issued and published at least two years before the date specified for its fulfillment: Provided, That a carrier shall not be held to be negligent because of its failure to install such devices upon a portion of its railroad not included in the order; and any action arising because of an accident happening upon such portion of its railroad shall be determined without consideration of the use of such devices upon another portion of its railroad. Any common carrier which refuses or neglects to comply with any order of the Commission made under the authority conferred by this section shall be liable to a penalty of $100 for each day that such refusal or neglect continues, which shall accrue to the United States, and may be recovered in a civil action brought by the United States." 16

"(11) Any common carrier, railroad, or transportation company subject to the provisions of this Act receiving property for transportation from a point in one State or Territory or the District of Columbia to a point in another State, Territory, District of Columbia, or from any point in the United States.

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to a point in an adjacent foreign country shall issue a receipt or bill of lading therefor, and shall be liable to the lawful holder thereof for any loss, damage, or injury to such property caused by it or by any common carrier, railroad, or transportation company to which such property may be delivered or over whose line or lines such property may pass within the United States or within an adjacent foreign country when transported on a through bill of lading, and no contract, receipt, rule, regulation, or other limitation of any character whatsoever, shall exempt such common carrier, railroad, or transportation company from the liability hereby imposed; and any such common carrier, railroad, or transportation company so receiving property for transportation from a point in one State, Territory, or the District of Columbia to a point in another State or Territory, or from a point in a State or Territory to a point in the District of Columbia, or from any point in the United States to a point in an adjacent foreign country, or for transportation wholly within a Territory shall be liable to the lawful holder of said receipt, or bill of lading or to any party entitled to recover thereon, whether such receipt or bill of lading has been issued or not, for the full actual loss, damage, or injury to such property caused by it or by any such common carrier, railroad, or transportation company to which such property may be delivered or over whose line or lines such property may pass within the United States or within an adjacent foreign country when transported on a through bill of lading, notwithstanding any limitation of liability or limitation of the amount of recovery or representation or agreement as to value in any such receipt or bill of lading, or in any contract, rule, regulation, or in any tariff filed with the Interstate Commerce Commission; and any such limitation, without respect to the manner or form in which it is sought to be made is hereby declared to be unlawful and void: Provided, That if the loss, damage, or injury occurs while the property is in the custody of a carrier by water the liability of such carrier shall be determined by and under the laws and regulations applicable to transportation by water, and the liability of the initial carrier shall be the same as that of such carrier by water: Provided, however, That the provisions hereof respecting liability for full actual loss, damage, or injury, notwithstanding any limitation

of liability or recovery or representation or agreement or release as to value, and declaring any such limitation to be unlawful and void, shall not apply, first, to baggage carried on passenger trains or boats, or trains or boats carrying passengers; second, to property, except ordinary live stock, received for transportation concerning which the carrier shall have been or shall hereafter be expressly authorized or required by order of the Interstate Commerce Commission to establish and maintain rates dependent upon the value declared in writing by the shipper or agreed upon in writing as the released value of the property, in which case such declaration or agreement shall have no other effect than to limit liability and recovery to an amount not exceeding the value so declared or released, and shall not, so far as relates to values, be held to be a violation of section ten of this Act to regulate commerce, as amended; and any tariff schedule which may be filed with the commission pursuant to such order shall contain specific reference thereto and may establish rates varying with the value so declared or agreed upon; and the commission is hereby empowered to make such order in cases where rates dependent upon and varying with declared or agreed values would, in its opinion, be just and reasonable under the circumstances and conditions surrounding the transportation. The term 'ordinary live stock' shall include all cattle, swine, sheep, goats, horses, and mules, except such as are chiefly valuable for breeding, racing, show purposes, or other special uses: Provided further, That nothing in this section shall deprive any holder of such receipt or bill of lading of any remedy or right of action which he has under the existing law: Provided further, That it shall be unlawful for any such common carrier to provide by rule, contract, regulation, or otherwise a shorter period for giving notice of claims than ninety days, for the filing of claims than four months, and for the institution of suits than two years, such period for institution of suits to be computed from the day when notice in writing is given by the carrier to the claimant that the carrier has disallowed the claim or any part or parts thereof specified in the notice: Provided, however, That if the loss, damage, or injury complained of was due to delay or damage while being loaded or unloaded, or damaged in transit by

carelessness or negligence, then no notice of claim nor filing of claim shall be required as a condition precedent to recovery." 17 “(12) The common carrier, railroad, or transportation com pany issuing such receipt or bill of lading shall be entitled to recover from the common carrier, railroad, or transportation company on whose line the loss, damage, or injury shall have been sustained the amount of such loss, damage, or injury as it may be required to pay to the owners of such property, as may be evidenced by any receipt, judgment, or transcript there

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"(a) When used in this section

"The term 'carrier' means a carrier by railroad which, during any part of the period of Federal control, engaged as a common carrier in general transportation, and competed for traffic, or connected, with a railroad under Federal control, and which sustained a deficit in its railway operating income for that portion (as a whole) of the period of Federal control during which it operated its own railroad or system of transportation; but does not include any street or interurban electric railway which has as its principal source of operating revenue urban, suburban, or interurban passenger traffic or sale of power, heat, and light, or both; and

"The term "test period' means the three years ending June 30, 1917.

(b) For the purposes of this section

"Railway operating income or any deficit therein for the period of Federal control shall be computed in a manner similar to that provided in section 209 with respect to such income or deficit for the guaranty period; and

"Railway operating income or any deficit therein for the test period shall be computed in the manner provided in section 1 of the Federal Control Act.

"(c) As soon as practicable after March 1, 1920, the Commission shall ascertain for every carrier, for every month of

17 Act of Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, $ 20, 24 St. at L. 386, as amended, June 29, 1906, ch. 3591, § 7, 34 St. at L. 593, Aug. 9, 1916, ch. 301, 39 St. at L. 441, Feb. 28, 1920, ch. $$ 436-438, Comp. St. § 8604a.

18 Act of Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, § 20, 24 St. at L. 386, as amended June 29, 1906, ch. 3591, § 7, 34 St. at L. 593, Feb. 28, 1920, ch. -, $ 436, Comp. St. § 8604aa.

the period of Federal control during which its railroad or system of transportation was not under Federal operation, its defieit in railway operating income, if any, and its railway operating income, if any, (hereinafter called 'Federal control return'), and the average of its deficit in railway operating income, if any, and of its railway operating income, if any, for the three corresponding months of the test period taken together, (hereinafter called test period return'): Provided, That 'test period return,' in the case of a carrier which operated its railroad or system of transportation for at least one year during, but not for the whole of, the test period, means its railway operating income, or the deficit therein, for the corresponding month during the test period, or the average thereof for the corresponding months during the test period taken together, during which the carrier operated its railroad or system of transportation.

(d) For every month of the period of Federal control during which the railroad or system of transportation of the carrier was not under Federal operation, the Commission shall then ascertain (1) the difference between its Federal control return, if a deficit, and its test period return, if a smaller deficit, or (2) the difference between its test period return, if an income, and its Federal control return, if a smaller income, or (3) the sum of its Federal control return, if a deficit, plus its test period return, if an income. The sum of such amounts shall be credited to the carrier.

"(e) For every such month the Commission shall then ascertain (1) the difference between the carrier's Federal control return, if an income, and its test period return, if a smaller income, or (2) the difference between its test period return, if a deficit, and its Federal control return, if a smaller deficit, or (3) the sum of its Federal control return, if an income, plus its test period return, if a deficit. The sum of such amounts shall be credited to the United States.

(f) If the sum of the amounts so credited to the carrier under subdivision (d) exceeds the sum of the amounts so credited to the United States under subdivision (e), the difference shall be payable to the carrier. In the case of a carrier which operated its railroad or system of transportation for less than a year during, or for none of, the test period, the foregoing computations shall not be used, but there shall be payable to

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