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Reality; XVI. The limits of the Period which Authentic Historyassigns as that daring which the Conception of the Mythical Christ must have been created and developed in its fullness; XVII. The Evidence afforded by the Epistles for the early existence of the Portraiture of the Christ; XVIII. The Nature and Character of the Mythic Gospels; XIX. Features of the Gospels which are inconsistent with the supposition of their unhistorical character.
These various topics are treated candidly and in a scholarly spirit. The impression of the argument is somewhat weakened by the want of severe consecution in the statement of it and by the introduction of so many themes which bear on the main proposition to be sure, and which are instructively handled, but which do not always tend directly to establish the case. On the whole, the work will be found a very useful one, and it is peculiarly timely.
Hard Wick's Church Histories.*—Among the publications of Macmillan <fc Co. (who have now established a branch of their house in New York), the works of the late Archdeacon Hardwick are of much value to theologians. His "Christ and other Masters" is a thorough survey of the heathen or ethnic religions, their history and doctrinal characteristics. The manuals of Church History, of which the titles are given below, are not mere compilations, but exhibit the fruits of original research. At the same time, the best works in this department, especially the German writers, have been well studied and faithfully used.
Lightfoot's Edition Of Clement Of RoME.f—This is the first installment of a new edition of the Apostolic Fathers, which is to be edited by the learned Hulsean Professor of Divinity at
* History of the Christian Church. Middle Age. By Charles Hardwick, formerly Teller of St. Catharine's Church and Archdeacon of Ely. Second Edition. Edited by Francis Proctor, M. A. Cambridge and London: Macmillan A Co. 1868.
• A Hitton/ of the Christian Church during the Reformation. [Same author editor, and publishers. 1865.]
f 8. Clement of Rome. The Two Epistles to the Corinthians. A revised text with introduction and notes. By J. B. Ligrtfoot, D. D., Hulsean Professor of Dmnhy, and Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. London and Cambridge: Macmillan & Co. 1869. New York: 62 Bleecker street.
Cambridge, Dr. Lightfoot. The commentaries of Dr. Lightfoot upon the Epistle to the Galatians and the Epistle to the Philippians are of the highest merit, and will secure a favorable attention to the important literary undertaking which he has now in hand. The present volume contains the carefully-revised text of the first, or geunine, Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians, and of the spurious fragment, called the second epistle—together with an elaborate introduction and numerous marginal notes. The judicious and candid spirit of the edition are everywhere manifest. We may adduce, as an example, his remarks on chapter xi. of the first epistle—the passage relative to the High Priest, the Priests and Levites, on which so much reliance has been placed by High Church theologians. "Does the analogy"—between the Old Testament Priesthood and the Christian ministry—"extend to the three orders?" The answer to this seems to be that, though the episcopate seems to have been widely established in Asia Minor at this time (see Philippians, p. 209), this epistle throughout only recognizes two orders, presbyters and deacons, as existing at Corinth." "Later writers, indeed, did dwell on the analogy of the three-fold ministry; but we cannot argue back from them to Clement, in whose epistle the very element of threefoldnsss, which gives force to such a comparison, is wanting." We cannot agree with everything that is said on this subject by Dr. Lightfoot, in this volume and in the Essay on the Ministry, which is connected with his work on the Philippians. But the points of difference between us would not be very great, and if the discussion were always conducted in the enlightened and fair spirit which he exhibits, the so-called Episcopal controversy might soon be terminated.
Binney's Sermons.*—We need not eat the whole of a pineapple to get some idea of its pungent flavor. As far as we have examined this book of sermons, we have received an impression that it is one of the strongest contributions to this kind of literature that these last days, so fruitful in publications of this sort, have produced. The exceedingly high reputation of its author as a pulpit-orator is amply sustained by these sermons. While they do not possess the elegance and the rare philosophic tone of Rob
* Sermons preached in tie King's Weigh-house Chapel, London, 1829-1869. By T. Biknet. London: Macmillan and Co. 1869.
ertson's discourses, they are superior to Robertson's sermons in robust logic, and strong, clear thought, often presenting most forcible and massive views of truth. They are eminently fitted to instruct, and to build up the people in the saving doctrines of the gospel. Some of them are treatises rather than sermons; and, indeed, the author says in his preface, that he has expanded the thoughts in some of the sermons after they were delivered.
We should judge that the main characteristic of Dr. Binney's preaching was a thoughtful, didactic method, calmly explaining and reasoning upon the truth, and drawing out by a process of steady, close thinking, the richness of the Divine word, though sometimes bursting away from the logical method, and rising into strains of brief aud powerful eloquence. These discourses are evidently the elaborated ones of a long ministry. They could not be samples of every-day, ordinary, popular preaching, although characteristic of the author's general manner. In a sermon entitled "Man in Understanding," the preacher sets forth his own conception of what preaching should be, which affords incidentally a noble description of his own style. He says (p. 90) "Preaching may be too elementary, and it may not be elementary enongh. In some parts of the church, where a very simple style of preaching prevails, there is the constant reiteration of just the three or four truths which make up what we call the Gospel. The people are thus always kept at the alphabet, or in the spelling book, or in the shortest and easiest reading lessons, and are never introduced to the high arguments which lie beyond. In other parts of the church, where a style of preaching more abstruse and argumentative prevails, the result is, that theology is taught rather than religion—the preacher becomes more of a lecturer or professor going through his argument, than a minister in the church speaking 'to instruction, edification, and comfort' and giving to the flock its 'portion of meat in due season.' The danger here is, too, that plain, elementary instruction will be gone through, and discussions indulged in, which take too much for granted, and for which the people are not prepared. They will be like reading the higher authors before the pupils have learnt anything of grammar. The great thing is, for Christian people to be such thorough 'men,' that they may delight in being introduced to 'the deep things of God,' and may be able to benefit by the higher forms of discipline and argument. Very simple and elementary preaching is very proper, and very important in it; place; but the Bible is a book which demands, both for explanation and defense, a great deal beyond that. The character and wants of the age, the popular and plausible forms of error, the ignorance in the church, and the subtlety of the world, together with the nature, the magnitude, and grandeur, of Christian truth, all demand, both in preachers and hearers, greater efforts after that 'manly understanding' which includes in it, among other things, accurate knowledge and large intelligence in relation to all spiritual truth."
For the department of sermonizing, which the discourses represent, we know of no finer illustrations than these in modern literature. The sermons entitled "The Words of Jesus, and what underlie them," "The Blessed God," and ''Salvation by fire, and Salvation in fullness," are peculiarly to be commended for their richness of thought and power. The discourse on morality in trade, under the title of " Buying and Selling," might be profitably preached in America as well as in England.
Lamps, Pitchers, And Trumpets.*—This volume is the first of two series of lectures, printed in England in one work, mostly delivered to the students in Spurgeon's "Pastor's College;" to be followed by the reprint of the second series, the latter to be devoted chiefly to examples in our own time, while this is occupied mainly with the past. The quaint title, we need not say, is taken from the history of Gideon and his three hundred men, their peculiar implements being conceived of as symbolic of different sorts of preachers. It departs from the received standard in books of homiletics, being more anecdotal, as the title-page promises, and much less formal and technical in its arrangement. Indeed, it hardly admits of analysis in a brief notice. The first lecture consists mainly of notices and sketches of Fox, Whitefield, Dawson, and R. Watson, and, going further back, of Bishop Andrewes, with extracts of what is called " the romance of the pulpit," including, also, certain continental preachers in the Reformation, such as Alexander de la Croix, Caturce, and another, martyrs, with later English and American Methodists, and also Edwards
* Lamp*, Pitchers, and Trumpets: Lectures on the Vocation of the Preacher, illustrated by anecdotes, biographical, historical, and elucidatory, from the Great Preachers of all ages. By Edwin Paxton Hood. New York: M. W. Dodd. 1869. 12mo. pp. 453.
and again Whitefield. The second lecture treats of the preacher's vocation, as instructive and awakening, addressed especially to the conscience, and demanding the culture of all our powers. The Bible is set forth as a model, and the Hebrew prophets are depicted, with excellent quotations from Dean Stanley. As an example of the Puritans, Heury Smith is described, and among the later preachers, still more fully Robert Robinson, the translator of Saurin. The Jewish Church is the fim subject of the third lecture, which gives a representation of Isaiah, and also (the fiist of what the author calls his "pulpit monographs ") of Paul, as of the apostolic age—an animated delineation. The fourth lecture is devoted to the early Church, giving accounts of Clemens, Origen, Tertullian, Athanasius, Basil, Augustine, and more particularly Chrysostom. In the fifth, we have the medieval and postmedieval preachers, among them noted friars, and an interesting account of Segneri (though of the seventeenth century), called tbe Italian Whitefield, with citations, followed by a fuller monograph of St. Bernard. The sixth lecture treats of the great preachers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and is the more interesting as commemorating some not now so familiarly known as they should be, such as Playfere, John Stoughton, Wilkinson (with extracts), Richard Bernard, Trapp, and Everard, adding a fuller sketch of the Puritan, Thomas Adams. The subject of the seventh is wit, humor, and coarseness in the pulpit, with specimens. South is dealt with more severely, and hence more justly than by most writers. The next lecture discusses the use and abuse of the imagination, and the various forms of illustration, analogies, parables, allegories, overwrought descriptions, and gives an ample description of Christmas Evans. "The style best adapted for usefulness in the pulpit," is the subject of the closing lecture. The author would have the preacher study words and cherish enthusiasm, and dissuades him from multiplying other interpretations and opinions than his own, and from the declamatory and verbose and excessively smooth styles. Interesting extracts are given from Luther, and still more fully from the Abbe Mullois' book, " The Church and the Pulpit." Much account is made of what is called "the power and accent of conviction," and of preaching to the conscience. Illustrations are taken from James Parsons, and full and interesting extracts from Alexander Raleigh, with an appeal for earnestness. From this enumeration of the contents, it will be seen that these lectures are fitted to be