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some striking weaknesses in Bunsen's mind and character in order to love and admire his manifold excellencies, his beautiful life, and to more than admire his beautiful Christian death.
Thb Autobiography Of Court-preacher Krummacher* is given to the public in an English translation—almost within twelve months of his death. It is a life in which many American readers will naturally feel a strong interest from their knowledge of the author and subject of it through his Elijah the Tishbite, and many other well known volumes. The reader who is attracted to it from his interest in the author, will find an additional interest awakened from the fullness and variety of information which it contains concerning many important matters pertaining to the religious history of Germany for the last half century. The scene shifts from Halle to Jena, from Jena to Frankfort on the Maine, from Frankfort to Ruhrort, from Ruhrort to the Wupperthal, the place of a very decided and strongly marked religious activity, from Elberfeldt to Berlin and Potsdam, where Krummacher died. In connection with his residence in each of these places, the Author gives lively sketches of the social and religious condition of the community, and of the most distinguished personages with whom he came into contact. For these reasons his biography is as truly a sketch of his times as it is of the incidents of his own life, and his portraitures are almost as full and vivid of some of his contemporaries as the one which he sketches of himself. Thus, in connection with his University studies at Halle, he gives his lively recollections of Niemeyer, Wegscheider, Gesenius, DeWette, and Knapp, at the time when Knapp was the only champion of the Gospel against the current Rationalism. His residence at Jena suggests his recollections of Fries and Schott, and the memorable Wartburg festival of 1817. Frankfort on the Maine recalls full notices of many distinguished preachers whose names are scarcely known in this country. His pastorates in Ruhrort and the Wupperthal open to us a view of the peculiar religious life which for so many years has distinguished that portion of Germany. His residence in Berlin gives occasion to very lively and lifelike sketches of the preachers with whom he
* Fredrick Wilhelm Krummacher: An Autobiography. Edited by bis daughter. Translated by Rev. M. G. Easton, A. M. With a Preface by Professor Caibus, D. D., of Berwick. New York: Robert Carter A Brothers. 1869.
was associated, as also of Eichhorn the minister of Public Instruction and Worship, of Schelling, Steffens, Twesten, Hengsteuberg, and Neander.
Unfortunately these sketches closed with his notices of Berlin in the Revolution of 1848. We speak advisedly when we say that as a history of the times previous, this autobiography contains abundant and various information which cannot easily be obtained by an English or American reader from any other source. This information, inwrought as it is with the personal history and experiences of a prominent preacher who stood very high in a post of influence and favor with the Court, presented in a pleasant narrative, imparts to this book a peculiar charm, and entitles it to a place on the same shelf in the library with the memoirs of Niebuhr, Perthes, Passavant, and Schleiermacher.
D'aubigne's History Of The Reformation.*—The Messrs. Carters have now published the fifth volume of the second series of Dr. Merle D'Aubigne's great work on the "Reformation in the Sixteenth Century." Two volumes more will probably bring the author to the conclusion of the task which he has proposed for himself. The present volume traces the progress of the Reformation in England in the time of Heury VIII.; and then resumes the story of the work accomplished in Geneva by Farel's ministry, and brings the history down to the time of the arrival of John Calvin.
Ancient States And Empires^—Mr. Scribner has published a volume with this title, which has been prepared by Mr. John Lord, the well-known lecturer, for the special use of students in colleges and schools. The basis of his work is the admirable History of the great monarchies of the ancient world, by Mr. Philip Smith. His three large octavos are altogether too bulky for practical use as a class-book, and Mr. Lord has doue good service to the community by condensing and rearranging it.
* Hintory of the Reformation in Europe in the Time of Calvin. By J. H. Merle D'acrionr, D. D. Vol. V. Englnnd, Geneva, Ferrara. New York: R. Carter 4 Brothers. 1869. 12mo. pp. 470.
f Ancient Blatet and Empiree, for Colleges and Schools. By John Lord, LL.D. New York: Charles Scribner A Co. 1869. 8vo. pp. 645.
Across America And Asia.*—Among the many points of interest which are discussed in this meritorious and successful narrative of a journey around the world, it is not easy to select the most worthy of note. The writer has obviously been trained, by his scientific pursuits, to discrimination and quickness of observation, but he has not failed to keep up a live interest in all that pertains to human society, as well as in all the phenomena of nature; and he does not employ technical language when the phrases of every-day life serve his purpose better. There are occasional indications that he is indifferent or inattentive to the details of literary finish; but this gives no serious blemish to his work, which is an honest, spirited, instructive, and sensible recital of the more remarkable adventures and experiences of the anthor in the newest "diggings" of the new world, and among the most secluded and ancient seats of empire in the old. As a whole, then, we have heartily enjoyed and profited by this volume, as one of the most recent and most trustworthy, as well as one of the most entertaining books of travel in Arizona, Japan, China, and Siberia.
The profession of the author is that of a Mining Engineer. In this capacity he first went to our mountainous West, and under the most barbarous circumstances of border life, abounding in thrilling excitements, took charge, for several months, of a silver mine. Released from this engagement he pursued his journey through dreary routes in the wilderness to California, and was there engaged by an agent of the government of Japan—to go and examine some of the deposits of coal in that empire. On this trip he was accompanied by Prof. William P. Blake. The Japanese explorations were soon impeded and brought to a close. Mr. Pumpelly then went to China, where his services were sought for by the Imperial Government of that country, and where again, after a brief period, a change of policy put an end to his official inquiries. The overland route from Pekin to Moscow introduced the author to still new phases of adventure, and this portion of his narrative is among the most fresh and entertaining. The scientific results of his investigations in China and in Japan were printed some little time since among the publications of the Smith
* Acrost America and Alia. Notes of a Five Years' Journey Around the World, and of residence in Arizona, Japan, and China. By Raphael Pumpellt. New York: Leypoldt A Holt. pp. 404. Rvo. 1870.
sonian Institution, so that in his present volume the writer has not felt called upon to enter into detail respecting them, bnt has been free to comment on society and institutions, and the illustrations of manners and customs which attracted his eye. The comments made by Mr. Pumpelly, in respect to the treatment bestowed by western nations, and especially by the English and the Americans, on the Chinese, and the light he throws upon the modern progress of the imperial government, will be of special interest to those of our readers who have read the instructive Articles of Dr. Martin, already printed in these pages. The chapters on "the Chinese as Emigrants and Colonizers," and on "Western Policy in China," abound in suggestions which should be read with attention by all who are studying the Chinese question. Mr. Pumpelly in an advocate of fair-play for the Chinaman, both in his own land and in ours. With us, he thinks the danger most to be guarded against is the enactment or continuance of special legislation with regard to Mongolians. Everything which tends to exclude them from the rest of the community in the United States not only injures the character of the aliens, but produces among our own citizens "those moral evils which were the worst results of slavery with us." These manly and righteous sentiments in respect to the Chinese among us have their counterpart in those brought forward in respect to the procedure of the representatives of this country. "The co-operative policy," of which Sir Frederick Bruce and Mr. Burlingame were the enlightened framers, is that which Mr. Pumpelly regards as most favorable to the interests both of China and the outside world. The extension of our intercourse with the Chinese race depends, in his opinion, on the policy by which western powers shall regulate the actions of their subjects. "Both the people and the government must learn that foreign ideas and improvements are not intended to overthrow the national independence and the imperial authority." This is a very imperfect outline of Mr. Pumpelly's volume, and a meagre representation of his spirit, but we trust it is sufficient to attract many of our readers to the book. They will find in it many laughable stories, many pithy reflections, occasional allusions to well-know friends (like Dr. Martin, Mr. Blodget, Drs. S. Wells Williams, Yung Wing, etc.), some interesting cuts and route maps, a critical essay by Mr. J. Lafarge on Japanese Art, and a photo-lithographic representation of a wonderful bronze image of Buddha in Nirvana, which stands near Yokohama in Japan. VOL. xxix. 12
Ruskin's "Qiteev Of The Aib."*—Mr.Ruskin's peculiarities of thought and expression are so familiar by this time to most readers, that we might perhaps discharge our duty to them by saying that this book has the same merits and the same defects which have marked its author's works heretofore. They would then know that it must contain many generous and noble thoughts, many original and valuable remarks on art, some visionary political economy, many hasty inferences with a good deal of dogmatizing, and all expressed in a style which here and there breaks out into more genuine and glowing poetry than it is given to any other living writer to put into prose sentences. This would be a correct idea of the book ; yet, because its subject takes the author into a new field, in which we believe he has done no work for the public eye before, it seems worth while to speak more particularly of it.
This book, then, consists of a discussion of the myths about Athena, the "Queen of the Air;" or, more exactly, a rambling talk about the functions of the air in the sky and on the earth with which are inwoven all the myths which can in any way be connected with the name of Athena, so as to serve the whim of the paragraph. This is followed by a chapter entitled "Athena In the Heart," wherein is discussed the influence of what the author considers right principles upon the life of nations and individuals, and here he brings in more fully his theories of art, political economy, and morals. How much Athena has to do with this discussion may be seen from the fact that her name occurs on only six of the sixty-one pages it occupies. After this, a few words on Greek art, having for text a figure of Herakles on an ancient coin, finish the book.
Mr. Ruskin does one thing that might be considered a device of cowardice in any one who had not established as he has a reputation for sublime indifference to adverse criticism. He deliberately rejects and refuses beforehand the opinion about his book of the only class of men who are qualified to pass judgment upon the greater part of it. He says that scholars cannot be expected to understand myths—it is only the men of creative and artistic genius who can enter into and explain them. The great creative minds will of course endorse his views; for, if any one ventures
• The Queen of the Air; being a study of the Greek Myths of Cloud and Storm. By John Ruskin, LL.D. New York: Wiley A Son. 1869.