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Perhaps the most practical part of the Essay is that in which he speaks of the "flexibility of culture," or its "independence of machinery." Faith in machinery may well be called "our besetting danger." "What is freedom but machinery? what is population but machinery? what is coal but machinery? what are railroads but machinery? what is wealth but machinery? what are religious organizations but machinery?" We are not to worship these as precious ends in themselves. But, after all, does he not generally undervalue them? E. g. "the blessedness of the franchise and the wonderfulness of (our) industrial performances." He seems to despise " freedom," while he almost worships "establishments."
The Essay is very suggestive, for it abounds in felicitous hits, as when he distinguishes between "provinciality" and "totality" —when he distributes society in England into " Barbarians, Philistines, and Populace," and adds, "America is just ourselves, with the Barbarians quite left out, and the populace nearly ;" when he calls the non-conformists "hole and corner churches;" when he avers that "the whole attitude of horror and holy superiority assumed by Puritanism towards the Church of Rome," merits Sir Heury \\ ottori's rebuke, "take heed of thinking that the further you go from the church of Rome, the nearer you are to God;" when he distinguishes between "creative" and "instrumental" statesmen; when he quotes Epictetus as saying "It is a sign of a nature not finely tempered to give yourselves up to things which relate to the body; to make, e.g., a great fuss about eating, drinking, walking, riding. All these things ought to be done merely by the way; the formation of the spirit and character must be our real concern:" when he insists that "culture does not set itself against games and sports. It congratulates the future, and hopes it will make a good use of its improved physical basis; but it points out that our passing generation of boys and young men is meantime sacrificed;" that "culture is always assigning to system-makers and systems a smaller share in the bent of human destiny than their friends like" —" will not let us rivet our faith upon any one man and his doings"—labors to "humanize knowledge" by divesting it of all that is "harsh, uncouth, difficult, abstract, professional, exclusive," is eminently practical, because "even when it does not lend a hand to rough and coarse movements," it "qualifies it to act less at random," &c. How strange that only once does he make direct allusion to that "something which thwarts and spoils all our efforts, viz., sin/ With a stronger sense of human sinfulness, he might not have been no confident that " now and for us it is a time to HtUenize." It fact, be seems to feel that it is worse for those who have such a religion as ours, than for those who are utterly "without religion."
Classical Study.*—The aim of this book is to present, in a compact form, an antidote to the judgments, adverse to the study of the classics, which are enforced with earnestness by many educators at the present time. The views of twenty-one able men are here given with more or less fullness, extracted from papers which have been published within the last thirty-five years. These papers are of varying excellence; the ablest, without question, heingan extract from Mr. Mill's Inaugural before the University of St. Andrews, but no one of them is without merit.
The first, that of Rev. Mr. Jones, Principal of King William's College in the Isle of Man, is a thorough analysis of the advantages of the study of the classics in itself considered, and as compared with the pursuit of any other branch which may be made central in a college course. One might, after reading this paper aDd the Discourse of Mr. Mill, regard them as covering the entire ground involved in the discussion. But so numberless are the considerations developed by a fair consideration of the question, that the reading of each successive essay seems to add something forceful, and often something beautiful to the thoughts, that have been previously unfolded. Indeed, the book, apart from its arguments, is one of the noblest pleas that could be made for classical culture. In the plain and lucid exposition of the first paper, in the terse and pointed sentences of Mr. Mill, embracing the widest scope of knowledge, in the exact and discriminating statements of Prof. Conington, in the glow of Prof. Edwards's scholarly enthusiasm, and in the rhetoric of Mr. Thompson, one finds the precious leaven of classical training.
We think more may be made, than is made In the papers written by Americans, of the worth of preparation by classical study for the special needs of our own country; that it might be shown that classical scholarship is not in our times necessarily "devitalized," but that the exercise of the judgment in deciding between
* Clat$ical Study: IU Value Illustrated by Extracts from the Writings of Eminent Scholars. Edited with an Introduction by Samuel H. Taylor, LL.D., Principal of Phillips Academy. Andover: Warren F. Draper. 1870.
different readings and emendations, in calculating probabilities, is a training well adapted to prepare men for business life. But the value of this training for professional men, and as ennobling the entire nature, could hardly be more clearly shown by abstract arguments than in the collective writings of these scholars.
Should any one think that two or three of these papers might have been omitted, we will venture to doubt whether any two friends of classical study would agree upon the extracts to be rejected. If this be true, there could be no higher evidence of the skill with which the editor has done his work.
No one can read this book and fail to see that the classics have been made responsible for a great deal that has resulted from bad teaching. Teachers will find here valuable suggestions and will receive from these pages stimulus to constant labor, that they may bring their work up to the fine art, which it must become in order to be successful. When one reflects how few teachers in our country inspire any love for the classics in their pupils (it adds not a little to the enjoyment of reading the book to know that its compiler is eminent among the few), one does not wonder at the outcry against classical study. It may be, that as the number and importance of other branches increase, less time must be given to the classics in the future. Hence there must be wise methods and more self-sacrificing teaching, that more work and more loving work may be expended by students in their pursuit, than has been ever in the past. If the majority of our students learn to enjoy the classics before entering college, and the stand ard of admission be everywhere raised, the elective system may produce less harmful results than its opponents anticipate.
This book might become a powerful auxiliary to the cause of classical learning. Teachers might read extracts from it to their advanced classes and enforce the opinions of the writers by unfolding the precious value of the legacies in scholarship and eloquence left by such men as Legare, Edwards, Felton, and Conington, and dwelling upon the noble contributions to literature and metaphysical discussion of Mill, Porter, and McCosh. Too little effort has been made to show to our students in this way the worth of classical study. We wish that Dr. Taylor (who might so easily and so ably do it) would supplement this volume by an" other, which should exhibit in this concrete way the truth of the opinions asserted in this book. Such a volume might contain, for instance, translations of Sainte Beuve's critiques on Terence and Virgil; the chapter of Mornmsen on the earliest migrations into Italy, passages perhaps trom eminent English orators and poets, and other matter which directly and indirectly should show the effect of classical training. Though such a collection would be a more open, would it after all be a more concrete exhibition of the worth of classical scholarship than the volume before us?
Library Of Wonders.—There are books which are equally interesting, and some which are equally instructive, to boys and men, young people and old people. To this class belongs the Libraire des Merveilles, a series of books in French, relating to science, art, antiquities, etc., and written generally by men eminent in the various departments of knowledge to which they relate. The information is up to the point of the latest investigations; it is presented in clear language and a lively style; and is illustrated with numerous excellent cuts such as the art of woodengraving enables the publisher to supply at a comparatively small cost. Messrs. Charles Scribner & Co. have published translations of a number of these volumes, and propose to add others, if not the whole of the series, to their list. We commend these volumes as worthy of the attention of all lovers of good books, and especially for such as are in quest of profitable reading for boys and girls.
Among the volumes already published, are "The Wonders of Heat," "The Wonders of Optics," "Thunder and Lightning," "Pompeii," and " Egypt."
THEOLOGICAL AND RELIGIOUS.
The Earlier Years of Our Lord's Life on Earth. By the Rev. William Hanna,
D. D., LL.D. New York: Robert Carter & Brothers. 1870. 12mo. pp. 400. The Spirit of Life; or, Scripture Testimony to the Divine Person and Work
of the Holy Ghost . By E. H. Bickersteth. M. A., author of "Yesterday, ToDay, and Forever." New York: Robert Carter & Brothers. 1870. 12mo. pp. 192.
Light and Truth; or, Bible Thoughts and Themes. The Acts and the larger Epistles. By Horatio Bonar, D. D. New York: Robert Carter A Brothers. 1870. 12mo. pp. 414.
The Life, Passion, Death, and Resurrection of our Lord Jeans Christ: Being an Abridged Harmony of the four Gospels in the words of the Sacred Text. Edited by Rev. Heury Thornby. New York: Catholic Publication Society. 1870. 12mo. pp. 184.
Christ and the Church: Lectures delivered in St. Ann's Church. Eighth street, during the season of Advent, 1869. By the Rev. Thomas S. Preston. New York: Catholic Publication Society. 1870. 12mo. pp. 344.
Words of Comfort for Parents Bereaved of Little Children. Edited by William Logan, Glasgow, Scotland. New York: Robert Carter A Brothers. 1870. 12mo. pp. 387.
The Crown without the Conflict; or, Musings on the Death of Children. By the Rev. R. H. Lundie, M. A., Fairfield, Liverpool. New York: Robert Carter <fc Brothers. 1870. 24mo. pp. 29.
The Shepherd of Israel; or. Illustrations of the Inner Life. By the Rev. Duncan Macgregor, M. A., Minister of St. Peter's, Dundee, Scotland. New York: Robert Carter & Brothers. 1870. 16mo. pp. 339.
The Scripturalness and Expediency of the System of Modern Evangelism. By the Rev. W. W. Davenport . Boston: Nichols A Noyes. 1869. 8vo. pp. 81.
Sunday Laws of the State of New York, and Judicial Decisions affirming their Constitutionality. New York: New York Sabbath Committee, No. 5 Bible House. 1869. 8vo. pp. 16.
Address at the laying of the Corner Stone of the Divinity Hall of the Theological Department of Yale College, September 22, 1869. 8vo. pp. 48.
Proceedings of the Commemorative Union Meeting Of the Three Presbyterian Churches of the City of Detroit, held in the First Presbyterian Church on the evening of Sunday, December 6, 1869. Phonographically reported by Charles Flowers. 8vo. pp. 86.
The Promise of Shiloh; or, Christ's Temporal Sovereignty upon Earth: When will it be Fulfilled? By Joseph L. Lord, M. A., of the Boston Bar. Boston:
E. P. Dutton A Co. 1869. 12mo. pp. 106.
Jesus on the Throne of His Father David; or, The Tabernacle of David: When will it be built again? Sequel to ,'The Promise of Shiloh." By Joseph