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“I would have given 500 guineas for a single leigh tavern and originated that great machine, vote!” The young man had thus achieved at the committee of correspondence, for the disthe age of 29 the reputation of being the great. semination of intelligence between the coloest orator and political thinker of a land filled nies." The burgesses promptly acted upon the with celebrated public speakers and statesmen. suggestion, and were as promptly dissolved by His voice had aroused the storm ; his genius Lord Dunmore, who had succeeded Botetourt. had comprehended the exigencies of the cri. They were, every one, reëlected by the people, sis, and set the ball in motion. He had sud- and resumed their seats in the spring of 1774. denly become a "power in the state;" and The committee of correspondence had been the sceptre, departing from the hands of the duly organized, and “the plan thus proposed," wealthy planters, was wielded by the county says Mr. Irving, “by their ‘noble, patriotic sister court lawyer. The mouthpiece of resistance, colony of Virginia,' was promptly adopted by the authoritative representative of the masses the people of Massachusetts, and soon met with as distinguished from the aristocracy, and soon general concurrence.” Massachusetts had alto be the advocate of revolution, Patrick Henry ready made her courageous stand against parthenceforth occupied a post of strength from liament. The tea of the East India company which his most powerful enemies were unable had been thrown overboard in Boston harbor, to drive him. From the pursuits of his pro- and a collision between England and the colofession, to which he returned, he was soon nies was now in the highest degree probable. again recalled to the stage of public events. The The most determined patriots were therefore stamp act had been repealed, but the policy of summoned to the public councils in Virginia. laying burdens upon the colonies had pot been The Boston port bill, closing Boston harbor on abandoned. In 1767 the act levying duties June 1, speedily arrived. The leaders of the upon tea, glass, paper, and other articles, threw burgesses again met in secret consultation, and the country into renewed ferment. To curb the result was a resolution that the 1st of June the malcontents of the northern provinces, two should be set apart as “ a day of fasting, humilBritish regiments and some vessels of war were iation, and prayer" throughout the province. sent to Boston, Events ripened slowly but surely. The burgesses passed the resolution, and DunIn the spring session of 1769 the leading ad. more duly dissolved them. They retired to the vocates of resistance in the house of burgesses, Raleigh tavern as before; but public feeling of whom Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, and was too deeply aroused to content itself with the Lees were the most active and determined, protests or "articles of association." The day offered a series of resolutions which caused the of petitions and memorials had passed away; dissolution of the body by Lord Botetourt. the time for definite action had arrived. Thé Henry and his friends immediately assembled at meeting at the Raleigh in May, 1774, resulted the old Raleigh tavern in Williamsburg, and in two resolves of the utmost importance. The drew up articles of association against the use of first was that the different counties should be British merchandise, which were generally sign- recommended to elect deputies to assemble at ed by the burgesses. Here terminated for a Williamsburg, Aug. 1, to consult for the good time the struggle, and Henry returned to his of the colony. The second was that the comprofession, though he continued a member of mittee of correspondence should propose imthe burgesses. In this year he was admitted to mediately to all the colonies a general congress, the bar of the general court, where his appear to meet annually, and deliberate upon the comance was respectable, but not distinguished. mon welfare; "the first recommendation of a He was not a good " case lawyer," from defec- general congress," says Mr. Irving, “by any tive study; but in jury trials, where his won- public assembly." The deputies accordingly derful powers of oratory could be brought to assembled on Aug. 1, subscribed a new and bear upon the passions of men, he far exceeded more thorough non-importation agreement, and all his contemporaries. The effect which he appointed delegates to a general congress, to produced upon juries is said to have been al- meet at Philadelphia in September. Among most indescribable. He exercised a species of these delegates was Patrick Henry, and his magnetic fascination over them, which took voice was the first to break the silence of the their reason captive and decided the result august assembly. His fame had preceded him. without reference to the merits of the case. He was recognized and greeted as the great For 4 years Henry continued to occupy a seat champion of constitutional liberty-the man in the house of burgesses, and to practise his who, more than any other, had aroused public profession. Then the struggle between Great sentiment in, and directed the councils of, the Britain and the colonies commenced in ear- great province of Virginia. His extraordinary nest. It was plain that both sides were great- eloquence astonished all listeners. It was ly embittered, and there is every reason to “Shakespeare and Garrick combined.” When believe that Patrick Henry, Thomas Jeffer- he took his seat, there was no longer a doubt son, and other advocates of uncompromising in any mind that he was the greatest orator of resistance, desired to take advantage of the America, and one of the greatest of any land public sentiment, and precipitate the rupture. or age. In the routine of actual business Henry Early in the session of 1773, Henry, Jefferson, was surpassed by many of his associates. Here, the two Lees, and Dabney Carr met in the Ras as throughout life, his constitutional indolence interposed. But it may justly be doubted choice thenceforth but between submission and whether, by confining the exercise of his ge- open resistance. In June, Lord Dunmore fled nius to vital principles and great occasions, he with his family from Williamsburg on board did not achieve more splendid results for his the Fowey man-of-war, and in July a convencountry. A petition to the king, and an ad- tion met at Richmond which organized a comdress and memorial to the inhabitants of Great mittee of safety, consisting of 11 gentlemen, Britain, were the chief results of the congress, endowed with almost dictatorial powers. Two which adjourned in October. Henry returned regiments were directed to be immediately home with his brother delegates, and, when raised, and Patrick Henry was elected colonel asked who was “the greatest man in congress," of the first and commander of all forces to replied that Mr. Rutledge of South Carolina be enrolled ; William Woodford, colonel of was the greatest orator, but Col. George Wash- the second. Lord Dunmore at this time was ington the greatest man-an instance of his ravaging the shores of the Chesapeake and powers of penetrating into the depths of hu- threatening Norfolk, and the committee of safety man character. With the spring of the next were compelled to act promptly. They detached year, 1775, all things advanced rapidly toward Col. Woodford at the head of the greater porthe dividing line between peace and war. In tion of the forces against the enemy, and the March the second convention met at old St. result was the battle of Great Bridge, in which John's church in Richmond, and here again the raw Virginia recruits drove back the best Henry assumed a position very far in advance trained English grenadiers and gained a victory, of his associates. He rose and moved that the sending Dunmore back to his ships. The action militia should be organized, and the “colony of the committee in passing over Henry was howbe immediately put in a state of defence." The ever violently inveighed against by his friends, resolutions met with strong opposition, as had and the venerable Edmund Pendleton, the presbeen the case with his stamp act resolutions 10 ident, was especially assailed. The censure years before in the house of burgesses. The seems to have been wholly unjust. The right leading and greatest patriots warmly opposed of the committee to assign a separate command them as precipitate and ill advised. Henry's to Col. Woodford was formally stated in Henry's speech in reply was one of extraordinary elo- commission, and Woodford's military experience quence and power. With the vision of a determined the action of the committee in seprophet almost, he exclaimed: “There is no lecting him for this critical undertaking. The retreat but in submission and slavery. Our ardent feelings of Henry and his disappointment chains are forged! Their clanking may be doubtless betrayed him into resigning his comheard on the plains of Boston. The next mission, which he speedily did, though between breeze that sweeps from the north will bring Pendleton and himself there was never any to our ears the clash of resounding arms..... quarrel. He was a delegate to the convention I know not what course others may take; but which met in May, 1776, and instructed the as for me-give me liberty or give me death !" Virginia deputies to the general congress to The resolutions were passed without a dissent. propose to that body to declare the united ing voice, and the convention rose. Ere long colonies free and independent states." In the arrived the news of the battles of Lexington same year he was elected the first republican and Concord. The contest was not to be long governor of Virginia, by a majority of 15 over delayed on the soil of Virginia. In compliance his competitor Thomas Nelson. From this with general orders from England, Lord Dun- time Henry's career was rather that of the more on the night of April 20 removed clan- statesman and minister of public affairs, than destinely from the magazine in Williamsburg the ardent, imposing, almost dazzling orator all the powder of the colony. The alarm spread of revolution. From the forum he passed to rapidly throughout the province, and the people the closet, with equal advantage to his counflew to arms. Seven hundred men assembled try. He filled the office of governor by sticat Fredericsburg, but, receiving an assurance cessive reëlections until 1779, when he was that the powder would be restored, were dis- no longer eligible. During this trying period banded. Patrick Henry saw the favorable mo- he was eminently serviceable in sustaining ment thus about to pass. He determined to act public spirit and seconding the efforts of the boldly. Summoning the militia of Hanover, great leaders of the revolution. He returned he placed himself at their head, despatched a to the legislative body, where he served through troop to arrest the king's receiver-general, and out the war, at the termination of which be marched upon Williamsburg. Lord Dunmore's again elected governor, and served unti agent met him on the way, and paid £330 for autumn of 1786, when he resigned. In 178 the powder; and on his return home, Henry was a member of the convention to ratify, the found himself and his friends denounced in a federal constitution, an instrument against who public proclamation as "deluded” arousers of adoption the aged statesman fought with all sedition. But the whole province, indeed all strength and eloquence of bis youth. Altbou the land, was equally deluded. The defiance this opposition afterward abated in a measu had been given by Henry; the authority of the he remained fearful to the end of his lite king, in the person of his representative, men- the final result would be the destruction . aced with an armed force. There was no rights of the sovereign states. In 178

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tired from the bar, and removed to his estate courage. To that mysterious eloquence which of Red Hill in Charlotte. In 1795 Washington swayed and took captive all minds, he united a appointed him secretary of state, in place of nerve and resolution, which when thoroughly Edmund Randolph, who had resigned; but aroused were wholly indomitable. There Henry declined the appointment, as he did that was a hard stubborn fibre in his moral organiof envoy to France afterward offered him by zation which resisted all attacks, and defied Mr. Adams, and that of governor offered him whatever attempted to move him. At such in 1796. In March, 1799, yielding to the request moments nothing could make him shrink. The of Washington and other distinguished persons, cries of “Treason! treason!” when in 1765 and desirous of doing his part to avert what he he spoke for the first time in the house of feared would be the disastrous results of the burgesses, only made him more stubbornly bent “ resolutions of '98” just passed by the Virginia on carrying his proposition, and provoked, inhouse, he ran for the state senate in his dis- stead of terror and submission, an open and trict-John Randolph of Roanoke making his haughty defiance. Whenever he was thus first public appearance on the same occasion, in aroused from the depths of bis nature, his imsupport of the policy of the resolutions, but not mense passion, united to an intellectual strength as Henry's opponent. The great orator had only as powerful, carried him onward over all oppoto indicate his wishes to fill any public position, sition. He seemed to silence the strongestand was easily elected. But he never took his to annihilate his opponents as by a spell. In seat. The speech at Charlotte Court House was 1775 he again stood up alone, against the whole his last, and it is said to have been worthy of his body of his associates. His policy was greeted fame. As he descended from the rostrum, feeble with a storm of opposition-and unanimously but thrilling with the spirit of the encounter, a adopted. Driven as it were, without the powbystander said: “The sun has set in all his er of resistance, the convention decreed that the glory." He died within less than 3 months after militia should be organized, the gauntlet thrown ward.—Patrick Henry was undoubtedly one of down. It is not singular that a will so ironthe most extraordinary men of an extraordinary like, aided by an eloquence so extraordinary, epoch. He appeared upon the theatre of events should have overwhelmed all opposition, vigorwith the unfaltering and majestic port of the ous and weighty as that opposition was. As a chosen agent of Providence, moulded and se- mere logician, apart from the advocate, Henry verely trained for his peculiar mission. The was not of conspicuous talents; though it must country was filled with men of great and con- be conceded that in politics he was an original spicuous ability with orators, statesmen, and thinker, almost a seer. He was not a great political thinkers of the first order of excellence; lawyer, and his name remains connected with but in this assemblage of imposing figures the no large measures of policy under the new oruntaught youth of the “ Hanover slashes" tow- der of things, like that of Jefferson. He lives ered head and shoulders above the tallest. and will always live as the mouthpiece of the In the house of burgesses he bore away the revolution, the voice which uttered most boldly palm from Edmund Pendleton, Richard Henry and clearly the eternal principles of human freeLee, George Mason, and the most powerful men dom. The child of nature, untaught in colleges, of the time. In the general congress, the men and moved as it were unconsciously by some of Massachusetts and the North, as magnani- mysterious inner impulse, bis eloquence was mous as they were great in intellectual strength, right reason clothed in a natural and unforced acknowledged that Henry was the grandest passion which made every human bosom thrill, orator whom they had ever heard. Of this as at the touch of the master mind. He was a conspicuous endowment there are a thousand man of the revolution, the representative of a proofs, countless anecdotes and traditions. convulsed epoch and an indignant people; the The accounts seem so much hyperbole; but in words which he uttered were those which tremthis apparent extravagance all agree without bled upon the lips of millions. Viewed in this exception; and it is established beyond a ra- light alone-as the orator of revolution, the tional doubt, that Henry possessed a natural representative of the spirit of the age in which genius for moving men such as has rarely been he lived-he occupies perhaps a loftier and bestowed upon humanity. It was long a popu- more striking position than any other actor in lar.saying, to describe the desperate plight of a the struggle for American liberty. In person criminal, that “Patrick Henry couldn't save this celebrated man was rather striking than him;" and when the country folk desired to prepossessing. Nearly 6 feet high, spare, rawgive & speaker their highest praise, they com- boned, and slightly stooping in the shoulders, pared him to “Patrick Henry when he plead he gave no indication of the majesty and grace against the parsons." Jefferson said that he which characterized his appearance when his seemed to him to speak "as Homer wrote;" and genius was aroused. His complexion was salone who heard him in a great debate, when he low; his countenance grave, thoughtful, stern wore a diamond ring, exclaimed unconsciously: in repose, and marked with the lines of deep “ That diamond is blazing!" Undoubtedly a and painful reflection. His brows were habitlarge part of his wonderful success, against such ually contracted, and communicated to his featfearful odds as he encountered in the com- ures an air of forbidding sternness and severmencement of his career, was due to his moral ity. The mouth, with closely compressed lips, and deep furrows at the corners, was set in an 1662 in consequence of the act of uniformity, expression of unyielding resolution. When he and lived in seclusion till in 1687 he was perspoke, however, a wonderful change passed mitted again to preach by the declaration of over him. His person rose erect, his head, in- King James in favor of liberty of conscience. stead of stooping, was held proudly aloft, and From that time he held public religious services the whole man seemed to undergo a transfor- near his residence at Broad Oak, which were mation. The power which he possessed of ex- attended by throngs from distant places, and pressing feeling by a simple movement of feat- also preached frequently in various parts of the ure was extraordinary. The stern face would country. Many of his sermons and expositions relax and grow soft, pensive, and gentle; or a have been published since his death. His biogwithering rage would burn in the fiery eyes; raphy, by his son Matthew Henry (London, or eyes, mouth, and voice would convey to 1698), has passed through inany editions, the listener emotions of the tenderest pathos. MATTHEW, an English biblical commentator and In private life he was kindly, good-humored, nonconformist divine, son of the preceding, born and agreeable. He possessed a dry humor at Broad Oak, Flintshire, Oct. 18, 1662, died in which was very attractive. He indulged in Nantwich, June 22, 1714. From childhood he none of the vices of high living then prevalent; was remarkable for the activity of his mind. temperate, frugal, rarely drinking any thing but He could read the Bible in his 3d year, and the water, he presented a strong contrast to his Greek Testament in his 9th. In 1685 he entercontemporaries. His reading was not exten- ed Gray's Inn as a student of law, though withsive, but serious and solid. Livy was his favor- out any view to pursuing the legal profession, ite historian; but his reading was chiefly con- his inclination being for the ministry. His first fined to the Bible. He was a devout Christian, efforts at public preaching were received with and when governor had printed and circulated the highest favor, and he was soon invited to at his own expense Soame Jenyn's.“ View of Chester, where, being ordained in 1687, he Christianity," and Butler's “Analogy." Sher- drew around him a large congregation, to which lock's sermons he read every Sunday evening to he ministered for 25 years. During this period his family, after which all joined in sacred mu- he more than once went through the entire sic, while he accompanied them upon the violin. Bible in a course of expository lectures, which All the accounts of his personal bearing repre- he continued at Hackney, whither he removed sent it as simple, plain, and cordial. There in 1712. He thus gradually completed his celewas an honest good feeling in his manner which brated “Exposition" of the Bible, a large porinduced the commonest persons to approach him tion of which was uttered in his public lecwith confidence. By this class he was almost tures, while many of the quaint and striking idolized ; and throughout his whole career he sayings and pithy remarks which give such a retained their unbounded admiration, attach- charm to its pages were the familiar extempore ment, and respect. Indeed, it is as the "tri. observations of his father at family, worship, bune of the people" that Henry's name will noted down by Matthew in his boyhood. The descend to the remotest posterity. It was first collective edition was published in 1710 (5 always as the representative of the masses that vols. fol., London), and it has been many times he presented himself. He never desired to be reprinted. Mr. Henry's other works include other than this. “Stick to the people, old fel. “Life and Death of Rev. Philip Henry" (8v0., low,” said a rough neighbor; “if you take the 1698); “Method of Prayer" (8vo., 1710); “Treaback track, we are gone." He never took the tise on Baptism;"" Communicant's Companion" back track. He was raised among the plain, (12mo., 1731). A collection of his miscellaneous brave, honest class whom he represented, and works, in 1 vol. 8vo., appeared in London in 1830. never wished to desert them. As in his fiery HENRY, ROBERT, LL.D., president of the youth there was something chivalric and nobly college of South Carolina, born in Charleston, honest, so in his old age there was a patriarchal S. O., Dec. 6, 1792, died in Columbia, Feb. 6, simplicity and absence of every thing which 1856. He was educated in the vicinity of Londetracted from the majestic proportions. Hav- don and at the university of Edinburgh, where ing performed the great mission for which Prov- he was graduated in 1814. He chose the minidence designed him, he disappeared at nearly istry as his profession, and after a short resithe same moment with his friend George Wash- dence on the continent returned to Charleston, ington, leaving his fame where it will be safe, and became pastor there of the French Proteswith the people of America. The life of tant church, preaching alternately in French Patrick Henry has been written by William and English. In 1818 he was elected professor Wirt (8vo., 1817), and by A. H. Everett, in of logic and moral philosophy in the South Sparks's “Americart Biography.”

Carolina college; in 1824 the department of HENRY, PHILIP, an English nonconformist metaphysics was assigned him, to which that divine, born in Whitehall, London, Aug. 24, of belles-lettres was subsequently joined; in 1631, died June 24, 1696. He was educated at 1833 he became president pro tempore, and in Westminster school and at Christchurch, Ox- 1842 was unanimously elected permanent presiford, was ordained to the ministry at Worthen- dent of the college. He resigned this office in bury, Flintshire, in 1657, was one of the 2,000 1845, and from that time held the professorship clergymen who left the church of England in of the Greek language and literature. He was one of the ablest contributors to the “South- his conclusions in 1800. In 1803 he published ern Review;" among his articles were reviews his experiments on the quantity of gases abof Niebuhr's “Roman History," La Motte Fou- sorbed by water at different temperatures, and qué, and Goethe's “Wilhelm Meister.” He also he established the law “that water takes up of published several sermons and eulogies.

gas condensed by one, two, or more additional • HENRY, ROBERT, a Scottish divine and his- atmospheres, & quantity which would be equal torian, born in the parish of St. Ninian's, Stir- to twice, thrice, &c., the volume absorbed unlingshire, Feb. 18, 1718, died near Edinburgh, der the common pressure of the atmosphere." Nov. 24, 1790. He was educated at the univer- He is the author of a work entitled “Elements sity of Edinburgh, and was afterward master of of Chemistry" (London, 1823), which has gone the grammar school of Annan till in 1746 he through 10 editions. was licensed as a preacher. He was pastor of HENRY THE NAVIGATOR, a Portuguese a Presbyterian congregation at Carlisle from prince, born in Oporto, March 13, 1394, died at 1748 to 1760, at Berwick-upon-Tweed from Sagres, Nov. 13, 1463. . He was the á son of 1760 to 1763, and afterward in Edinburgh. King John I. of Portugal and Philippa, daughter His principal work is a “History of Great Brit- of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster. While ain" (6 vols., Edinburgh and London, 1771- still a youth he displayed his courage in war '93), written on a new plan, in accordance with with the Moors of Barbary, and was knighted which each period occupied a volume, and each for his bravery in the expedition which achieved volume was divided into 7 chapters, which the conquest of Ceuta in 1415. On his return treated separately and successively the civil and from this expedition he fixed his residence at military transactions, the ecclesiastical affairs, Sagres in Algarve, near Cape St. Vincent, and the history of the constitution and laws, the occupied himself with sending out vessels to state of learning and literature, the state of cruise against the Moors and to harass the arts and manufactures, the history of com- coast of Africa, where he made himself three merce, and the history of manners and customs. campaigns. He was, however, impelled by It extended to the death of Henry VIII., and higher motives than those of the mere soldier. was continued to the accession of James I. by He was distinguished for learning, particularly J. P. Andrews (London, 1794). The earlier for mathematical and geographical knowledge. volumes of Dr. Henry's history were assailed Ho founded at Sagres an observatory and a with malignity pertinacity by Gilbert Stuart, school where young noblemen were instructed the terror of the Scottish literati of that time, in the sciences connected with navigation. He whom he seems to have indiscriminately de- delighted to converse with scholars, and espetested and despised. He projected in 1773 cially with those who had made voyages to rethe “Edinburgh Magazine and Review," which moto regions, and during his campaigns in Momade Dr. Henry a special object of satire. rocco spared no pains to acquire from the natives When this failed, he passed to London and con- all the knowledge they possessed of the interior ducted with ruthless skill and pertinacity & of Africa and of its southern coasts. The first conspiracy to stop the sale of Dr. Henry's work, use of the compass in European navigation, and to cover him with obloquy and ridicule, and, as in part the invention of the astrolabe, are ascribwas charged, to break his heart. “To-morrowed to him. His studies and inquiries led him to morning," he writes in a letter, “Henry sets the conclusion that the coast of Africa did not off for London with immense hopes of selling end, as was then commonly supposed, at Cape his history..... I wish sincerely that I could Nam, or Non, but that great and valuable disenter Holborn the same hour with him. He coveries might be made by tracing its line to the should have a repeated fire to combat with. I southward into the unknown and dreaded torentreat that you may be so kind as to let him rid zone. The first expedition be sent for this feel some of your thunder. I shall never for purpose consisted of two vessels commanded by get the favor. If Whitaker is in London, he Joham Gonçalves Zarco and Tristram Vaz, who could give a blow. Paterson will give him a set out to pass Cape Nam, but were driven off knock. Strike by all means." From almost the coast by storms, and accidentally discovered every quarter Dr. Henry encountered the inge- the little island of Porto Santo near Madeira. nious opposition of his enemy, which was acute- In the next year (1419) the same captains disly directed against the real failings of his work, covered and subsequently colonized Madeira. and was for a time successful in stopping its Prince Henry during the next 12 years sent vessale. An account of this persecution is given sel after vessel down the coast of Africa, some by Disraeli in his “Calamities of Authors." of which succeeded in passing Capo Nam and

HENRY, WILLIAM, an English chemist, born reaching Cape Bojador, 200 miles further to in Manchester, Dec. 12, 1775, died Sept. 2, 1836. the south. But that cape, from the failure of He studied under Dr. Black of Edinburgh. repeated attempts to double it, was now popuThough he practised in Manchester as a physi. larly considered the limit of the habitable cian, he gave his particular attention to chem- world, and there began to be much complaint istry, the results of his researches being pub- in Portugal at the expense and hazard of these lished in the “Philosophical Transactions” of fruitless expeditions, which were looked upon the royal society. He made many elaborate ex- in that day very much in the light in which experiments with muriatic acid gas, and published peditions to the arctio regions are regarded in

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